ResearchPad - general-surgery https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Successful Conservative Management of Acute Appendicitis in a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10711 Appendectomy is the gold standard of treatment for acute appendicitis; however, recent evidence suggests conservative management with intravenous antibiotics may provide similar outcomes and can be used as an alternative in selected patients. Performing appendectomy in acute appendicitis patients with 2019 novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is challenging, as it involves considerable operative risks for the patients and risks for health care professionals (HCPs) exposed to COVID-19. Medical management eliminates the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery but involves significant risks of treatment failures that, in turn, may lead to perforation, peritonitis, and death. We are reporting a case of a middle-aged man with multiple co-morbidities, who was diagnosed with COVID-19 and acute appendicitis. Our patient received intravenous antibiotics for seven days with a significant improvement in symptoms. Our case report illustrates the implementation of successful conservative treatment for acute appendicitis in COVID-19 patients.

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<![CDATA[Postrenal Acute Renal Failure Due to Giant Fecaloma-related Bilateral Hydronephrosis: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10544 An 88-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal distention, fever, and constipation of about a week's duration. Laboratory tests showed impaired kidney function tests and fluid electrolyte values. Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis was observed on non-contrasted abdominal CT. Imaging revealed no intrinsic urological pathology (ureteral stones, etc.) that could lead to obstruction in the urinary system; however, excessively dilated and feces-loaded rectum and colon were observed. The patient was treated with conservative methods. Unfortunately, she passed away due to general condition disorder.

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<![CDATA[Clinico-radiological Outcomes of Using Modified Stoppa Approach for Treating Acetabular Fractures: An Institutional Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10538 Introduction

Acetabular fractures are complex intra-articular fractures. The extra-pelvic ilioinguinal (IL) has been the workhorse for the anterior approach and remains the gold standard. The major difference between the IL and the Stoppa approaches is that Stoppa allows for the avoidance of the middle window of the IL approach. Hence, the modified Stoppa approach (MSA) can be adopted by a comparatively less experienced surgeon with minimal complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiological and functional outcomes of patients operated on using the MSA.

Materials and methods

Patients operated on by the MSA for acetabular fractures with a minimum of one year of clinical and radiographic follow-ups were reviewed. CT scans and radiographs were evaluated for the fracture pattern, time to surgery, operative time, blood loss, quality of reduction (Matta criterion), FO [Harris hip score (HHS) and Nach Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score (NMAPS)] and complications (perioperative and follow-up). Twenty-three of 26 patients with 45 acetabular fractures operated between January 2016 and November 2018 were included. Descriptive statistics were used for demographic data, and Pearson’s chi-squared statistic was calculated for the association between radiological and functional outcomes.

Results 

Among the 23 patients, the mean age was 38.5 years (range: 15-65) with a male-to-female ratio of 18:5. The average time to surgery was 11.5 days (range: 2-32), operating time was 155 minutes (range: 90-243), and average blood loss was 650 ml (range: 500-1,250). A supplemental lateral window was used in 20 patients (87%), and three underwent the combined anterior and posterior [Kocher Langenbacks (KL)] approach. All cases were unilateral. The transverse fracture was the most common pattern (eight patients) followed by the associated both-column fracture in six and T-type, isolated anterior column fracture, and anterior column and posterior hemi-transverse fractures seen in three patients each. Iliac blade (high anterior column) fracture was seen in 14 cases and one patient had associated sacral type II fracture. Road traffic accidents accounted for 61% of the injuries and injury severity score (ISS) of >15 (polytrauma) was seen in more than 50% of the cases (associated with other organ injuries). The radiological outcome was anatomical in 52% of the cases, imperfect in 39%, and poor in 9%. The functional outcomes were good to excellent in 74% (HHS) and 79% (NMAPS) of the cases. The association and correlation between them were nonsignificant (p-value: >0.5). Two patients developed a superficial infection and three had iatrogenic obturator nerve palsy. One patient had a direct inguinal hernia, one had grade 3 bedsores, and two patients developed grade 2 arthritic changes during the follow-up. No case of vessel injury was encountered.

Conclusion

Adoption of the MSA for the treatment of acetabular fractures leads to a good-to-excellent anatomical reduction in most cases while providing direct visualization of the quadrilateral plate and posterior column. The learning curve is smaller for less-experienced surgeons in terms of complications and results. We recommend this technique as a viable alternative to the IL approach for anterior acetabular fixation.

