ResearchPad - gastrointestinal-tumors https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A modified arginine-depleting enzyme NEI-01 inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11227 Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.

]]>
<![CDATA[Hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis: Are there still candidates for transarterial chemoembolization as an initial treatment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99029ed5eed0c484b98241

Background and aim

Currently, sorafenib is indicated for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastasis (EHM), and many other systemic agents are becoming available. However, a few HCC patients with EHM still undergo transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for intrahepatic tumor control. We aimed to investigate whether TACE is appropriate for patients with EHM, and if so, which subgroup may benefit from TACE.

Methods

A total of 186 consecutive HCC patients (median: 55 years, male: 86.0%, hepatitis B virus: 81.7%, Child-Pugh Class A: 83.3%) with EHM (nodal metastasis: 60.8%, distant metastasis: 39.2%) between 2010 and 2014 were analyzed. Initial treatment included sorafenib in 69 patients, and TACE in 117 patients.

Results

During a median follow-up of 6.6 months (range: 0.2–94.6 months), mortality was observed in 90.3% (168/186). The median survival was better for patients who received TACE than those treated with sorafenib (8.2 months vs. 4.6 months, p < 0.001). However, baseline characteristics varied between patients initially treated with TACE and sorafenib, and the treatment modality was not an independent factor associated with overall survival (hazard ratio: 1.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.81–1.75, p = 0.36). In sub-group analysis, TACE was associated with better survival only among younger patients and those with segmental/lobar portal vein invasion.

Conclusion

In HCC patients with EHM, TACE was not an independent favorable prognostic factor compared to sorafenib. The concept of intrahepatic control in HCC patients with EHM may need to be reevaluated in the era of promising systemic therapies, although there can be specific subgroups who still benefit from TACE.

]]>
<![CDATA[Shrinkage of hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: Analysis of contributing factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e88d5eed0c484cc24bb

Objective

This study was conducted to investigate tumor shrinkage and influencing factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from radiofrequency (RF) ablation following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).

Methods

A total of 222 patients underwent combined sequential treatment of TACE and RF ablation for HCC at our institution between 2008 and 2014. Of those, 86 patients (men, 68; women, 18) who achieved compact iodized oil tagging and complete ablation were included for this retrospective study. We measured three-dimensional tumor diameters and calculated tumor volumes on pre-treatment CT/MRI and follow-up CT scans performed post-TACE, post-ablation, and 1 month post-treatment, respectively. To compare periodically generated tumor diameters and volumes, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors impacting tumor shrinkage after RF ablation.

Results

Diameters and volumes of HCCs declined significantly in the immediate aftermath of RF ablation (i.e., between post-TACE and post-ablation CT scans) (p < 0.001, for both). Mean reduction rates in tumor diameter and volume immediately after RF ablation were 18.2 ± 9.1% and 44.4 ± 14.6%, respectively. Of note, tumors of left hepatic lobe and in subphrenic or perivascular locations showed lower rates of post-ablative volume reduction than those in counterpart locations (p = 0.002, 0.046, 0.024, respectively). Tumor size and liver function did not influence tumor shrinkage after RF ablation.

Conclusion

In patients with HCC, significant tumor shrinkage occurs immediately after RF ablation. The degree of shrinkage in response to ablative treatment seems to vary by tumor location.

]]>
<![CDATA[Retraction: A Functional Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Src and Stat3 Heteromeric Complex in Pancreatic Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe1cd5eed0c484e5b51c ]]> <![CDATA[Complex harmonic regularization with differential evolution in a memetic framework for biomarker selection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1534d5eed0c48467aebf

For studying cancer and genetic diseases, the issue of identifying high correlation genes from high-dimensional data is an important problem. It is a great challenge to select relevant biomarkers from gene expression data that contains some important correlation structures, and some of the genes can be divided into different groups with a common biological function, chromosomal location or regulation. In this paper, we propose a penalized accelerated failure time model CHR-DE using a non-convex regularization (local search) with differential evolution (global search) in a wrapper-embedded memetic framework. The complex harmonic regularization (CHR) can approximate to the combination p(12p<1) and q (1 ≤ q < 2) for selecting biomarkers in group. And differential evolution (DE) is utilized to globally optimize the CHR’s hyperparameters, which make CHR-DE achieve strong capability of selecting groups of genes in high-dimensional biological data. We also developed an efficient path seeking algorithm to optimize this penalized model. The proposed method is evaluated on synthetic and three gene expression datasets: breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer. The experimental results demonstrate that CHR-DE is a more effective tool for feature selection and learning prediction.

