ResearchPad - gene-expression https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[MicroRNAs and long non-coding RNAs as novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10897 Ribosome biogenesis is the fine-tuned, essential process that generates mature ribosomal subunits and ultimately enables all protein synthesis within a cell. Novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis continue to be discovered in higher eukaryotes. While many known regulatory factors are proteins or small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as a novel modulatory layer controlling ribosome production. Here, we summarize work uncovering non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as novel regulators of ribosome biogenesis and highlight their links to diseases of defective ribosome biogenesis. It is still unclear how many miRNAs or lncRNAs are involved in phenotypic or pathological disease outcomes caused by impaired ribosome production, as in the ribosomopathies, or by increased ribosome production, as in cancer. In time, we hypothesize that many more ncRNA regulators of ribosome biogenesis will be discovered, which will be followed by an effort to establish connections between disease pathologies and the molecular mechanisms of this additional layer of ribosome biogenesis control.

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<![CDATA[Commentary on: The potency of lncRNA MALAT1/miR-155 in altering asthmatic Th1/Th2 balance by modulation of CTLA4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9234 Asthma is a common, allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 350 million people worldwide. One of the key features of asthma is skewing of CD4+ cells toward Th2 responses. This promotes the production of cytokines like IL-4 that induce IgE production resulting in the hypersecretion of mucus and airway smooth muscle contraction. Understanding the factors that favor Th2 expansion in asthma would provide important insights into the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder. Asthma research has focused on signaling pathways that control the transcription of key asthma-related genes. However, increasing evidence shows that post-transcriptional factors also determine CD4+ cell fate and the enhancement of allergic airway responses. A recent paper published by Liang et al. (Bioscience Reports (2020) 40, https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190397) highlights a novel role for the long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in Th2 development in asthma. MALAT1 modulates several biological processes including alternative splicing, epigenetic modification and gene expression. It is one of the most highly expressed lncRNAs in normal tissues and MALAT1 levels correlate with poor clinical outcomes in cancer. The mechanisms of action of MALAT1 in tumor progression and metastasis remain unclear and even less is known about its effects in inflammatory disease states like asthma. The work of Liang et al. demonstrates heightened MALAT1 expression in asthma and further shows that this lncRNA targets miR-155 to promote Th2 differentiation in this disease. This insight sets the stage for future studies to examine how MALAT1 manipulation could deter allergic immune responses in asthmatic airways.

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<![CDATA[Cell Atlas technologies and insights into tissue architecture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9194 Since Robert Hooke first described the existence of ‘cells’ in 1665, scientists have sought to identify and further characterise these fundamental units of life. While our understanding of cell location, morphology and function has expanded greatly; our understanding of cell types and states at the molecular level, and how these function within tissue architecture, is still limited. A greater understanding of our cells could revolutionise basic biology and medicine. Atlasing initiatives like the Human Cell Atlas aim to identify all cell types at the molecular level, including their physical locations, and to make this reference data openly available to the scientific community. This is made possible by a recent technology revolution: both in single-cell molecular profiling, particularly single-cell RNA sequencing, and in spatially resolved methods for assessing gene and protein expression. Here, we review available and upcoming atlasing technologies, the biological insights gained to date and the promise of this field for the future.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial phenotypic heterogeneity in DNA repair and mutagenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9188 Genetically identical cells frequently exhibit striking heterogeneity in various phenotypic traits such as their morphology, growth rate, or gene expression. Such non-genetic diversity can help clonal bacterial populations overcome transient environmental challenges without compromising genome stability, while genetic change is required for long-term heritable adaptation. At the heart of the balance between genome stability and plasticity are the DNA repair pathways that shield DNA from lesions and reverse errors arising from the imperfect DNA replication machinery. In principle, phenotypic heterogeneity in the expression and activity of DNA repair pathways can modulate mutation rates in single cells and thus be a source of heritable genetic diversity, effectively reversing the genotype-to-phenotype dogma. Long-standing evidence for mutation rate heterogeneity comes from genetics experiments on cell populations, which are now complemented by direct measurements on individual living cells. These measurements are increasingly performed using fluorescence microscopy with a temporal and spatial resolution that enables localising, tracking, and counting proteins with single-molecule sensitivity. In this review, we discuss which molecular processes lead to phenotypic heterogeneity in DNA repair and consider the potential consequences on genome stability and dynamics in bacteria. We further inspect these concepts in the context of DNA damage and mutation induced by antibiotics.

