ResearchPad - general-articles https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The importance of ultrasonographic pneumatosis intestinalis in equine neonatal gastrointestinal disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N26ce1d4b-8b3b-4f82-bb49-052d10499c06 Reasons for performing study: Recognising the presence of a necrotising component of the gastrointestinal disease may be clinically useful in ill equine neonates.

Objectives: To study the importance of abdominal sonograms in neonatal foals suffering from gastrointestinal conditions and to describe the clinical features of necrotising gastrointestinal disease.

Hypothesis: There is a subgroup of neonates with sonographically detectable pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), reflecting a necrotising disease.

Methods: Records of foals aged ≤7 days hospitalised from 2005 to 2009 with signs of gastrointestinal disease were evaluated (n = 89). The association of sonographic, clinical and clinicopathological signs with necrotising gastrointestinal disease and outcome was determined.

Results: PI was imaged in 19 foals. Twenty‐seven foals were classified as having necrotising gastrointestinal disease based on the presence of gastrointestinal signs (colic, diarrhoea, gastric reflux or abdominal distension) and sonographic PI (n = 19), surgical (n = 2) or pathological (n = 6) evidence of gastrointestinal necrosis. There was a difference between survival rate in foals with and without necrotising disease (33.3 and 69.4%, respectively, P = 0.005) or foals with and without PI detected sonographically (36.8 and 72.1%, respectively, P = 0.023). PI was the only sonographic finding associated with outcome. Prematurity, the presence of blood in the faeces, gastric reflux, abdominal distension, abnormal echogenicity of the colon and the lowest white blood cell count during hospitalisation were associated with necrotising gastrointestinal disease (P<0.05).

Conclusions and potential relevance: Abdominal sonograms have prognostic value in neonatal gastrointestinal disease. PI and the presence of necrotising gastrointestinal disease were common and associated with a poor prognosis.

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<![CDATA[Corneal neovascularization and biological therapy ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af5a9a8463d7e2bedb72ac1

Corneal avascularity is necessary for the preservation of optimal vision. The cornea maintains a dynamic balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors that allows it to remain avascular under normal homeostatic conditions. Corneal neovascularization (NV) is a condition that can develop in response to inflammation, hypoxia, trauma, or limbal stem cell deficiency and it is a significant cause of blindness. New therapeutic options for diseases of the cornea and ocular surface are now being explored in experimental animals and clinical trials. Antibody based biologics are being tested for their ability to reduce blood and lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the cornea, and to reduce inflammation. Numerous studies have shown that biologics with specificity for VEGF A such as bevacizumab and ranibizumab (a recombinant antibody and an antibody fragment, respectively) or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α microantibody, are effective in the treatment of corneal neovascularization.

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<![CDATA[Using the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model: Implications for Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af25431463d7e3d9a2674e8

BACKGROUND

Schools, school districts, and communities seeking to implement the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model should carefully and deliberately select planning, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

METHODS

In this article, we identify strategies, steps, and resources within each phase that can be integrated into existing processes that help improve health outcomes and academic achievement. Implementation practices may vary across districts depending upon available resources and time commitments.

RESULTS

Obtaining and maintaining administrative support at the beginning of the planning phase is imperative for identifying and implementing strategies and sustaining efforts to improve student health and academic outcomes. Strategy selection hinges on priority needs, community assets, and resources identified through the planning process. Determining the results of implementing the WSCC is based upon a comprehensive evaluation that begins during the planning phase. Evaluation guides success in attaining goals and objectives, assesses strengths and weaknesses, provides direction for program adjustment, revision, and future planning, and informs stakeholders of the effect of WSCC, including the effect on academic indicators.

CONCLUSIONS

With careful planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts, use of the WSCC model has the potential of focusing family, community, and school education and health resources to increase the likelihood of better health and academic success for students and improve school and community life in the present and in the future.

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<![CDATA[An Evaluation of Two Hands-On Lab Styles for Plant Biodiversity in Undergraduate Biology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ad8b94e463d7e5dccd660d0

Two formats of plant biodiversity labs were evaluated: a learning cycle format and an expository format. Each had a prelab, a hands-on lab, and a write-to-learn postlab. Bloom's lower- and higher-order cognition and attitudes were assessed. Results showed that the two styles had different costs and benefits. Evidence indicates that a blended style may be best.

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<![CDATA[Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afb06c8463d7e3321e29991

The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life.

The majority of cases require reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this is that the bony walls are comminuted and/or bone fragments are missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of missing bone is important rather than reducing bone fragments. This can be accomplished using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: nonresorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/allogenous/xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.

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<![CDATA[Medical and legal point of view for low-vision patients ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b59e845463d7e7cb05cf953

The aim of the study was to highlight the medical and legal difficulties in framing low-vision patients for certification. We performed a retrospective observational study conducted from January 2013 to January 2016, on 63 patients with the mean age of 16.37±3.34 years, evaluated at the Ophthalmology Clinic from “Sf. Spiridon” Hospital, Iași, in order to release a medical certificate required at the Expertise Board. The clinical parameters observed were visual acuity (VA) with correction, objective refraction (in Spherical Equivalent - SEq), intraocular pressure, slit lamp examination of the anterior pole, fundus examination, orthoptic eye exam, and ocular ultrasonography (in selected cases). The main causes for the decreased visual acuity found are refractive or strabic amblyopia determined by: high myopia (28.57%), esotropia (19.04%), astigmatism (17.46); congenital diseases - congenital nystagmus (12.69%), congenital cataract (7.93%), microphthalmia (7.93%); acquired diseases - retinopathy of prematurity (9.52%), optic nerve atrophy (7.93%), bandelette keratopathy (6.34); ocular trauma (7.93%). In 52.38% of the cases for the RE and 53.96% of the cases for the LE, decreased visual acuity was caused by an irreversible condition and could not be improved. Patients come every year for reevaluation in order to receive the medical certificate required at the Expertise Board. Evaluating the patient for a certificate for visual impairment is a time consuming process due to the high number of investigations necessary and, sometimes, difficult collaboration with the patient with associated general pathology. It also requires knowledge of frequently changing legislation to complete legal forms for patients with visual impairment. A medical certificate may now be issued with a validity of up to four years, given that certain diseases are irreversible and visual functional status does not change over time.

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