ResearchPad - gel-electrophoresis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Atco, a yeast mitochondrial complex of Atp9 and Cox6, is an assembly intermediate of the ATP synthase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14724 Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) is the process by which the ATP synthase conserves the energy released during the oxidation of different nutrients as ATP. The yeast ATP synthase consists of three assembly modules, one of which is a ring consisting of 10 copies of the Atp9 subunit. We previously reported the existence in yeast mitochondria of high molecular weight complexes composed of mitochondrially encoded Atp9 and of Cox6, an imported structural subunit of cytochrome oxidase (COX). Pulse-chase experiments indicated a correlation between the loss of newly translated Atp9 complexed to Cox6 and an increase of newly formed Atp9 ring, but did not exclude the possibility of an alternate source of Atp9 for ring formation. Here we have extended studies on the functions and structure of this complex, referred to as Atco. We show that Atco is the exclusive source of Atp9 for the ATP synthase assembly. Pulse-chase experiments show that newly translated Atp9, present in Atco, is converted to a ring, which is incorporated into the ATP synthase with kinetics characteristic of a precursor-product relationship. Even though Atco does not contain the ring form of Atp9, cross-linking experiments indicate that it is oligomeric and that the inter-subunit interactions are similar to those of the bona fide ring. We propose that, by providing Atp9 for biogenesis of ATP synthase, Atco complexes free Cox6 for assembly of COX. This suggests that Atco complexes may play a role in coordinating assembly and maintaining proper stoichiometry of the two oxphos enzymes

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<![CDATA[The intergenic small non-coding RNA <i>ittA</i> is required for optimal infectivity and tissue tropism in <i>Borrelia burgdorferi</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14635 Lyme disease is a tick-borne infection mediated by the spirochetal bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, that is responsible for greater than 300,000 infections in the United States per year. As such, additional knowledge regarding how this pathogen modulates its regulatory armamentarium is needed to understand how B. burgdorferi establishes and maintains infection. The identification and characterization of small, non-coding RNA molecules in living systems, designated as sRNAs, has recalibrated how we view post-transcriptional regulation. Recently, over 1,000 sRNAs were identified in B. burgdorferi. Despite the identification of these sRNAs, we do not understand how they affect infectivity or B. burgdorferi pathogenesis related outcomes. Here, we characterize the ittA B. burgdorferi sRNA and show that it is essential for optimal infection using murine experimental infection as our readout. We also track the effect of this sRNA on the transcriptional and proteomic profile as the first step in providing mechanistic insight into how this important sRNA mediates its regulatory effect.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein HNRNPU using optimized HITS-CLIP method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb5a6160c-8969-498c-b6ff-671487ce7810

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control many types of post-transcriptional regulation, including mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, and translational efficiency, by directly binding to their target RNAs and their mutation and dysfunction are often associated with several human neurological diseases and tumorigenesis. Crosslinking immunoprecipitation (CLIP), coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP), is a powerful technique for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis by comprehensive identification of RBP target sequences at the transcriptome level. However, HITS-CLIP protocol is still required for some optimization due to experimental complication, low efficiency and time-consuming, whose library has to be generated from very small amounts of RNAs. Here we improved a more efficient, rapid, and reproducible CLIP method by optimizing BrdU-CLIP. Our protocol produced a 10-fold greater yield of pre-amplified CLIP library, which resulted in a low duplicate rate of CLIP-tag reads because the number of PCR cycles required for library amplification was reduced. Variance of the yields was also reduced, and the experimental period was shortened by 2 days. Using this, we validated IL-6 expression by a nuclear RBP, HNRNPU, which directly binds the 3’-UTR of IL-6 mRNA in HeLa cells. Importantly, this interaction was only observed in the cytoplasmic fraction, suggesting a role of cytoplasmic HNRNPU in mRNA stability control. This optimized method enables us to accurately identify target genes and provides a snapshot of the protein-RNA interactions of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RBPs.