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<![CDATA[The role of SUMOylation during development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9182 During the development of multicellular organisms, transcriptional regulation plays an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis. SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational process involved in transcriptional regulation through the modification of transcription factors and through chromatin remodelling (either modifying chromatin remodelers or acting as a ‘molecular glue’ by promoting recruitment of chromatin regulators). SUMO modification results in changes in the activity, stability, interactions or localization of its substrates, which affects cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA maintenance and repair or nucleocytoplasmic transport. This review focuses on the role of SUMO machinery and the modification of target proteins during embryonic development and organogenesis of animals, from invertebrates to mammals.

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<![CDATA[Small nucleolar RNAs: continuing identification of novel members and increasing diversity of their molecular mechanisms of action]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9176 Identified five decades ago amongst the most abundant cellular RNAs, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were initially described as serving as guides for the methylation and pseudouridylation of ribosomal RNA through direct base pairing. In recent years, however, increasingly powerful high-throughput genomic approaches and strategies have led to the discovery of many new members of the family and surprising diversity in snoRNA functionality and mechanisms of action. SnoRNAs are now known to target RNAs of many biotypes for a wider range of modifications, interact with diverse binding partners, compete with other binders for functional interactions, recruit diverse players to targets and affect protein function and accessibility through direct interaction. This mini-review presents the continuing characterization of the snoRNome through the identification of new snoRNA members and the discovery of their mechanisms of action, revealing a highly versatile noncoding family playing central regulatory roles and connecting the main cellular processes.

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<![CDATA[Substantial improvement of tetraene macrolide production in <i>Streptomyces diastatochromogenes</i> by cumulative drug resistance mutations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7861 Tetraene macrolides remain one of the most reliable fungicidal agents as resistance of fungal pathogens to these antibiotics is relatively rare. The modes of action and biosynthesis of polyene macrolides had been the focus of research over the past few years. However, few studies have been carried out on the overproduction of polyene macrolides. In the present study, cumulative drug-resistance mutation was used to obtain a quintuple mutant G5-59 with huge tetraene macrolide overproduction from the starting strain Streptomyces diastatochromogenes 1628. Through DNA sequence analysis, the mutation points in the genes of rsmG, rpsL and rpoB were identified. Additionally, the growth characteristic and expression level of tetrRI gene (belonging to the large ATP binding regulator of LuxR family) involved in the biosynthesis of tetraene macrolides were analyzed. As examined with 5L fermentor, the quintuple mutant G5-59 grew very well and the maximum productivity of tetramycin A, tetramycin P and tetrin B was as high as 1735, 2811 and 1500 mg/L, which was 8.7-, 16- and 25-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain 1628, respectively. The quintuple mutant G5-59 could be useful for further improvement of tetraene macrolides production at industrial level.

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<![CDATA[Methamphetamine administration increases hepatic CYP1A2 but not CYP3A activity in female guinea pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7848 Methamphetamine use has increased over the past decade and the first use of methamphetamine is most often when women are of reproductive age. Methamphetamine accumulates in the liver; however, little is known about the effect of methamphetamine use on hepatic drug metabolism. Methamphetamine was administered on 3 occassions to female Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs of reproductive age, mimicking recreational drug use. Low doses of test drugs caffeine and midazolam were administered after the third dose of methamphetamine to assess the functional activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the mRNA expression of factors involved in glucocorticoid signalling, inflammation, oxidative stress and drug transporters. This study showed that methamphetamine administration decreased hepatic CYP1A2 mRNA expression, but increased CYP1A2 enzyme activity. Methamphetamine had no effect on CYP3A enzyme activity. In addition, we found that methamphetamine may also result in changes in glucocorticoid bioavailability, as we found a decrease in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA expression, which converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol. This study has shown that methamphetamine administration has the potential to alter drug metabolism via the CYP1A2 metabolic pathway in female guinea pigs. This may have clinical implications for drug dosing in female methamphetamine users of reproductive age.