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<![CDATA[Amyand's Hernia: Perforated Appendix in an Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9470 Amyand’s hernia is an unusual condition characterized by the presence of a normal or inflamed appendix located within an inguinal hernia. We present a rare situation wherein a 56-year-old male patient presented with an incarcerated inflamed appendix in a right inguinal hernia. He was emergently taken to the operating room, with diagnostic laparoscopy changed to open, due to incarcerated cecum and terminal ileum. The incarcerated segment had to be resected with primary anastomosis. The inflamed and purulent contents were washed out, and the hernia defect was left unrepaired due to the presence of abscess in the inguinal canal. 

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<![CDATA[Unusual Chemotherapeutic Resistant Testicular Embryonal Germ Cell Tumor with Widespread Metastasis in a Case of Klinefelter Syndrome: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9446 Cryptorchidism is an undeniable risk factor for testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) and is also commonly associated with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients. Embryonal cell carcinoma usually shows strong expression of CD30 and OCT3/4, with patchy staining of PLAP1. Most patients with nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs) can achieve total remission with proactive chemotherapy, and most can be cured. We present an extremely rare case of a testicular embryonal germ cell tumor that is atypical in its gene expression and response to chemotherapy treatment.

A 71-year-old male patient presented in July 2019 with abdominal pain of unknown duration, weight loss for one year, and recent history of altered bowel habits. His past medical history is significant for KS and congenital unilateral cryptorchidism. Physical examination yielded mild abdominal distention and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Imaging revealed a posterior mediastinal mass and large retroperitoneal masses. The above features, in addition to the history of KS and unilateral cryptorchidism, were highly suggestive of a testicular retroperitoneal germ cell tumor. Serologic studies revealed elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) while other tumor markers were normal. Excisional biopsy of inguinal lymph nodes revealed poorly differentiated embryonal cell carcinoma with strong expression of SALL4, a rare expression of OCT 3/4, and the absence of expression of CD30 and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP). The patient was given four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and platinum (BEP) chemotherapy, as is the standard chemotherapy regimen for these tumors, without any significant change in the size of the masses or lymph nodes.

Unfortunately, there are no specific guidelines when it comes to the management of KS patients with testicular GCTs (embryonal cell carcinoma) with aberrant histological markers and normal serum tumor markers. These findings in combination with chemotherapeutic resistance indicate a need for more specific treatment modalities and follow-up for unusual testicular embryonal GCTs in KS patients.

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<![CDATA[Robotic versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Case-Control Outcome Analysis and Surgical Resident Training Implications]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9386 Background

The robotic approach in surgery is becoming more widely used in many subspecialties. Robot-assisted laparoscopic procedures provide potential improvements in clinical outcomes due to improved visualization and enhanced surgical ergonomics. In this study, we measured and compared outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the conventional laparoscopic technique, as well as the implications for the training of surgical residents.

Method

We compared a total of 244 patients undergoing minimally invasive cholecystectomies performed by one surgeon between July 2013 and June 2016 examining relevant clinical outcomes including operative room (OR) time, length of hospital stay (LOS), readmission to the hospital, post-operative emergency department (ED) visits, and post-operative pain between laparoscopic single-incision cholecystectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A chi-square test and Student’s t-test were used to compare these variables between the two groups. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used using gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) as variables.

Results

From the total number of procedures of 244, 144 were included in the laparoscopic group and 100 in the robot-assisted group. The robot-assisted patients had a shorter post-operative LOS (mean: 0.8 vs. 1.6 days; p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the OR time (mean: 64.8 vs. 65.0 minutes; p = 0.945), readmissions (4.0% vs. 3.5%; p = 0.830), post-operative ED visits (7.0% vs. 7.6%; p = 0.851), or post-operative pain (13.0% vs. 21.3%; p= 0.137). Robotic cholecystectomy patients were younger (mean: 46 vs. 52 years; p = 0.023) and had lower BMIs (mean: 31 vs. 33; p = 0.038). Because of these differences, we compared the two groups using PSM that confirmed the shorter LOS in the robotic group (mean: 0.9 vs. 1.9; p = 0.009).

Conclusions

These results demonstrate that robotic cholecystectomies can reduce LOS for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, without increasing OR time. Increased surgeon experience with robotic procedures and improved OR efficiency will allow greater opportunities for resident participation. Robotic training curricula need to be employed and objectively evaluated to improve surgical resident skill acquisition and provide earlier and progressive clinical participation in robotic procedures.

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<![CDATA[Lymph Node Ratio as a Prognostic Marker in Rectal Cancer Survival: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9385 Introduction 

The lymph node ratio (LNR) is defined as the ratio of the number of positive lymph nodes to the total number of nodes retrieved. LNR has recently emerged as a prognostic factor in rectal cancer. The objective of our study was to pool eligible studies to elucidate the prognostic role of LNR on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in rectal cancer patients using a meta-analysis.