]]>
<![CDATA[A novel point-of-care oral anti-HCV assay: Is it reliable for screening hepatitis C virus infection in the era of direct-acting antivirals?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75cfd5eed0c4843d01fd

Recent advance in the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) offers the potentials to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide and makes universal screening more urgent. A point-of-care (POC) oral anti-HCV assay, the Fortune assay, was developed and its performance was evaluated. Individuals with or without HCV infection were recruited in three Centers. Paired oral and serum samples were tested using the Fortune and InTec anti-HCV assays. The Kehua serum anti-HCV assay served as a supplemental test to verify the discordant results. Some oral samples were also tested using the OraQuick anti-HCV assay. Furthermore, the Fortune assay results were compared with the documented RNA results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the Fortune assay was 93.11%, 98.48%, and 96.58%, respectively (n = 1,022). Consistency between the Fortune and OraQuick assays was 96.35% (264/274); the Fortune assay detected additional 8 positive oral samples missed by the OraQuick assay. The Fortune assay demonstrated a 97.46% (115/118) positivity among the viremic patients. Furthermore, its sensitivity was HCV genotype independent. In conclusion, the Fortune assay was highly specific and accurate. It had comparable sensitivity as the serum assays for the diagnosis of active HCV infection. It provides a completely non-invasive and reliable tool for HCV screening in the DAA era.

]]>
<![CDATA[Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus among HIV/ HCV co-infected patients in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d10d5eed0c484c81eb5

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver disease including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronically-infected persons. However, in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, increased rate of progression to cirrhosis and HCC has been reported. Limited information exists regarding genetic variants of HCV circulating among co-infected patients, which could be important in the design of broadly protective vaccine and management of the disease. Here, we determined the genotypes of HCV isolates circulating among HIV/HCV co-infected patients in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and twenty-five HIV/HCV IgM positive samples obtained from HIV laboratory, University of Ibadan were used for this study. HCV NS5B gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified NS5B gene was sequenced using gene specific primers. Twenty isolates were amplified, out of which 13 were successfully sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 13 sequenced isolates showed three HCV subtypes 1a, 3a and 5a belonging to genotypes 1, 3 and 5 respectively. Ten isolates (77%) belong to subtype 5a, followed by 2 isolates (15%) subtype 1a and 1 isolate (8%) was subtype 3a. The predominant HCV genotype was 5, followed by genotype 1 (subtype 1a). The findings, as well as the observed mutations in NS5B gene, indicate the need for screening and monitoring of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Further study to determine the phylogeny of isolates circulating in other parts of Nigeria will be carried out.

]]>
<![CDATA[Correlation between macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autophagy in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2657d5eed0c484289882