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<![CDATA[Active Notch signaling is required for arm regeneration in a brittle star]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7845 Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of cell growth and migration by miR-96 and miR-183 in a breast cancer model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7836 Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women, and has the second highest mortality rate. Over 90% of all cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis, which is the spread of malignant cells from the primary tumor to a secondary site in the body. It is hypothesized that one cause of metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). When epithelial cells undergo EMT and transition into mesenchymal cells, they display increased levels of cell proliferation and invasion, resulting in a more aggressive phenotype. While many factors regulate EMT, microRNAs have been implicated in driving this process. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that suppress protein production, therefore loss of microRNAs may promote the overexpression of specific target proteins important for EMT. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miR-96 and miR-183 in EMT in breast cancer. Both miR-96 and miR-183 were found to be downregulated in post-EMT breast cancer cells. When microRNA mimics were transfected into these cells, there was a significant decrease in cell viability and migration, and a shift from a mesenchymal to an epithelial morphology (mesenchymal-epithelial transition or MET). These MET-related changes may be facilitated in part by the regulation of ZEB1 and vimentin, as both of these proteins were downregulated when miR-96 and miR-183 were overexpressed in post-EMT cells. These findings indicate that the loss of miR-96 and miR-183 may help facilitate EMT and contribute to the maintenance of a mesenchymal phenotype. Understanding the role of microRNAs in regulating EMT is significant in order to not only further elucidate the pathways that facilitate metastasis, but also identify potential therapeutic options for preventing or reversing this process.

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<![CDATA[Inferring the immune response from repertoire sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7765 High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing (RepSeq) experiments are becoming a common way to study the diversity, structure and composition of lymphocyte repertoires, promising to yield unique insight into individuals’ past infection history. However, the analysis of these sequences remains challenging, especially when comparing two different temporal or tissue samples. Here we develop a new theoretical approach and methodology to extract the characteristics of the lymphocyte repertoire response from different samples. The method is specifically tailored to RepSeq experiments and accounts for the multiple sources of noise present in these experiments. Its output provides expansion parameters, as well as a list of potentially responding clonotypes. We apply the method to describe the response to yellow fever vaccine obtained from samples taken at different time points. We also use our results to estimate the diversity and clone size statistics from data.

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<![CDATA[Juvenile hormone suppresses aggregation behavior through influencing antennal gene expression in locusts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7742 A behavioral change from shy solitarious individuals to highly social gregarious individuals is critical to the formation of disastrous swarms of locusts. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of behavioral plasticity regulated by hormones is still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on the behavioral transition in fourth-instar gregarious and solitarious locusts. We found that JH induced the behavioral shift of the gregarious locust from attraction to repulsion to the volatiles of gregarious locusts. The solitarious locust significantly decreased repulsion behavior after deprivation of JH by precocene or knockdown of JHAMT, a key enzyme to synthesize JH. JH application on gregarious locusts caused significant expression alteration of genes, especially the olfactory genes TO and CSP in the antennae. We further demonstrated that the JH signaling pathway suppressed aggregation behavior in gregarious locusts by increasing TO1 expression and decreasing CSP3 expression at the same time. Our results suggested that internal physiological factors can directly modulate periphery olfactory system to produce behavioral plasticity.

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<![CDATA[Investigating gene-microRNA networks in atrial fibrillation patients with mitral valve regurgitation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7684 Atrial fibrillation (AF) is predicted to affect around 17.9 million individuals in Europe by 2060. The disease is associated with severe electrical and structural remodelling of the heart, and increased the risk of stroke and heart failure. In order to improve treatment and find new drug targets, the field needs to better comprehend the exact molecular mechanisms in these remodelling processes.ObjectivesThis study aims to identify gene and miRNA networks involved in the remodelling of AF hearts in AF patients with mitral valve regurgitation (MVR).MethodsTotal RNA was extracted from right atrial biopsies from patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve replacement or repair with AF and without history of AF to test for differentially expressed genes and miRNAs using RNA-sequencing and miRNA microarray. In silico predictions were used to construct a mRNA-miRNA network including differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs. Gene and chromosome enrichment analysis were used to identify molecular pathways and high-density AF loci.ResultsWe found 644 genes and 43 miRNAs differentially expressed in AF patients compared to controls. From these lists, we identified 905 pairs of putative miRNA-mRNA interactions, including 37 miRNAs and 295 genes. Of particular note, AF-associated miR-130b-3p, miR-338-5p and miR-208a-3p were differentially expressed in our AF tissue samples. These miRNAs are predicted regulators of several differentially expressed genes associated with cardiac conduction and fibrosis. We identified two high-density AF loci in chromosomes 14q11.2 and 6p21.3.ConclusionsAF in MVR patients is associated with down-regulation of ion channel genes and up-regulation of extracellular matrix genes. Other AF related genes are dysregulated and several are predicted to be targeted by miRNAs. Our novel miRNA-mRNA regulatory network provides new insights into the mechanisms of AF. ]]> <![CDATA[Genetic algorithm-based personalized models of human cardiac action potential]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7669 We present a novel modification of genetic algorithm (GA) which determines personalized parameters of cardiomyocyte electrophysiology model based on set of experimental human action potential (AP) recorded at different heart rates. In order to find the steady state solution, the optimized algorithm performs simultaneous search in the parametric and slow variables spaces. We demonstrate that several GA modifications are required for effective convergence. Firstly, we used Cauchy mutation along a random direction in the parametric space. Secondly, relatively large number of elite organisms (6–10% of the population passed on to new generation) was required for effective convergence. Test runs with synthetic AP as input data indicate that algorithm error is low for high amplitude ionic currents (1.6±1.6% for IKr, 3.2±3.5% for IK1, 3.9±3.5% for INa, 8.2±6.3% for ICaL). Experimental signal-to-noise ratio above 28 dB was required for high quality GA performance. GA was validated against optical mapping recordings of human ventricular AP and mRNA expression profile of donor hearts. In particular, GA output parameters were rescaled proportionally to mRNA levels ratio between patients. We have demonstrated that mRNA-based models predict the AP waveform dependence on heart rate with high precision. The latter also provides a novel technique of model personalization that makes it possible to map gene expression profile to cardiac function.

