ResearchPad - gene-mapping https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[ArdC, a ssDNA-binding protein with a metalloprotease domain, overpasses the recipient <i>hsdRMS</i> restriction system broadening conjugation host range]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7739 Horizontal gene transfer is the main mechanism by which bacteria acquire and disseminate new traits, such as antibiotic resistance genes, that allow adaptation and evolution. Here we identified a gene, ardC, that enables a plasmid to increase its conjugative host range, and thus positively contributes to plasmid fitness. The crystal structure of the antirestriction protein ArdC revealed a fold different from other antirestriction proteins. Our results have wide implications for understanding how a gene enlarges the environments a plasmid can colonize and point to new targets to harness the bacterial DNA uptake control.

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<![CDATA[Variants encoding a restricted carboxy-terminal domain of SLC12A2 cause hereditary hearing loss in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1837fa5-7737-42fc-aa07-ce2092d99c03

Hereditary hearing loss is challenging to diagnose because of the heterogeneity of the causative genes. Further, some genes involved in hereditary hearing loss have yet to be identified. Using whole-exome analysis of three families with congenital, severe-to-profound hearing loss, we identified a missense variant of SLC12A2 in five affected members of one family showing a dominant inheritance mode, along with de novo splice-site and missense variants of SLC12A2 in two sporadic cases, as promising candidates associated with hearing loss. Furthermore, we detected another de novo missense variant of SLC12A2 in a sporadic case. SLC12A2 encodes Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and plays critical roles in the homeostasis of K+-enriched endolymph. Slc12a2-deficient mice have congenital, profound deafness; however, no human variant of SLC12A2 has been reported as associated with hearing loss. All identified SLC12A2 variants mapped to exon 21 or its 3’-splice site. In vitro analysis indicated that the splice-site variant generates an exon 21-skipped SLC12A2 mRNA transcript expressed at much lower levels than the exon 21-included transcript in the cochlea, suggesting a tissue-specific role for the exon 21-encoded region in the carboy-terminal domain. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that Cl influx was significantly decreased in all SLC12A2 variants studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SLC12A2 is located on the plasma membrane of several types of cells in the cochlea, including the strial marginal cells, which are critical for endolymph homeostasis. Overall, this study suggests that variants affecting exon 21 of the SLC12A2 transcript are responsible for hereditary hearing loss in humans.

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<![CDATA[A framework for gene mapping in wheat demonstrated using the Yr7 yellow rust resistance gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8aa5bdf2-6390-43c2-aef2-b7a76659179a

We used three approaches to map the yellow rust resistance gene Yr7 and identify associated SNPs in wheat. First, we used a traditional QTL mapping approach using a double haploid (DH) population and mapped Yr7 to a low-recombination region of chromosome 2B. To fine map the QTL, we then used an association mapping panel. Both populations were SNP array genotyped allowing alignment of QTL and genome-wide association scans based on common segregating SNPs. Analysis of the association panel spanning the QTL interval, narrowed the interval down to a single haplotype block. Finally, we used mapping-by-sequencing of resistant and susceptible DH bulks to identify a candidate gene in the interval showing high homology to a previously suggested Yr7 candidate and to populate the Yr7 interval with a higher density of polymorphisms. We highlight the power of combining mapping-by-sequencing, delivering a complete list of gene-based segregating polymorphisms in the interval with the high recombination, low LD precision of the association mapping panel. Our mapping-by-sequencing methodology is applicable to any trait and our results validate the approach in wheat, where with a near complete reference genome sequence, we are able to define a small interval containing the causative gene.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of genetic control and QTL mapping of essential wheat grain quality traits in a recombinant inbred population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897730d5eed0c4847d2663