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<![CDATA[Identification and expression analysis of miRNAs and elucidation of their role in salt tolerance in rice varieties susceptible and tolerant to salinity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N52f944dc-26d8-4e67-9222-1bf646d955e0

Soil salinization is a serious problem for cultivation of rice, as among cereals rice is the most salt sensitive crop, and more than 40% of the total agricultural land amounting to approximately 80 million ha the world over is salt affected. Salinity affects a plant in a varieties of ways, including ion toxicity, osmotic stress and oxidative damage. Since miRNAs occupy the top place in biochemical events determining a trait, understanding their role in salt tolerance is highly desirable, which may allow introduction of the trait in the rice cultivars of choice through biotechnological interventions. High throughput sequencing of sRNAs in the root and shoot tissues of the seedlings of the control and NaCl treated Pokkali, a salt-tolerant rice variety, identified 75 conserved miRNAs and mapped 200 sRNAs to the rice genome as novel miRNAs. Expression of nine novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were confirmed by Northern blotting. Several of both conserved and novel miRNAs that expressed differentially in root and/or shoot tissues targeted transcription factors like AP2/EREBP domain protein, ARF, NAC, MYB, NF-YA, HD-Zip III, TCP and SBP reported to be involved in salt tolerance or in abiotic stress tolerance in general. Most of the novel miRNAs expressed in the salt tolerant wild rice Oryza coarctata, suggesting conservation of miRNAs in taxonomically related species. One of the novel miRNAs, osa-miR12477, also targeted L-ascorbate oxidase (LAO), indicating build-up of oxidative stress in the plant upon salt treatment, which was confirmed by DAB staining. Thus, salt tolerance might involve miRNA-mediated regulation of 1) cellular abundance of the hormone signaling components like EREBP and ARF, 2) synthesis of abiotic stress related transcription factors, and 3) antioxidative component like LAO for mitigation of oxidative damage. The study clearly indicated importance of osa-miR12477 regulated expression of LAO in salt tolerance in the plant.

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<![CDATA[Advances in geometric techniques for analyzing blebbing in chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1522d5eed0c48467ae3b

We present a technical platform that allows us to monitor and measure cortex and membrane dynamics during bleb-based chemotaxis. Using D. discoideum cells expressing LifeAct-GFP and crawling under agarose containing RITC-dextran, we were able to simultaneously visualize the actin cortex and the cell membrane throughout bleb formation. Using these images, we then applied edge detect to generate points on the cell boundary with coordinates in a coordinate plane. Then we fitted these points to a curve with known x and y coordinate functions. The result was to parameterize the cell outline. With the parameterization, we demonstrate how to compute data for geometric features such as cell area, bleb area and edge curvature. This allows us to collect vital data for the analysis of blebbing.

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<![CDATA[The ability of locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides to pre-structure the double helix: A molecular simulation and binding study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7570d5eed0c4843cfda2

Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides bind DNA target sequences forming Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairs, and are therefore of interest for medical applications. To be biologically active, such an oligonucleotide has to efficiently bind the target sequence. Here we used molecular dynamics simulations and electrophoresis mobility shift assays to elucidate the relation between helical structure and affinity for LNA-containing oligonucleotides. In particular, we have studied how LNA substitutions in the polypyrimidine strand of a duplex (thus forming a hetero duplex, i.e. a duplex with a DNA polypurine strand and an LNA/DNA polypyrimidine strand) enhance triplex formation. Based on seven polypyrimidine single strand oligonucleotides, having LNAs in different positions and quantities, we show that alternating LNA with one or more non-modified DNA nucleotides pre-organizes the hetero duplex toward a triple-helical-like conformation. This in turn promotes triplex formation, while consecutive LNAs distort the duplex structure disfavoring triplex formation. The results support the hypothesis that a pre-organization in the hetero duplex structure enhances the binding of triplex forming oligonucleotides. Our findings may serve as a criterion in the design of new tools for efficient oligonucleotide hybridization.

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<![CDATA[Strand break-induced replication fork collapse leads to C-circles, C-overhangs and telomeric recombination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e913d5eed0c48496f7a0

Telomerase-independent ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) cells are characterized by high frequency of telomeric homologous recombination (HR), C-rich extrachromosomal circles (C-circles) and C-rich terminal 5' overhangs (C-overhangs). However, underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that both C-circle and C-overhang form when replication fork collapse is induced by strand break at telomeres. We find that endogenous DNA break predominantly occur on C-rich strand of telomeres in ALT cells, resulting in high frequency of replication fork collapse. While collapsed forks could be rescued by replication fork regression leading to telomeric homologous recombination, those unresolved are converted to C-circles and C-overhang at lagging and leading synthesized strand, respectively. Meanwhile, multiple hallmarks of ALT are provoked, suggesting that strand break-induced replication stress underlies ALT. These findings provide a molecular basis underlying telomeric HR and biogenesis of C-circle and C-overhang, thus implicating the specific mechanism to resolve strand break-induced replication defect at telomeres in ALT cells.