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<![CDATA[Identification of miRNA signatures associated with radiation-induced late lung injury in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7641 Acute radiation exposure of the thorax can lead to late serious, and even life-threatening, pulmonary and cardiac damage. Sporadic in nature, late complications tend to be difficult to predict, which prompted this investigation into identifying non-invasive, tissue-specific biomarkers for the early detection of late radiation injury. Levels of circulating microRNA (miRNA) were measured in C3H and C57Bl/6 mice after whole thorax irradiation at doses yielding approximately 70% mortality in 120 or 180 days, respectively (LD70/120 or 180). Within the first two weeks after exposure, weight gain slowed compared to sham treated mice along with a temporary drop in white blood cell counts. 52% of C3H (33 of 64) and 72% of C57Bl/6 (46 of 64) irradiated mice died due to late radiation injury. Lung and heart damage, as assessed by computed tomography (CT) and histology at 150 (C3H mice) and 180 (C57Bl/6 mice) days, correlated well with the appearance of a local, miRNA signature in the lung and heart tissue of irradiated animals, consistent with inherent differences in the C3H and C57Bl/6 strains in their propensity for developing radiation-induced pneumonitis or fibrosis, respectively. Radiation-induced changes in the circulating miRNA profile were most prominent within the first 30 days after exposure and included miRNA known to regulate inflammation and fibrosis. Importantly, early changes in plasma miRNA expression predicted survival with reasonable accuracy (88–92%). The miRNA signature that predicted survival in C3H mice, including miR-34a-5p, -100-5p, and -150-5p, were associated with pro-inflammatory NF-κB-mediated signaling pathways, whereas the signature identified in C57Bl/6 mice (miR-34b-3p, -96-5p, and -802-5p) was associated with TGF-β/SMAD signaling. This study supports the hypothesis that plasma miRNA profiles could be used to identify individuals at high risk of organ-specific late radiation damage, with applications for radiation oncology clinical practice or in the context of a radiological incident.

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<![CDATA[Hfq CLASH uncovers sRNA-target interaction networks linked to nutrient availability adaptation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6357 By shaping gene expression profiles, small RNAs (sRNAs) enable bacteria to efficiently adapt to changes in their environment. To better understand how Escherichia coli acclimatizes to nutrient availability, we performed UV cross-linking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH) to uncover Hfq-associated RNA-RNA interactions at specific growth stages. We demonstrate that Hfq CLASH robustly captures bona fide RNA-RNA interactions. We identified hundreds of novel sRNA base-pairing interactions, including many sRNA-sRNA interactions and involving 3’UTR-derived sRNAs. We rediscovered known and identified novel sRNA seed sequences. The sRNA-mRNA interactions identified by CLASH have strong base-pairing potential and are highly enriched for complementary sequence motifs, even those supported by only a few reads. Yet, steady state levels of most mRNA targets were not significantly affected upon over-expression of the sRNA regulator. Our results reinforce the idea that the reproducibility of the interaction, not base-pairing potential, is a stronger predictor for a regulatory outcome.