The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and autophagy in gastric cancer is not clear. We determined H. pylori infection status of the subjects and investigated the expression of MIF and autophagy markers (Atg5, LC3A and LC3B) in human gastric tissue at baseline. Then H. pylori eradication was done for H. pylori positive patients and MIF and Atg5 levels were investigated on each follow-up for both H. pylori-eradicated and H. pylori negative patients. Baseline tissue mRNA expression of MIF, Atg5, LC3A and LC3B was measured by real-time PCR in 453 patients (control 165, gastric dysplasia 82, and gastric cancer 206). Three hundred three patients (66.9%) had H. pylori infection at the time of enrollment. Only within H. pylori-positive group, MIF level was significantly elevated in patients with cancer than in control or dysplasia groups (P<0.05). LC3A and LC3B levels also showed significant differences within H. pylori-positive subgroups. H. pylori-positive dysplasia subgroup showed significantly lower (LC3A) (P<0.05) and higher (LC3B) mRNA levels (P<0.05) than in other subgroups. On follow-up, within H. pylori-eradicated group, Atg5 expression increased sequentially from control to dysplasia and cancer subgroups. Multiple linear regression showed autophagy markers (LC3A, LC3B, and Atg5) directly predicted MIF level (adjusted R2 = 0.492, P<0.001). Serial follow-up showed longitudinal increase in Atg5 level in general, with constantly higher levels in H. pylori-eradicated group than in -negative group. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) group initially showed higher Atg5 expression than the IM-negative group. However, it was reversed between the groups eventually because of the lower rate of increase in IM group. These results suggest a role of MIF and autophagy markers and their interaction in H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) is a useful biomarker in predicting metastatic colon cancer using the ADC-value of the primary tumor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633946d5eed0c484ae63d7

Purpose

To investigate the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as a potential imaging biomarker to predict metastasis (lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis) in colon cancer based on the ADC-value of the primary tumor.

Methods

Thirty patients (21M, 9F) were included retrospectively. All patients received a 1.5T MRI of the colon including T2 and DWI sequences. ADC maps were calculated for each patient. An expert reader manually delineated all colon tumors to measure mean ADC and histogram metrics (mean, min, max, median, standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis, 5th-95th percentiles) were calculated. Advanced colon cancer was defined as lymph node mestastasis (N+) or distant metastasis (M+). The student Mann Whitney U-test was used to assess the differences between the ADC means of early and advanced colon cancer. To compare the accuracy of lymph node metastasis (N+) prediction based on morpholigical criteria versus ADC-value of the primary tumor, two blinded readers, determined the lymph node metastasis (N0 vs N+) based on morphological criteria. The sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis was calculated for both readers and for the ADC-value of the primary tumor, with histopathology results as the gold standard.

Results

There was a significant difference between the mean ADC-value of advanced versus early tumors (p = 0.002). The optimal cut off value was 1179 * 10−3 mm2/s with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 and a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 86% respectively to predict advanced tumors. Histogram analyses did not add any significant additional value.

The sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of lymph node metastasis based on morphological criteria were 40% and 63% for reader 1 and 30% and 88% for reader 2 respectively. The primary tumor ADC-value using 1.179 * 10−3 mm2/s as threshold had a 100% sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis.

Conclusion

The ADC-value of the primary tumor has the potential to predict advanced colon cancer, defined as lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis, with lower ADC values significantly associated with advanced tumors. Furthermore the ADC-value of the primary tumor increases the prediction accuracy of lymph node metastasis compared with morphological criteria.

]]>
<![CDATA[Aberrant FAM64A mRNA expression is an independent predictor of poor survival in pancreatic cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff04d5eed0c484135981

FAM64A, a marker of cell proliferation, has been investigated as a potential biomarker in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the value of FAM64A expression in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer through bioinformatics analysis of data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The diagnostic value of FAM64A expression in pancreatic cancer tissue was deteremined through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and based on the obtained cut-off value, patients were divided into two groups (high FAM64A expression and low FAM64A expression). Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were applied to identify associations between FAM64A expression and clinical features. Moreover, the effect of FAM64A expression in the survival of pancreatic cancer patients was observed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox analyses. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using the TCGA dataset. Our results showed that high FAM64A expression in pancreatic cancer was associated with survival status, overall survival (OS), and recurrence. The area under the ROC curve was 0.736, which indicated modest diagnostic value. Patients with higher FAM64A expression had significantly shorter OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) times. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that high FAM64A expression was an independent risk factor for OS and RFS. GSEA identified mitotic spindles, myc targets, MTORC1 signaling, G2M checkpoint, E2F targets, DNA repair, glycolysis and unfolded protein response as differentially enriched with the high FAM64A expression phenotype. In conclusion, high FAM64A mRNA expression is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.