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<![CDATA[The ovine hepatic mitochondrial proteome: Understanding seasonal weight loss tolerance in two distinct breeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe3cd5eed0c484e5b761

Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a primary constraint for farmers in the Mediterranean and tropics. One cost-effective solution to SWL is utilizing breeds like the Damara sheep that have adapted to deal with nutritional stress. Previous studies concluded that one of the adaptation mechanisms of SWL is a specialized fatty acid metabolism. Accordingly, hepatic-mitochondrial proteomes were compared across two different breeds (24 sheep total, Merino, n = 12 and Damara, n = 12) and two different diets (restricted vs unrestricted diet, 6 per breed, per diet, 24 total). Mitochondrial-proteins were isolated and relatively quantified using Blue native PAGE / 2D-electrophoresis and then analyzed via mass spectrometry. The tool ReviGO summarized the proteomes’ gene-ontology terms. A total of 50 proteins were identified with 7 changing significantly in abundance (ANOVA p-value<0.05). Specific abundance patterns of corticosteroid and inflammatory response-associated proteins such as annexin and glutamate dehydrogenase suggests that the Damara has an unusual inflammation response when subjected to SWL in addition to its unique metabolism. All significant proteins warrant further study; Annexin in particular shows promise as a potentially useful biomarker.

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<![CDATA[Novel site-specific PEGylated L-asparaginase]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7587d5eed0c4843cfe5d

L-asparaginase (ASNase) from Escherichia coli is currently used in some countries in its PEGylated form (ONCASPAR, pegaspargase) to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PEGylation refers to the covalent attachment of poly(ethylene) glycol to the protein drug and it not only reduces the immune system activation but also decreases degradation by plasmatic proteases. However, pegaspargase is randomly PEGylated and, consequently, with a high degree of polydispersity in its final formulation. In this work we developed a site-specific N-terminus PEGylation protocol for ASNase. The monoPEG-ASNase was purified by anionic followed by size exclusion chromatography to a final purity of 99%. The highest yield of monoPEG-ASNase of 42% was obtained by the protein reaction with methoxy polyethylene glycol-carboxymethyl N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (10kDa) in 100 mM PBS at pH 7.5 and PEG:ASNase ratio of 25:1. The monoPEG-ASNase was found to maintain enzymatic stability for more days than ASNase, also was resistant to the plasma proteases like asparaginyl endopeptidase and cathepsin B. Additionally, monoPEG-ASNase was found to be potent against leukemic cell lines (MOLT-4 and REH) in vitro like polyPEG-ASNase. monoPEG-ASNase demonstrates its potential as a novel option for ALL treatment, being an inventive novelty that maintains the benefits of the current enzyme and solves challenges.

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<![CDATA[Pyruvate Kinase M2 serves as blockade for nucleosome repositioning and abrogates Chd7 remodeling activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730dfd5eed0c484f3825f

Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) mediates metabolic reshuffling and is ubiquitously upregulated in several cancer types. The non-metabolic function of PKM2 as key nuclear kinase and modulator of gene expression is instrumental in cancer progression and tumorigenesis. Here, we attempt to discern the non-canonical function of PKM2 as an epigenetic modulator and the underlying implication of this activity. Using 5’-FAM labelled reconstituted mononucleosome we have shown that PKM2 interacts with the complex through Histone H3 and possibly obstruct the access to DNA binding factors. Subsequently, the interaction negatively impacts the ATP dependent remodeling activity of Chromodomain Helicase DNA binding protein-7 (Chd7). Chd7 remodeling activity is required to ameliorate DNA damage and is crucial to genome stability. Our study shows that PKM2 blocks the Chd7 mediated sliding of nucleosome. It can be conjectured that stalling Chd7 may lead to impaired DNA damage and increased genomic instability. We propose a mechanism in which PKM2 negatively regulate nucleosome repositioning in chromatin and may exacerbate cancer by altering the nucleosome architecture. This research is imperative to our understanding of how altered cancer metabolism can potentially modulate the gene expression and sustain incessant proliferation by tweaking the chromatin topography.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of bacterioplankton communities from a hatchery recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for juvenile sole (Solea senegalensis) production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64487ed5eed0c484c2e7cd