Wheat cultivars are genetically crossed to improve end-use quality for traits as per demands of baking industry and broad consumer preferences. The processing and baking qualities of bread wheat are influenced by a variety of genetic make-ups, environmental factors and their interactions. Two wheat cultivars, WL711 and C306, derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) with a population of 206, were used for phenotyping of quality-related traits. The genetic analysis of quality traits showed considerable variation for measurable quality traits, with normal distribution and transgressive segregation across the years. From the 206 RILs, few RILs were found to be superior to those of the parental cultivars for key quality traits, indicating their potential use for the improvement of end-use quality and suggesting the probability of finding new alleles and allelic combinations from the RIL population. Mapping analysis identified 38 putative QTLs for 13 quality-related traits, with QTLs explaining 7.9–16.8% phenotypic variation spanning over 14 chromosomes, i.e., 1A, 1B, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7B. In-silico analysis based on homology to the annotated wheat genes present in database, identified six putative candidate genes within QTL for total grain protein content, qGPC.1B.1 region. Major QTL regions for other quality traits such as TKW have been identified on 1B, 2A, and 7A chromosomes in the studied RIL population. This study revealed the importance of the combination of stable QTLs with region-specific QTLs for better phenotyping, and the QTLs presented in our study will be useful for the improvement of wheat grain and bread-making quality.

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<![CDATA[Potassium response and homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulates environmental adaptation and is important for host colonization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e93cd5eed0c48496fa58

Successful host colonization by bacteria requires sensing and response to the local ionic milieu, and coordination of responses with the maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the face of changing conditions. We previously discovered that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) responds synergistically to chloride (Cl-) and pH, as cues to the immune status of its host. This raised the intriguing concept of abundant ions as important environmental signals, and we have now uncovered potassium (K+) as an ion that can significantly impact colonization by Mtb. The bacterium has a unique transcriptional response to changes in environmental K+ levels, with both distinct and shared regulatory mechanisms controlling Mtb response to the ionic signals of K+, Cl-, and pH. We demonstrate that intraphagosomal K+ levels increase during macrophage phagosome maturation, and find using a novel fluorescent K+-responsive reporter Mtb strain that K+ is not limiting during macrophage infection. Disruption of Mtb K+ homeostasis by deletion of the Trk K+ uptake system results in dampening of the bacterial response to pH and Cl-, and attenuation in host colonization, both in primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and in vivo in a murine model of Mtb infection. Our study reveals how bacterial ionic homeostasis can impact environmental ionic responses, and highlights the important role that abundant ions can play during host colonization by Mtb.

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<![CDATA[The ability of locked nucleic acid oligonucleotides to pre-structure the double helix: A molecular simulation and binding study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7570d5eed0c4843cfda2

Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligonucleotides bind DNA target sequences forming Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairs, and are therefore of interest for medical applications. To be biologically active, such an oligonucleotide has to efficiently bind the target sequence. Here we used molecular dynamics simulations and electrophoresis mobility shift assays to elucidate the relation between helical structure and affinity for LNA-containing oligonucleotides. In particular, we have studied how LNA substitutions in the polypyrimidine strand of a duplex (thus forming a hetero duplex, i.e. a duplex with a DNA polypurine strand and an LNA/DNA polypyrimidine strand) enhance triplex formation. Based on seven polypyrimidine single strand oligonucleotides, having LNAs in different positions and quantities, we show that alternating LNA with one or more non-modified DNA nucleotides pre-organizes the hetero duplex toward a triple-helical-like conformation. This in turn promotes triplex formation, while consecutive LNAs distort the duplex structure disfavoring triplex formation. The results support the hypothesis that a pre-organization in the hetero duplex structure enhances the binding of triplex forming oligonucleotides. Our findings may serve as a criterion in the design of new tools for efficient oligonucleotide hybridization.

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<![CDATA[A novel resistance gene for bacterial blight in rice, Xa43(t) identified by GWAS, confirmed by QTL mapping using a bi-parental population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75dbd5eed0c4843d0337

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) pathogen is a significant disease in most rice cultivation areas. The disease is estimated to cause annual rice production losses of 20–30 percent throughout rice-growing countries in Asia. The discovery and deployment of durable resistance genes for BB is an effective and sustainable means of mitigating production losses. In this study QTL analysis and fine mapping were performed using an F2 and a BC2F2 population derived from a cross with a new R-donor having broad spectrum resistance to Korean BB races. The QTL qBB11 was identified by composite interval mapping and explained 31.25% of the phenotypic variation (R2) with LOD values of 43.44 harboring two SNP markers. The single major R-gene was designated Xa43 (t). Through dissection of the target region we were able to narrow the region to within 27.83–27.95 Mbp, a physical interval of about 119-kb designated by the two flanking markers IBb27os11_14 and S_BB11.ssr_9. Of nine ORFs in the target region two ORFs revealed significantly different expression levels of the candidate genes. From these results we developed a marker specific to this R-gene, which will have utility for future BB resistance breeding and/or R-gene pyramiding using marker assisted selection. Further characterization of the R-gene would be helpful to enhance understanding of mechanisms of BB resistance in rice.