]]>
<![CDATA[CENPE expression is associated with its DNA methylation status in esophageal adenocarcinoma and independently predicts unfavorable overall survival]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e918d5eed0c48496f7f8

Centrosome-associated protein E (CENPE) is a plus end-directed kinetochore motor protein, which plays a critical role in mitosis. In this in silico study, using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas-Esophageal Carcinoma (TCGA-ESCA), we analyzed the expression profile of CENPE mRNA in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EA), its independent prognostic value and the potential mechanisms of its dysregulation in EA. Results showed that both ESCC and EA tissues had significantly elevated CENPE expression compared with their respective adjacent normal tissues. However, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high CENPE was associated with unfavorable OS in EA. Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed that CENPE expression was an independent indicator of unfavorable OS in EA patients, as a continuous variable (HR: 1.861, 95%CI: 1.235–2.806, p = 0.003) or as categorical variables (HR: 2.550, 95%CI: 1.294–5.025, p = 0.007). However, CENPE expression had no prognostic value in ESCC. Compared with the methylation status in normal samples, 3 CpG sites were hypomethylated (cg27388036, cg27443373, and cg24651824) in EA, among which two sites (cg27443373 and cg24651824) showed moderately negative correlation with CENPE expression. In addition, we also found that although heterozygous loss (-1) was frequent in EA (50/88, 56.8%), it was not necessarily associated with decreased CENPE expression compared with the copy neutral (0) cases. The methylation of the -1 group was significantly lower than that of the +1/0 group (p = 0.04). Based on these findings, we infer that CENPE upregulation in EA might serve as a valuable indicator of unfavorable OS. The methylation status of cg27443373 and cg24651824 might play a critical role in modulating CENPE expression.

]]>
<![CDATA[The heterogeneity of plasma miRNA profiles in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and the exploration of diagnostic circulating miRNAs for hepatocellular carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63397ad5eed0c484ae6867

Heterogeneity is prevalent in cancer both between and within individuals. Although a few studies have identified several circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) for cancer diagnosis, the complete plasma miRNA profile for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains undefined, and whether the plasma miRNA profiles are heterogeneous is unknown. Here, we obtained individualized plasma miRNA profiles of both healthy subjects and HCC patients via genome-wide deep sequencing. Compared with the highly stable miRNA profile of the healthy subjects, the profile of the HCC patients was highly variable. Seven miRNAs were optimized as potential plasma-based biomarkers for HCC diagnosis. Combined with the clinical data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort, three out of the seven miRNAs were correlated with the survival of the HCC patients. To investigate the effect of cancer cells on the plasma miRNAs profile, we compared the most differentially expressed miRNAs between plasma and tissues. Furthermore, miRNAseq data of HCC patients from TCGA were recruited for comparisons. We found that the differences between plasma and tissue were inconsistent, suggesting that other cells in addition to cancer cells also contribute to plasma miRNAs. Using two HCC cancer cell lines, we examined the levels of seven differentially expressed miRNAs. The reverse direction of certain miRNAs alterations between cancer cells and media further confirmed that miRNAs may be selectively pump out by cancer cells.

]]>
<![CDATA[Anatomical location-based nodal staging system is superior to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system among patients with surgically resected, histologically low-grade gastric cancer: A single institutional experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63395fd5eed0c484ae6576

Background

A hybrid topographic and numeric lymph node (LN) staging system for gastric cancer, which was recently proposed by Japanese experts as a simple method with a prognostic predictive power comparable to the N staging of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor-node-metastasis classification, has not yet been validated in other Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the prognostic predictability of the hybrid staging system with the current AJCC staging system in gastric cancer.

Methods

Overall, 400 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery at Changhua Christian Hospital from January 2007 to December 2017 were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for gastric cancer-related death. Homogeneity and discrimination abilities of the two staging systems were compared using likelihood ratio chi-square test, linear trend chi-square test, Harrell’s c-index, and bootstrap analysis.