There is a growing consensus that future technological developments of aquaculture systems should account for the structure and function of microbial communities in the whole system and not only in fish guts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the composition of bacterioplankton communities of a hatchery recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) used for the production of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. To this end, we used a 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing analyses to characterize the bacterioplankton communities of the RAS and its water supply. Overall, the most abundant orders were Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, Oceanospirillales, Vibrionales, Flavobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Thiotrichales, Burkholderiales and Bdellovibrionales. Although we found a clear distinction between the RAS and the water supply bacterioplankton communities, most of the abundant OTUs (≥50 sequences) in the hatchery RAS were also present in the water supply. These included OTUs related to Pseudoalteromonas genus and the Roseobacter clade, which are known to comprise bacterial members with activity against Vibrio fish pathogens. Overall, in contrast to previous findings for sole grow-out RAS, our results suggest that the water supply may influence the bacterioplankton community structure of sole hatchery RAS. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of aquaculture practices on RAS bacterioplankton communities and identification of the key drivers of their structure and diversity.

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<![CDATA[Recruitment of Vps34 PI3K and enrichment of PI3P phosphoinositide in the viral replication compartment is crucial for replication of a positive-strand RNA virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5f5d5eed0c484caa846

Tombusviruses depend on subversions of multiple host factors and retarget cellular pathways to support viral replication. In this work, we demonstrate that tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the closely-related carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) recruit the cellular Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) into the large viral replication compartment. The kinase function of Vps34 is critical for TBSV replication, suggesting that PI(3)P phosphoinositide is utilized by TBSV for building of the replication compartment. We also observed increased expression of Vps34 and the higher abundance of PI(3)P in the presence of the tombusviral replication proteins, which likely leads to more efficient tombusvirus replication. Accordingly, overexpression of PI(3)P phosphatase in yeast or plants inhibited TBSV replication on the peroxisomal membranes and CIRV replication on the mitochondrial membranes. Moreover, the purified PI(3)P phosphatase reduced TBSV replicase assembly in a cell-free system. Detection of PI(3)P with antibody or a bioprobe revealed the enrichment of PI(3)P in the replication compartment. Vps34 is directly recruited into the replication compartment through interaction with p33 replication protein. Gene deletion analysis in surrogate yeast host unraveled that TBSV replication requires the vesicle transport function of Vps34. In the absence of Vps34, TBSV cannot efficiently recruit the Rab5-positive early endosomes, which provide PE-rich membranes for membrane biogenesis of the TBSV replication compartment. We found that Vps34 and PI(3)P needed for the stability of the p33 replication protein, which is degraded by the 26S proteasome when PI(3)P abundance was decreased by an inhibitor of Vps34. In summary, Vps34 and PI(3)P are needed for providing the optimal microenvironment for the replication of the peroxisomal TBSV and the mitochondrial CIRV.

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<![CDATA[Serum zonulin as a marker of intestinal mucosal barrier function: May not be what it seems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46651dd5eed0c4845177f7

The protein, zonulin, has emerged as a popular serological marker to assess the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. However, there is limited information on the utility of serum zonulin to indicate gastrointestinal disease and the validity of zonulin detection in widely-used commercial assays. The current study reports differences in zonulin levels across patient groups with gastrointestinal dysfunction compared with healthy individuals, though methodological inconsistencies indicated that actual zonulin protein was not detected by the commercial assays applied. The nature of the assays’ detected antigen was investigated using immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric analysis and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by protein staining. Top matches of the assays’ detected antigen included haptoglobin and complement C3 for the assay manufactured by CUSABIO (Wuhan, China) and complement C3 for the assay manufactured by Immundiagnostik AG (Bensheim, Germany). These findings confirm that current commercial zonulin assays are not detecting the actual protein as prehaptoglobin-2. Until assay methodology is improved, we advise the greater scientific and medical community to exercise caution in considering the measurement of serum zonulin as a marker of mucosal barrier integrity.

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<![CDATA[Hydroxycholesterol binds and enhances the anti-viral activities of zebrafish monomeric c-reactive protein isoforms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7d0d5eed0c484937fef

C-reactive proteins (CRPs) are among the faster acute-phase inflammation-responses proteins encoded by one gene (hcrp) in humans and seven genes (crp1-7) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with importance in bacterial and viral infections. In this study, we described novel preferential bindings of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HOCh) to CRP1-7 compared with other lipids and explored the antiviral effects of both 25HOCh and CRP1-7 against spring viremia carp virus (SVCV) infection in zebrafish. Both in silico and in vitro results confirmed the antiviral effect of 25HOCh and CRP1-7 interactions, thereby showing that the crosstalk between them differed among the zebrafish isoforms. The presence of oxidized cholesterols in human atherosclerotic plaques amplifies the importance that similar interactions may occur for vascular and/or neurodegenerative diseases during viral infections. In this context, the zebrafish model offers a genetic tool to further investigate these interactions.