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<![CDATA[PARC: ultrafast and accurate clustering of phenotypic data of millions of single cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N077019bc-e2ab-4a6e-be79-014b80a68a50 New single-cell technologies continue to fuel the explosive growth in the scale of heterogeneous single-cell data. However, existing computational methods are inadequately scalable to large datasets and therefore cannot uncover the complex cellular heterogeneity.ResultsWe introduce a highly scalable graph-based clustering algorithm PARC—Phenotyping by Accelerated Refined Community-partitioning—for large-scale, high-dimensional single-cell data (>1 million cells). Using large single-cell flow and mass cytometry, RNA-seq and imaging-based biophysical data, we demonstrate that PARC consistently outperforms state-of-the-art clustering algorithms without subsampling of cells, including Phenograph, FlowSOM and Flock, in terms of both speed and ability to robustly detect rare cell populations. For example, PARC can cluster a single-cell dataset of 1.1 million cells within 13 min, compared with >2 h for the next fastest graph-clustering algorithm. Our work presents a scalable algorithm to cope with increasingly large-scale single-cell analysis.Availability and implementation https://github.com/ShobiStassen/PARC.Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ]]> <![CDATA[RiboFlow, RiboR and RiboPy: an ecosystem for analyzing ribosome profiling data at read length resolution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1e190294-f8f0-4e62-8bfe-9beb97a99364 Ribosome occupancy measurements enable protein abundance estimation and infer mechanisms of translation. Recent studies have revealed that sequence read lengths in ribosome profiling data are highly variable and carry critical information. Consequently, data analyses require the computation and storage of multiple metrics for a wide range of ribosome footprint lengths. We developed a software ecosystem including a new efficient binary file format named ‘ribo’. Ribo files store all essential data grouped by ribosome footprint lengths. Users can assemble ribo files using our RiboFlow pipeline that processes raw ribosomal profiling sequencing data. RiboFlow is highly portable and customizable across a large number of computational environments with built-in capabilities for parallelization. We also developed interfaces for writing and reading ribo files in the R (RiboR) and Python (RiboPy) environments. Using RiboR and RiboPy, users can efficiently access ribosome profiling quality control metrics, generate essential plots and carry out analyses. Altogether, these components create a software ecosystem for researchers to study translation through ribosome profiling.Availability and implementationFor a quickstart, please see https://ribosomeprofiling.github.io. Source code, installation instructions and links to documentation are available on GitHub: https://github.com/ribosomeprofiling.Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ]]> <![CDATA[A Bayesian approach to accurate and robust signature detection on LINCS L1000 data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf113415-a091-4231-aa7f-f426e92c86c6 LINCS L1000 dataset contains numerous cellular expression data induced by large sets of perturbagens. Although it provides invaluable resources for drug discovery as well as understanding of disease mechanisms, the existing peak deconvolution algorithms cannot recover the accurate expression level of genes in many cases, inducing severe noise in the dataset and limiting its applications in biomedical studies.ResultsHere, we present a novel Bayesian-based peak deconvolution algorithm that gives unbiased likelihood estimations for peak locations and characterize the peaks with probability based z-scores. Based on the above algorithm, we build a pipeline to process raw data from L1000 assay into signatures that represent the features of perturbagen. The performance of the proposed pipeline is evaluated using similarity between the signatures of bio-replicates and the drugs with shared targets, and the results show that signatures derived from our pipeline gives a substantially more reliable and informative representation for perturbagens than existing methods. Thus, the new pipeline may significantly boost the performance of L1000 data in the downstream applications such as drug repurposing, disease modeling and gene function prediction.Availability and implementationThe code and the precomputed data for LINCS L1000 Phase II (GSE 70138) are available at https://github.com/njpipeorgan/L1000-bayesian.Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. ]]> <![CDATA[GSOAP: a tool for visualization of gene set over-representation analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N16a33cc8-828a-4a96-aeb8-a489b2870d93 Gene sets over-representation analysis (GSOA) is a common technique of enrichment analysis that measures the overlap between a gene set and selected instances (e.g. pathways). Despite its popularity, there is currently no established standard for visualization of GSOA results.ResultsHere, we propose a visual exploration of the GSOA results by showing the relationships among the enriched instances, while highlighting important instance attributes, such as significance, closeness (centrality) and clustering.Availability and implementationGSOAP is implemented as an R package and is available at https://github.com/tomastokar/gsoap. ]]>