Results

One-third of the LN-positive patients were reclassified into the new N and Stage system. The concordance rates of the two staging systems and the N staging between the two staging systems were 0.810 and 0.729, respectively. Harrell’s c-indices for the stage and N staging were higher in the 7th AJCC staging system than the hybrid staging system (c-index for stage, 0.771 vs 0.764; c-index for nodal stage, 0.713 vs 0.705). Stratification of the patients according to the histological grade revealed that Harrell’s c-indices for the stage and N stage of the hybrid staging system were comparable with those of the 7th AJCC staging system (c-index for AJCC stage vs hybrid stage, 0.800 vs 0.791; c-index for AJCC N stage vs hybrid N stage, 0.746 vs 0.734) among patients with histologically lower grade gastric cancer. The performance of the new nodal staging system was better than that of the 7th AJCC staging system by likelihood ratio and linear trend tests and bootstrap analysis in the low-grade group.

Conclusions

The hybrid anatomical location-based classification may have better prognostic predictive ability than the 7th AJCC staging system for LN metastasis of low-grade gastric cancer. Further studies involving different ethnic populations are necessary for the validation of the new staging system.

]]>
<![CDATA[Viral loads correlate with upregulation of PD-L1 and worse patient prognosis in Epstein–Barr Virus-associated gastric carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fec6d5eed0c484135434

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC), one of four major gastric cancer types, consists of clonal growth of EBV-infected epithelial cells. However, the significance of viral loads in each tumor cell has not been evaluated. EBV-DNA is stably maintained in episomal form in the nucleus of each cancer cell. To estimate EBV copy number per genome (EBV-CN), qPCR of viral EBNA1 and host GAPDH, standardized by Namalwa DNA (one copy/genome), was applied to the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) surgically resected EBVaGC specimens (n = 43) and EBVaGC cell lines (SNU-719 and NCC-24). In surgical specimens, the cancer cell ratio (CCR) was determined with image analysis, and EBV-CN was obtained by adjusting qPCR value with CCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was also applied to the FFPE sections using the whole EBV-genome as a probe. In surgical specimens, EBV-CN obtained by qPCR/CCR was between 1.2 and 185 copies with a median of 9.9. EBV-CN of SNU-719 and NCC-24 was 42.0 and 1.1, respectively. A linear correlation was observed with qPCR/CCR data up to 20 copies/genome (40 signals/nucleus), the limit of FISH analysis. In addition, substantial variation in the number of EBV foci was observed. Based on qPCR/CCR, high EBV-CN (>10 copies) correlated with PD-L1 expression in cancer cells (P = 0.015), but not with other pathological indicators. Furthermore, EBVaGC with high EBV-CN showed worse disease-specific survival (P = 0.041). Our findings suggest that cancer cell viral loads may contribute to expression of the immune checkpoint molecule and promotion of cancer progression in EBVaGC.

]]>
<![CDATA[BAP1 expression is prognostic in breast and uveal melanoma but not colon cancer and is highly positively correlated with RBM15B and USP19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8c4d5eed0c48496f124

BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene important to the development and prognosis of many cancers, especially uveal melanoma (UM). Its role in more common cancers such as breast and colon cancer is largely unknown. We collected the transcriptome profiling data sets from the TCGA uveal melanoma (TCGA-UVM), breast cancer (TCGA-BRCA), and colon cancer (TCGA-COAD) projects to analyze the expression of BAP1. We found that patients with UM and breast cancer, but not colon cancer, who died had a lower level of BAP1 gene expression compared to surviving patients. Importantly, in breast cancer patients, the lowest BAP1 expression levels corresponded to the dead young patients (age at diagnosis < 46). Since the number of cases in TCGA-BRCA was much higher than TCGA-UVM, we obtained highly correlated genes with BAP1 in invasive breast carcinomas. Then, we tested if these genes are also highly correlated with BAP1 in UM and colon cancer. We found that BAP1 is highly positively correlated with RBM15B and USP19 expression in invasive breast carcinoma, UM, and colon adenocarcinoma. All three genes are located in close proximity on the 3p21 tumor suppressor region that is commonly altered in many cancers.