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<![CDATA[Fine mapping of the major QTL for seed coat color in Brassica rapa var. Yellow Sarson by use of NIL populations and transcriptome sequencing for identification of the candidate genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e930d5eed0c48496f960

Yellow seed is a desirable trait in Brassica oilseed crops. The B. rapa var. Yellow Sarson carry unique yellow seed color genes which are not only important for the development of yellow-seeded oilseed B. rapa cultivars but this variant can also be used to develop yellow-seeded B. napus. In this study, we developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Yellow Sarson for the major seed coat color QTL SCA9-2 of the chromosome A9 and used the NILs to fine map this QTL region and to identify the candidate genes through linkage mapping and transcriptome sequencing of the developing seeds. From the 18.4 to 22.79 Mb region of SCA9-2, six SSR markers showing 0.63 to 5.65% recombination were developed through linkage analysis and physical mapping. A total of 55 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the SCA9-2 region through transcriptome analysis; these included three transcription factors, Bra028039 (NAC), Bra023223 (C2H2 type zinc finger), Bra032362 (TIFY), and several other genes which encode unknown or nucleic acid binding protein; these genes might be the candidates and involved in the regulation of seed coat color in the materials used in this study. Several biosynthetic pathways, including the flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and suberin biosynthetic pathways were significantly enriched through GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs. This is the first comprehensive study to understand the yellow seed trait of Yellow Sarson through employing linkage mapping and global transcriptome analysis approaches.

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<![CDATA[Genome-wide association mapping of grain yield in a diverse collection of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) evaluated in southern Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8c8d5eed0c48496f180

Wheat landraces, wild relatives and other ‘exotic’ accessions are important sources of new favorable alleles. The use of those exotic alleles is facilitated by having access to information on the association of specific genomic regions with desirable traits. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a wheat panel that includes landraces, synthetic hexaploids and other exotic wheat accessions to identify loci that contribute to increases in grain yield in southern Australia. The 568 accessions were grown in the field during the 2014 and 2015 seasons and measured for plant height, maturity, spike length, spike number, grain yield, plant biomass, HI and TGW. We used the 90K SNP array and two GWAS approaches (GAPIT and QTCAT) to identify loci associated with the different traits. We identified 17 loci with GAPIT and 25 with QTCAT. Ten of these loci were associated with known genes that are routinely employed in marker assisted selection such as Ppd-D1 for maturity and Rht-D1 for plant height and seven of those were detected with both methods. We identified one locus for yield per se in 2014 on chromosome 6B with QTCAT and three in 2015, on chromosomes 4B and 5A with GAPIT and 6B with QTCAT. The 6B loci corresponded to the same region in both years. The favorable haplotypes for yield at the 5A and 6B loci are widespread in Australian accessions with 112 out of 153 carrying the favorable haplotype at the 5A locus and 136 out of 146 carrying the favorable haplotype at the 6A locus, while the favorable haplotype at 4B is only present in 65 out of 149 Australian accessions. The low number of yield QTL in our study corroborate with other GWAS for yield in wheat, where most of the identified loci have very small effects.

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<![CDATA[Contribution of the Cpx envelope stress system to metabolism and virulence regulation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8cfd5eed0c48496f1be

The Cpx-envelope stress system regulates the expression of virulence factors in many Gram-negative pathogens. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium deletion of the sensor kinase CpxA but not of the response regulator CpxR results in the down regulation of the key regulator for invasion, HilA encoded by the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here, we provide evidence that cpxA deletion interferes with dephosphorylation of CpxR resulting in increased levels of active CpxR and consequently in misregulation of target genes. 14 potential operons were identified to be under direct control of CpxR. These include the virulence determinants ecotin, the omptin PgtE, and the SPI-2 regulator SsrB. The Tat-system and the PocR regulator that together promote anaerobic respiration of tetrathionate on 1,2-propanediol are also under direct CpxR control. Notably, 1,2-propanediol represses hilA expression. Thus, our work demonstrates for the first time the involvement of the Cpx system in a complex network mediating metabolism and virulence function.