Methods

A systematic database search was performed in MEDLINE and Embase for relevant studies that reported LNR in rectal cancer. Two authors independently screened the relevant articles for selection and data extraction. As a result, a list of such studies and references, published in English up to December 2019, was obtained, and a total of 4,486 node-positive patients in 18 studies were included in this meta-analysis. RevMan software 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, the Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen) was used for conducting all statistical analyses.

Results

A higher LNR was significantly correlated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR): 2.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.21-3.06; p≤.00001] and DFS (HR: 2.43; 95% CI: 2.11-2.80; p≤.00001) in node-positive rectal cancer patients. Besides, LNR is an independent predictive and prognostic marker of OS and DFS (HR: 2.52; 95% CI: 2.17-2.94; p≤.00001 with I2=0%; p=.32 and HR: 2.63; 95% CI: 2.17-3.18; p≤.00001 with I2=0%; p=.63 respectively, irrespective of lymph nodal harvest).

Conclusions

Our present study demonstrates that LNR is an independent predictor of survival in rectal cancer. LNR should be considered as a parameter in future oncological staging systems. Further well-designed randomized control trials to prospectively assess LNR as an independent predictor of rectal cancer survival are necessary before its application in daily practice.

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<![CDATA[Brunner's Gland Hyperplasia: A Massive Duodenal Lesion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5281d71a-0597-4532-8c10-cf99e5f66ee0 A 57-year-old male with a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal strictures presented with melena and abdominal pain. He underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which revealed a 5-cm duodenal bulb mass causing partial obstruction of the gastric outlet. Endoscopic ultrasound showed a 5-cm, hypoechoic lesion, arising from the mucosal layer, with a large blood vessel feeding the lesion. Biopsy revealed benign Brunner’s gland hyperplasia. The large mass was causing symptomatic obstruction of the pylorus and iron deficiency anemia, and had risk for malignant transformation. Due to its size it was not amenable to endoscopic removal. Subsequently, he underwent exploratory laparotomy with pyloroplasty, duodenotomy and partial duodenal resection. Surgical pathology showed Brunner’s gland hyperplasia and was negative for malignancy. 

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<![CDATA[Recurrence Rate in a Patient Treated with Colon Resection Followed by Chemotherapy in Comparison to a Patient Treated with Colon Resection without Chemotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65f38e97-728c-4c50-87ba-2e1f37abee04 Given that colon cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, it is essential to employ strategies to try to reduce its incidence and recurrence rate. Though colon cancer is a sporadic disease in the vast majority of cases, multiple risk factors are linked to this disease, namely, obesity and cigarette smoking. Additionally, not many studies have been done in Saudi Arabia studying the recurrence rate of colon cancer. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study at King Khalid Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to investigate the recurrence rate of colon cancer in patients treated with complete colon resection followed by chemotherapy versus patients treated with colon resection alone via electronic and paper medical records. A total of 120 patients were included in this study; 61 were males (50.8%) and 59 were females (49.2%). According to our findings, the recurrence rate in patients who underwent surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy was 15.6% (n = 10), while the recurrence rate in patients with surgery alone was 21.4% (n = 12). Cancer recurrence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, further studies should be done to investigate the recurrence rate in patients with risk factors to identify and deal with the causes of recurrence.

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<![CDATA[Brucellosis As a Cause of Intestinal Perforation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6566533e-8e1c-480f-b180-f280f2996ed3

Brucellosis is a multisystem zoonotic infection. Patients usually presents with fever and nonspecific systemic symptoms but may rarely present with clinical presentation of an acute abdomen. In this case report, we present a 32-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of acute abdomen. Exploration revealed ileal perforation secondary to brucellosis, for which loop ileostomy was fashioned.

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<![CDATA[Malignant Hidradenocarcinoma of the Axilla]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nab6f7c9d-77a2-4538-b76f-e019331e3a4b

Malignant hidradenocarcinoma is a very rare and highly aggressive primary skin neoplasm that arises in the eccrine sweat glands. Diagnosis is typically made with histopathological evaluation after excisional biopsy. Reports of this tumor are scarce in the literature, thus making its characterization and management particularly challenging.

A 71-year-old male presented in the clinic with swelling of the left lateral axilla on routine dermatological examination. Clinically, the lesion was suspected to be a capillary hemangioma. Upon surgical excision, the specimen was diagnosed as malignant hidradenocarcinoma based on histological characterization with immunohistochemical staining. Subsequent wide excision with sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed, which came back negative for residual tumor and metastasis.