]]>
<![CDATA[Surgical approach and the impact of epidural analgesia on survival after esophagectomy for cancer: A population-based retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c449d5eed0c4845e8444

Background

Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer carries high morbidity and mortality, particularly in older patients. Transthoracic esophagectomy allows formal lymphadenectomy, but leads to greater perioperative morbidity and pain than transhiatal esophagectomy. Epidural analgesia may attenuate the stress response and be less immunosuppressive than opioids, potentially affecting long-term outcomes. These potential benefits may be more pronounced for transthoracic esophagectomy due to its greater physiologic impact. We evaluated the impact of epidural analgesia on survival and recurrence after transthoracic versus transhiatal esophagectomy.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was performed using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. Patients aged ≥66 years with locoregional esophageal cancer diagnosed 1994–2009 who underwent esophagectomy were identified, with follow-up through December 31, 2013. Epidural receipt and surgical approach were identified from Medicare claims. Survival analyses adjusting for hospital esophagectomy volume, surgical approach, and epidural use were performed. A subgroup analysis restricted to esophageal adenocarcinoma patients was performed.

Results

Among 1,921 patients, 38% underwent transhiatal esophagectomy (n = 730) and 62% underwent transthoracic esophagectomy (n = 1,191). 61% (n = 1,169) received epidurals and 39% (n = 752) did not. Epidural analgesia was associated with transthoracic approach and higher volume hospitals. Patients with epidural analgesia had better 90-day survival. Five-year survival was higher with transhiatal esophagectomy (37.2%) than transthoracic esophagectomy (31.0%, p = 0.006). Among transthoracic esophagectomy patients, epidural analgesia was associated with improved 5-year survival (33.5% epidural versus 26.5% non-epidural, p = 0.012; hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval [0.70, 0.93]). Among the subgroup of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy, epidural analgesia remained associated with improved 5-year survival (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval [0.67, 0.96]); this survival benefit persisted in sensitivity analyses adjusting for propensity to receive an epidural.

Conclusion

Among patients undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy, including a subgroup restricted to esophageal adenocarcinoma, epidural analgesia was associated with improved survival even after adjusting for other factors.

]]>
<![CDATA[A new formula to calculate the resection limit in hepatectomy based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644885d5eed0c484c2e84f

Background and aim

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (EOB-MRI) can be used not only to detect liver tumors but also to estimate liver function. The aim of this study was to establish a new EOB-MRI-based formula to determine the resection limit in patients undergoing hepatectomy.

Methods

Twenty-eight patients with a normal liver (NL group) and five with an unresectable cirrhotic liver (UL group) who underwent EOB-MRI were included. Standardized liver function (SLF) was calculated based on the signal intensity (SI), the volume of each subsegment (S1–S8), and body surface area. A formula defining the resection limit was devised based on the difference in the SLF values of patients in the NL and UL groups. The formula was validated in 50 patients who underwent EOB-MRI and hepatectomy.

Results

The average SLF value in the NL and UL groups was 2038 and 962 FV/m2, respectively. The difference (1076 FV/m2) was consistent with a 70% in resection volume. Thus, the resection limit for hepatectomy was calculated as a proportion of 70%: 70×(SLF−962)/1076 (%). The one patient who underwent hepatectomy over the resection limit died due to liver failure. In other 49 patients, in whom the resection volume was less than the resection limit, procedures were safely performed.

Conclusions

Our formula for resection limit based on EOB-MRI can improve the safety of hepatectomy.

]]>
<![CDATA[Multidisciplinary approach is associated with improved survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46651bd5eed0c484517768

Background

Given the complexity of managing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a multidisciplinary approach (MDT) is recommended to optimize management of HCC patients. However, evidence suggesting that MDT improves patient outcome is limited.

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients newly-diagnosed with HCC between 2005 and 2013 (n = 6,619). The overall survival (OS) rates between the patients who were and were not managed via MDT were compared in the entire cohort (n = 6,619), and in the exactly matched cohort (n = 1,396).