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<![CDATA[Intronic CNVs and gene expression variation in human populations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a00d5eed0c484a46c63

Introns can be extraordinarily large and they account for the majority of the DNA sequence in human genes. However, little is known about their population patterns of structural variation and their functional implication. By combining the most extensive maps of CNVs in human populations, we have found that intronic losses are the most frequent copy number variants (CNVs) in protein-coding genes in human, with 12,986 intronic deletions, affecting 4,147 genes (including 1,154 essential genes and 1,638 disease-related genes). This intronic length variation results in dozens of genes showing extreme population variability in size, with 40 genes with 10 or more different sizes and up to 150 allelic sizes. Intronic losses are frequent in evolutionarily ancient genes that are highly conserved at the protein sequence level. This result contrasts with losses overlapping exons, which are observed less often than expected by chance and almost exclusively affect primate-specific genes. An integrated analysis of CNVs and RNA-seq data showed that intronic loss can be associated with significant differences in gene expression levels in the population (CNV-eQTLs). These intronic CNV-eQTLs regions are enriched for intronic enhancers and can be associated with expression differences of other genes showing long distance intron-promoter 3D interactions. Our data suggests that intronic structural variation of protein-coding genes makes an important contribution to the variability of gene expression and splicing in human populations.

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<![CDATA[KDM2B regulates choline kinase expression and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7add5eed0c4843865c6

The process of neuronal differentiation is associated with neurite elongation and membrane biogenesis, and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major membrane phospholipid in mammalian cells. During neuroblast differentiation, the transcription of two genes involved in PtdCho biosynthesis are stimulated: Chka gene for choline kinase (CK) alpha isoform and Pcyt1a gene for CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) alpha isoform. Here we show that CKα is essential for neuronal differentiation. In addition, we demonstrated that KDM2B regulates CKα expression and, as a consequence, neuronal differentiation. This factor is up-regulated in the course of the neuroblasts proliferative and undifferentiated state and down-regulated during differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA). During proliferation, KDM2B binds to the Box2 located in the Chka promoter repressing its transcription. Interestingly, KDM2B knockdown enhances the levels of CKα expression in neuroblast cells and induces neuronal differentiation even in the absence of RA. These results suggest that KDM2B is required for the appropriate regulation of CKα during neuronal differentiation and to the maintaining of the undifferentiated stage of neuroblast cells.

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<![CDATA[Estimating recent migration and population-size surfaces]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466533d5eed0c484517f56

In many species a fundamental feature of genetic diversity is that genetic similarity decays with geographic distance; however, this relationship is often complex, and may vary across space and time. Methods to uncover and visualize such relationships have widespread use for analyses in molecular ecology, conservation genetics, evolutionary genetics, and human genetics. While several frameworks exist, a promising approach is to infer maps of how migration rates vary across geographic space. Such maps could, in principle, be estimated across time to reveal the full complexity of population histories. Here, we take a step in this direction: we present a method to infer maps of population sizes and migration rates associated with different time periods from a matrix of genetic similarity between every pair of individuals. Specifically, genetic similarity is measured by counting the number of long segments of haplotype sharing (also known as identity-by-descent tracts). By varying the length of these segments we obtain parameter estimates associated with different time periods. Using simulations, we show that the method can reveal time-varying migration rates and population sizes, including changes that are not detectable when using a similar method that ignores haplotypic structure. We apply the method to a dataset of contemporary European individuals (POPRES), and provide an integrated analysis of recent population structure and growth over the last ∼3,000 years in Europe.

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<![CDATA[Transcription of human endogenous retroviruses in human brain by RNA-seq analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b793d5eed0c484490502

Background

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) comprise 8% of the human genome and can be classified into at least 31 families. Increased levels of transcripts from the W and H families of HERV have been observed in association with human diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. Although HERV transcripts have been detected in many tissues and cell-types based on microarray and PCR studies, the extent of HERV expression in different cell-types and diseases state has been less comprehensively studied.

Results

We examined overall transcription of HERV, and particularly of HERV-W and HERV-H elements in human postmortem brain samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric diagnoses (n = 111) and healthy controls (n = 51) by analyzing publicly available RNA sequencing datasets. Sequence reads were aligned to prototypical sequences representing HERV, downloaded from Repbase. We reported a consistent expression (0.1~0.2% of mappable reads) of different HERV families across three regions of human brains. Spearman correlations revealed highly correlated expression levels between three brain regionsacross 475 consensus sequences. By mapping sequences that aligned to the consensus sequences of HERV-W and HERV-H families to individual loci on chromosome 7, more than 60 loci from each family were identified, part of which are being transcribed. The ERVWE1, locus located at chr7q21.2, exhibited high levels of transcription across the three datasets. Notably, we demonstrated a trend of increased expression of overall HERV, as well as HERV-W family in samples from both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients.