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<![CDATA[Bacteria associated with moon jellyfish during bloom and post-bloom periods in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c4ad5eed0c484bd154e

Jellyfish are a prominent component of the plankton community. They frequently form conspicuous blooms which may interfere with different human enterprises. Among the aspects that remain understudied are jellyfish associations with microorganisms having potentially important implications for organic matter cycling. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the bacterial community associated with live moon jellyfish (Aurelia solida, Scyohozoa) in the Adriatic Sea. Using 16S rRNA clone libraries and culture-based methods, we have analyzed the bacterial community composition of different body parts: the exumbrella surface, oral arms, and gastric cavity, and investigated possible differences in medusa-associated bacterial community structure at the time of the jellyfish population peak, and during the senescent phase at the end of bloom. Microbiota associated with moon jellyfish was different from ambient seawater bacterial assemblage and varied between different body parts. Betaproteobacteria (Burkholderia, Cupriavidus and Achromobacter) dominated community in the gastral cavity of medusa, while Alphaproteobacteria (Phaeobacter, Ruegeria) and Gammaproteobacteria (Stenotrophomonas, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio) prevailed on ‘outer’ body parts. Bacterial community structure changed during senescent phase, at the end of the jellyfish bloom, showing an increased abundance of Gammaproteobacteria, exclusively Vibrio. The results of cultured bacterial isolates showed the dominance of Gammaproeteobacteria, especially Vibrio and Pseudoalteromonas in all body parts. Our results suggest that jellyfish associated bacterial community might have an important role for the host, and that anthropogenic pollution in the Gulf of Trieste might affect their community structure.

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<![CDATA[GoFish: A versatile nested PCR strategy for environmental DNA assays for marine vertebrates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19669dd5eed0c484b52642

Here we describe GoFish, a strategy for single-species environmental DNA (eDNA) presence/absence assays using nested PCR. The assays amplify a mitochondrial 12S rDNA segment with vertebrate metabarcoding primers, followed by nested PCR with M13-tailed, species-specific primers. Sanger sequencing confirms positives detected by gel electrophoresis. We first obtained 12S sequences from 77 fish specimens for 36 northwestern Atlantic taxa not well documented in GenBank. Using these and existing 12S records, we designed GoFish assays for 11 bony fish species common in the lower Hudson River estuary and tested seasonal abundance and habitat preference at two sites. Additional assays detected nine cartilaginous fish species and a marine mammal, bottlenose dolphin, in southern New York Bight. GoFish sensitivity was equivalent to Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding. Unlike quantitative PCR (qPCR), GoFish does not require tissues of target and related species for assay development and a basic thermal cycler is sufficient. Unlike Illumina metabarcoding, indexing and batching samples are unnecessary and advanced bioinformatics expertise is not needed. From water collection to Sanger sequencing results, the assay can be carried out in three days. The main limitations to this approach, which employs metabarcoding primers, are the same as for metabarcoding, namely, inability to distinguish species with shared target sequences and inconsistent amplification of rarer eDNA. In addition, the performance of the 20 assays reported here as compared to other single-species eDNA assays is not known. This approach will be a useful addition to current eDNA methods when analyzing presence/absence of known species, when turnaround time is important, and in educational settings.

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<![CDATA[Cloning of the pks3 gene of Aurantiochytrium limacinum and functional study of the 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase and dehydratase enzyme domains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1966c8d5eed0c484b52dc5

Aurantiochytrium limacinum has received attention because of its abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). DHA is synthesized through the polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway in A. limacinum. The related enzymes of the PKS pathway are mainly expressed by three gene clusters, called pks1, pks2 and pks3. In this study, the full-length pks3 gene was obtained by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Genome Walking technology. Based on a domain analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the pks3 gene, 3-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KR) and dehydratase (DH) enzyme domains were identified. Herein, A. limacinum OUC168 was engineered by gene knock-in of KR and DH using the 18S rDNA sequence as the homologous recombination site. Total fatty acid contents and the degree of unsaturation of total fatty acids increased after the kr or dh gene was knocked in. The cloning and functional study of the pks3 gene of A. limacinum establishes a foundation for revealing the DHA synthetic pathway. Gene knock-in of the enzyme domain associated with PKS synthesis has the potential to provide effective recombinant strains with higher DHA content for industrial applications.