Results

In the entire cohort, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher in the patients who were managed via MDT compared to that of the patients who were not (71.2% vs. 49.4%, P < 0.001), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.41–0.53). In the exactly matched cohort, the 5-year survival rate was higher in patients who were managed via MDT (71.4% vs. 58.7%, P < 0.001; HR [95% CI] = 0.67 [0.56–0.80]). The survival benefit of MDT management was observed in most pre-defined subgroups, and was especially significant in patients with poor liver function (ALBI grade 2 or 3), intermediate or advanced tumor stage (BCLC stage B or C), or high alphafetoprotein levels (≥200 ng/ml).

Conclusion

MDT management was associated with improved overall survival in HCC patients, indicating that MDT management can be a valuable option to improve outcome of HCC patients. This warrants prospective evaluations.

]]>
<![CDATA[Early treatment of acute hepatitis C infection is cost-effective in HIV-infected men-who-have-sex-with-men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f79ed5eed0c4843864ac

Background

Treatment of hepatitis C virus infections (HCV) with direct acting antivirals (DAA) can prevent new infections since cured individuals cannot transmit HCV. However, as DAAs are expensive, many countries defer treatment to advances stages of fibrosis, which results in ongoing transmission. We assessed the epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of treatment initiation in different stages of infection in the Netherlands where the epidemic is mainly concentrated among HIV-infected MSMs.

Methods

We calibrated a deterministic mathematical model to the Dutch HCV epidemic among HIV-infected MSM to compare three different DAA treatment scenarios: 1) immediate treatment, 2) treatment delayed to chronic infection allowing spontaneous clearance to occur, 3) treatment delayed until F2 fibrosis stage. All scenarios are simulated from 2015 onwards. Total costs, quality adjusted life years (QALY), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and epidemiological impact were calculated from a providers perspective over a lifetime horizon. We used a DAA price of €35,000 and 3% discounting rates for cost and QALYs.

Results

Immediate DAA treatment lowers the incidence from 1.2/100 person-years to 0.2/100 person-years (interquartile range 0.1–0.2) and the prevalence from 5.0/100 person-years to 0.5/100 person-years (0.4–0.6) after 20 years. Delayed treatment awaiting spontaneous clearance will result in a similar reduction. However, further delayed treatment to F2 will increases the incidence and prevalence. Earlier treatment will cost society €68.3 and €75.1 million over a lifetime for immediate and awaiting until the chronic stage, respectively. The cost will increase if treatment is further delayed until F2 to €98.4 million. Immediate treatment will prevent 7070 new infections and gains 3419 (3019–3854) QALYs compared to F2 treatment resulting in a cost saving ICER. Treatment in the chronic stage is however dominated.

Conclusions

Early DAA treatment for HIV-infected MSM is an excellent and sustainable tool to meet the WHO goal of eliminating HCV in 2030.

]]>
<![CDATA[Serum levels of miR-29, miR-122, miR-155 and miR-192 are elevated in patients with cholangiocarcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a57d5eed0c4847cced3

Objectives

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) represents the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Despite tremendous research activities, the prognosis for the majority of patients is still poor. Only in case of early diagnosis, liver resection might potentially lead to long-term survival. However, it is still unclear which patients benefit most from extensive liver surgery, highlighting the need for new diagnostic and prognostic stratification strategies.

Methods

Serum concentrations of a 4 miRNA panel (miR-122, miR-192, miR-29b and miR-155) were analyzed using semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR in serum samples from 94 patients with cholangiocarcinoma undergoing tumour resection and 40 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data.

Results

Serum concentrations of miR-122, miR-192, miR-29b and miR-155 were significantly elevated in patients with CCA compared to healthy controls or patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis without malignant transformation. Although preoperative levels of these miRNAs were unsuitable as a prognostic marker of survival, a strong postoperative decline of miR-122 serum levels was significantly associated with a favorable patients’ prognosis.

Conclusions

Analysis of circulating miRNAs represents a promising tool for the diagnosis of even early stage CCA. A postoperative decline in miRNA serum concentrations might be indicative for a favorable patients’ outcome and helpful to identify patients with a good prognosis after extended liver surgery.

]]>