Conclusions

The current analyses indicate that RNA sequencing is a useful approach for investigating global expression of repetitive elements, such as HERV, in the human genome. HERV-W/H with the tendency of transcription up-regulation in patients suggests potential implication of HERV-W/H in psychiatric diseases.

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<![CDATA[Walking along chromosomes with super-resolution imaging, contact maps, and integrative modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb1d5eed0c484d9b21a

Chromosome organization is crucial for genome function. Here, we present a method for visualizing chromosomal DNA at super-resolution and then integrating Hi-C data to produce three-dimensional models of chromosome organization. Using the super-resolution microscopy methods of OligoSTORM and OligoDNA-PAINT, we trace 8 megabases of human chromosome 19, visualizing structures ranging in size from a few kilobases to over a megabase. Focusing on chromosomal regions that contribute to compartments, we discover distinct structures that, in spite of considerable variability, can predict whether such regions correspond to active (A-type) or inactive (B-type) compartments. Imaging through the depths of entire nuclei, we capture pairs of homologous regions in diploid cells, obtaining evidence that maternal and paternal homologous regions can be differentially organized. Finally, using restraint-based modeling to integrate imaging and Hi-C data, we implement a method–integrative modeling of genomic regions (IMGR)–to increase the genomic resolution of our traces to 10 kb.

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<![CDATA[Efficient algorithms for Longest Common Subsequence of two bucket orders to speed up pairwise genetic map comparison]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7ff1d5eed0c48451c5d0

Genetic maps order genetic markers along chromosomes. They are, for instance, extensively used in marker-assisted selection to accelerate breeding programs. Even for the same species, people often have to deal with several alternative maps obtained using different ordering methods or different datasets, e.g. resulting from different segregating populations. Having efficient tools to identify the consistency and discrepancy of alternative maps is thus essential to facilitate genetic map comparisons. We propose to encode genetic maps by bucket order, a kind of order, which takes into account the blurred parts of the marker order while being an efficient data structure to achieve low complexity algorithms. The main result of this paper is an O(n log(n)) procedure to identify the largest agreements between two bucket orders of n elements, their Longest Common Subsequence (LCS), providing an efficient solution to highlight discrepancies between two genetic maps. The LCS of two maps, being the largest set of their collinear markers, is used as a building block to compute pairwise map congruence, to visually emphasize maker collinearity and in some scaffolding methods relying on genetic maps to improve genome assembly. As the LCS computation is a key subroutine of all these genetic map related tools, replacing the current LCS subroutine of those methods by ours –to do the exact same work but faster– could significantly speed up those methods without changing their accuracy. To ease such transition we provide all required algorithmic details in this self contained paper as well as an R package implementing them, named LCSLCIS, which is freely available at: https://github.com/holtzy/LCSLCIS.

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<![CDATA[Chain organization of human interphase chromosome determines the spatiotemporal dynamics of chromatin loci]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed753d5eed0c484f13f19

We investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of human interphase chromosomes by employing a heteropolymer model that incorporates the information of human chromosomes inferred from Hi-C data. Despite considerable heterogeneities in the chromosome structures generated from our model, chromatins are organized into crumpled globules with space-filling (SF) statistics characterized by a single universal scaling exponent (ν = 1/3), and this exponent alone can offer a quantitative account of experimentally observed, many different features of chromosome dynamics. The local chromosome structures, whose scale corresponds to that of topologically associated domains (∼ 0.1 − 1 Mb), display dynamics with a fast relaxation time (≲ 1 − 10 sec); in contrast, the long-range spatial reorganization of the entire chromatin (O(102) Mb) occurs on a much slower time scale (≳ hour), providing the dynamic basis of cell-to-cell variability and glass-like behavior of chromosomes. Biological activities, modeled using stronger isotropic white noises added to active loci, accelerate the relaxation dynamics of chromatin domains associated with the low frequency modes and induce phase segregation between the active and inactive loci. Surprisingly, however, they do not significantly change the dynamics at local scales from those obtained under passive conditions. Our study underscores the role of chain organization of chromosome in determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of chromatin loci.