Due to the low incidence of this cancer and the markedly poor prognosis, accurate diagnosis of these tumors is highly important. Wide excisional biopsy and sentinel lymph node biopsy appear to be the most common initial treatment plans based on the available literature. With high rates of recurrence and metastasis, there remains the need to characterize effective adjuvant therapy for the post-operative management of hidradenocarcinoma.

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<![CDATA[Benign Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Neck: A Case Report of a Rare Finding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N71b25938-55e3-47db-8d76-a1974b39f807

Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT), though an uncommon finding, is prone to be clustered along the midline in the neck and rarely it shows up as a lateral neck mass. Whenever the ETT is discovered in unusual places, the possibility of malignancy is higher, and rarely a benign variant. We present a 71-year-old female with a past history of hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and thyroid nodules presented to the physician’s office complaining of an unusual swelling in the right side of a neck. The physical examination revealed a rubbery, non-tender, mobile, dominant mass in the right upper neck at the jugulodiagastric region in the upper anterior cervical triangle. Ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) of the neck strongly suggested the benign characteristics of the mass. The postoperative histological examination of the specimen was indicative of benign thyroid tissue with no metastatic potential and no lymphoid tissue confirming the diagnosis of ETT. To better understand the clinical, pathological, and radiological nature of this rare disease, we present a rare case of ETT in the lateral cervical area which was resected.

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<![CDATA[Sexual Function in Patients Suffering from Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal Sinus Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N494cb214-2617-4bd4-b11a-3235198dc713

Introduction

Sexual function is one of the aspects upon which quality of life (QoL) is based. Although previous studies have evaluated the influence of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) on QoL, no data are available on the influence of SPSD on sexual function in a highly active sexual population based on the age range. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether SPSD has a negative impact on sexual function and whether this is influenced by the surgical treatment of SPSD.

Methods 

Sexual function was pre- and postoperatively assessed by the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS; score range 0-48), subdivided into the sexual embarrassment (SE; score range 0-24) and sexual self-focus subscale (SFF; score range 0-24). The higher the score, the higher is the sexual dysfunction. Patients were also asked whether SPSD influenced their sexual functioning.

Results 

A total of 88 male patients who underwent surgical treatment for SPSD were included in the study. The mean (±SD) preoperative SSCS score was 14.5±9.1 and 13.9±8.4 two weeks postoperatively (p=0.394). Six and twelve weeks after surgery, there was a significant reduction to 12.2±9.0 (p=0.002) and 12.3±8.8 (p=0.013), respectively. SE decreased from 5.5±5.1 preoperatively to 5.1±4.6 (p=0.258), 4.2±4.7 (p=0.004) and 4.0±4.6 (p=0.013) two, six, and twelve weeks after surgery. For SFF, there was a decrease from 9.0±5.0 to 8.9±4.9 (p=0.717), 7.8±5.2 (p=0.004) and 8.2±5.3 (p=0.168), respectively. Preoperatively, 70% of the patients totally or partially disagreed that SPSD influenced their sexual functioning, and this increased to 80% of the patients 12 weeks after surgery.

Conclusion 

This prospective study showed a significant decrease in sexual dysfunction, both six and twelve weeks after surgery, compared to preoperatively in patients suffering from SPSD.

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<![CDATA[Left Paraduodenal Hernia: Case Report of Rare Cause of Recurrent Abdominal Pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7fdf5d44-6d9a-447e-8513-ec93bb794993

Internal hernia is a relatively uncommon condition and is a rare type of intestinal obstruction. Paraduodenal hernia is considered the most common type of internal hernias. The rare prevalence and the variable symptoms make the clinical diagnosis of paraduodenal hernia a diagnostic challenge. We present the case of a 26-year-old male patient presented with a seven-day history of generalized intermittent crampy abdominal pain accompanied by nausea and multiple episodes of vomiting. He was otherwise healthy and had no history of previous abdominal operations. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated sac-like clustered small bowel loops noted in the left upper quadrant, in the anterior pararenal space, consistent with the diagnosis of left paraduodenal hernia. Laparoscopic surgery for the repair of the hernia was planned but it was converted to open surgery due to technical difficulties. The patient tolerated the procedure without complications, and he was asymptomatic in the follow-up visit. This case sheds light on the importance of considering the diagnosis of left paraduodenal hernia in patients with recurrent abdominal pain, particularly among those who have not undergone abdominal surgery previously.