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<![CDATA[Interactions between the mRNA and Rps3/uS3 at the entry tunnel of the ribosomal small subunit are important for no-go decay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c059de2d5eed0c4849c962d

No-go Decay (NGD) is a process that has evolved to deal with stalled ribosomes resulting from structural blocks or aberrant mRNAs. The process is distinguished by an endonucleolytic cleavage prior to degradation of the transcript. While many of the details of the pathway have been described, the identity of the endonuclease remains unknown. Here we identify residues of the small subunit ribosomal protein Rps3 that are important for NGD by affecting the cleavage reaction. Mutation of residues within the ribosomal entry tunnel that contact the incoming mRNA leads to significantly reduced accumulation of cleavage products, independent of the type of stall sequence, and renders cells sensitive to damaging agents thought to trigger NGD. These phenotypes are distinct from those seen in combination with other NGD factors, suggesting a separate role for Rps3 in NGD. Conversely, ribosomal proteins ubiquitination is not affected by rps3 mutations, indicating that upstream ribosome quality control (RQC) events are not dependent on these residues. Together, these results suggest that Rps3 is important for quality control on the ribosome and strongly supports the notion that the ribosome itself plays a central role in the endonucleolytic cleavage reaction during NGD.

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<![CDATA[Stress tolerance in diapausing embryos of Artemia franciscana is dependent on heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a2883463d7e4513b897fb

Embryos of the crustacean, Artemia franciscana, may undergo oviparous development, forming encysted embryos (cysts) that are released from females and enter diapause, a state of suppressed metabolism and greatly enhanced stress tolerance. Diapause-destined embryos of A. franciscana synthesize three small heat shock proteins (sHsps), p26, ArHsp21 and ArHsp22, as well as artemin, a ferritin homologue, all lacking in embryos that develop directly into nauplii. Of these diapause-specific molecular chaperones, p26 and artemin are important contributors to the extraordinary stress tolerance of A. franciscana cysts, but how their synthesis is regulated is unknown. To address this issue, a cDNA for heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1), shown to encode a protein similar to Hsf1 from other organisms, was cloned from A. franciscana. Hsf1 was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi) in nauplii and cysts of A. franciscana. Nauplii lacking Hsf1 died prematurely upon release from females, showing that this transcription factor is essential to the survival of nauplii. Diapause cysts with diminished amounts of Hsf1 were significantly less stress tolerant than cysts containing normal levels of Hsf1. Moreover, cysts deficient in Hsf1 possessed reduced amounts of p26, ArHsp21, ArHsp22 and artemin, revealing dependence on Hsf1 for expression of their genes and maximum stress tolerance. The results demonstrate an important role for Hsf1, likely in concert with other transcription factors, in the survival and growth of A. franciscana and in the developmentally regulated synthesis of proteins responsible for the stress tolerance of diapausing A. franciscana cysts.

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<![CDATA[Biogeography and Character Evolution of the Ciliate Genus Euplotes (Spirotrichea, Euplotia), with Description of Euplotes curdsi sp. nov.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d275

Ciliates comprise a diverse and ecologically important phylum of unicellular protists. One of the most specious and best-defined genera is Euplotes, which constitutes more than 70 morphospecies, many of which have never been molecularly tested. The increasing number of described Euplotes taxa emphasizes the importance for detailed characterizations of new ones, requiring standardized morphological observations, sequencing of molecular markers and careful comparison with previous literature. Here we describe Euplotes curdsi sp. nov., distinguishable by the combination of the following features: 45–65 μm length, oval or elongated shape with both ends rounded, narrow peristome with 25–34 adoral membranelles, conspicuous paroral membrane, double-eurystomus dorsal argyrome type, 6–7 dorsolateral kineties and 10 frontoventral cirri. Three populations of the novel species have been found in brackish and marine samples in the Mediterranean and the White Sea. We provide the SSU rRNA gene sequences of these populations, and an updated phylogeny of the genus Euplotes. Using the molecular phylogenetic tree, we inferred aspects of the biogeographical history of the genus and the evolution of its most important taxonomic characters in order to provide a frame for future descriptions. Ultimately, these data reveal recurrent trends of freshwater invasion and highlight the dynamic, yet convergent, morphological evolution of Euplotes.

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