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<![CDATA[Nucleosome positions establish an extended mutation signature in melanoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841d8d5eed0c484fcae6a

Ultraviolet (UV) light-induced mutations are unevenly distributed across skin cancer genomes, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this heterogeneity are not fully understood. Here, we assessed how nucleosome structure impacts the positions of UV-induced mutations in human melanomas. Analysis of mutation positions from cutaneous melanomas within strongly positioned nucleosomes revealed a striking ~10 base pair (bp) oscillation in mutation density with peaks occurring at dinucleotides facing away from the histone octamer. Additionally, higher mutation density at the nucleosome dyad generated an overarching “translational curvature” across the 147 bp of DNA that constitutes the nucleosome core particle. This periodicity and curvature cannot be explained by sequence biases in nucleosomal DNA. Instead, our genome-wide map of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) indicates that CPD formation is elevated at outward facing dinucleotides, mirroring the oscillation of mutation density within nucleosome-bound DNA. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity, as measured by XR-seq, inversely correlated with the curvature of mutation density associated with the translational setting of the nucleosome. While the 10 bp periodicity of mutations is maintained across nucleosomes regardless of chromatin state, histone modifications, and transcription levels, overall mutation density and curvature across the core particle increased with lower transcription levels. Our observations suggest structural conformations of DNA promote CPD formation at specific sites within nucleosomes, and steric hindrance progressively limits lesion repair towards the nucleosome dyad. Both mechanisms create a unique extended mutation signature within strongly positioned nucleosomes across the human genome.

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<![CDATA[Phosphate effect on filipin production and morphological differentiation in Streptomyces filipinensis and the role of the PhoP transcription factor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf29d5eed0c484914044

The biosynthesis of the antifungal filipin in Streptomyces filipinensis is very sensitive to phosphate regulation. Concentrations as low as 2.5 mM block filipin production. This effect is, at least in part, produced by repression of the transcription of most filipin biosynthetic genes. The role of the two-component PhoRP system in this process was investigated. The phoRP system of S. filipinensis was cloned and transcriptionally characterised. PhoP binds to two PHO boxes present in one of its two promoters. Filipin production was greatly increased in ΔphoP and ΔphoRP mutants, in agreement with a higher transcription of the fil genes, and the effect of phosphate repression on the antibiotic production of these strains was significantly reduced. No PhoP binding was observed by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSAs) with the promoter regions of the fil gene cluster thus suggesting an indirect effect of mutations. Binding assays with cell-free extracts from the wild-type and mutant strains on fil genes promoters revealed retardation bands in the parental strain that were absent in the mutants, thus suggesting that binding of the putative transcriptional regulator or regulators controlled by PhoP was PhoP dependent. Noteworthy, PhoP or PhoRP deletion also produced a dramatic decrease in sporulation ability, thus indicating a clear relationship between the phosphate starvation response mediated by PhoP and the sporulation process in S. filipinensis. This effect was overcome upon gene complementation, but also by phosphate addition, thus suggesting that alternative pathways take control in the absence of PhoRP.

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<![CDATA[Construction of a highly saturated linkage map in Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) using GBS for SNP marker calling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed767d5eed0c484f14097

This study reports the construction of high density linkage maps of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs), obtained with a GBS strategy. The mapping population (An x Au) was obtained by crossing cv. “Angeleno” (An) as maternal line and cv. “Aurora” (Au) as the pollen donor. A total of 49,826 SNPs were identified using the peach genome V2.1 as a reference. Then a stringent filtering was carried out, which revealed 1,441 high quality SNPs in 137 An x Au offspring, which were mapped in eight linkage groups. Finally, the consensus map was built using 732 SNPs which spanned 617 cM with an average of 0.96 cM between adjacent markers. The majority of the SNPs were distributed in the intragenic region in all the linkage groups. Considering all linkage groups together, 85.6% of the SNPs were located in intragenic regions and only 14.4% were located in intergenic regions. The genetic linkage analysis was able to co-localize two to three SNPs over 37 putative orthologous genes in eight linkage groups in the Japanese plum map. These results indicate a high level of synteny and collinearity between Japanese plum and peach genomes.

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