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<![CDATA[Chronic Non-cirrhotic Portal Vein Thrombosis with Cavernous Transformation Secondary to Protein C and S Deficiency]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2906d78b-30e8-42db-8109-207670d23494

Hereditary thrombophilia (HT), including the mutation of factor V gene and the deficiency of proteins C, protein S, or antithrombin, is a risk factor for portal vein thrombosis (PVT). PVT in acute cases is usually asymptomatic, whereas chronic cases mostly present as variceal bleeding and splenomegaly. However, cavernous transformation of the portal vein secondary to a long-standing PVT is very rare. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old female who was admitted with complaints of left upper abdominal pain and swelling for four to five years. Using laboratory and radiological examinations, a confirmatory diagnosis of cavernous transformation of a thrombosed portal vein due to protein C and S deficiency was made. The patient was managed through splenectomy with splenorenal shunting along with life-long prescription of anticoagulants.

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<![CDATA[Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair in Patients with an Intrathoracic Pancreas: Case Series and a Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9ea31ad9-0002-43c0-ad51-b266407d311e

Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is rare with only 17 cases reported in 25 years. Presentation of pancreatic herniation is diverse. In the majority of cases, the pancreatic herniation is found incidentally on CT-scans made for evaluating complaints related to a large or giant hiatal hernia. We present a literature review and case series of three patients with symptomatic type IV hiatal hernia with incidental, asymptomatic pancreatic herniation. All cases were managed laparoscopically with robotic assistance.

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<![CDATA[Accidental Ultrasound Finding of a Giant Intermuscular Gluteal Lipoma with Intrapelvic Extension: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na67b0653-225d-47fd-aa63-0270d24dbb08

Lipomas represent the most common benign mesenchymal tumor. They are usually located subcutaneously and rarely become symptomatic. Occasionally pressure symptoms on adjacent neurovascular structures may be exerted, thereby causing functional impairment. Lipomas rarely grow larger than 5 cm, becoming the so-called giant lipomas, posing a real diagnostic and surgical challenge. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old Caucasian female with an accidental pelvic ultrasound finding of a giant mass, which was also palpable over the right gluteal region. Interestingly the patient was free of any sciatic nerve compression symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a soft tissue tumor, partially located in between the external rotator muscles of the hip and the gluteus muscle. The tumor forced up and advanced through the great sciatic foramen into the pelvis. The patient underwent an uneventful complete and safe surgical excision of the gluteal mass, via a wide transgluteal approach. Pathology confirmed lipoma diagnosis. Patient is free from recurrence two years post operatively. Physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gluteal masses should always consider in their differential diagnosis the presence of a sciatic hernia.

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<![CDATA[Hemorrhagic Shock Secondary to Aortoesophageal Fistula as a Complication of Esophageal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4cf1184-2ec8-4835-8c6f-295d4931d085

Although aortoesophageal fistulas are rare, they can present as life-threatening emergencies. This condition can develop secondary to an aneurysm, foreign bodies, infiltrating tumors, and radiotherapy. We report a patient with hemorrhagic shock secondary to an aortoesophageal fistula. A 69-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated with chemoradiation and metallic stent placement was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after an episode of hematemesis. The patient was hemodynamically unstable, requiring fluid resuscitation, blood transfusions, and respiratory and vasopressor support. The patient developed electric pulseless activity, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed for 40 minutes. An upper endoscopy showed the esophageal tumor infiltrating into the stent, and computed tomography (CT) angiogram showed leakage of contrast from the thoracic aorta to the esophagus. The diagnosis of aortoesophageal fistula was made. The patient underwent endovascular management for the fistula. However, his critical condition did not improve, and the patient perished.

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<![CDATA[Early Autonomy May Contribute to an Increase in the General Surgical Workforce]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na59d5073-9297-449f-a439-4a8fec8b82c4

Background: Nationally, 85% of general surgery graduates pursue fellowships reducing the incoming general surgical workforce with a predicted shortage of 41,000 general surgeons by 2025. In recent studies, the lack of confidence appears to be a major factor contributing to resident decision to pursue fellowship. The aim of the study was to determine if a hybrid academic/community program contributes to early autonomy and the decision to pursue fellowship in general surgery graduates. Methods: We evaluated the level of confidence, level of autonomy, and decision to pursue fellowship at a hybrid academic/community program that historically graduates 70% of their residents into general surgery practice through an anonymous survey. Participants responded using Likert scales along with simple polar questions. Results: Most current residents (90%) reported, upon graduation, that they feel very confident (45%) or fairly confident (45%) performing major cases independently. Most attendings (64%) reported that during their third year of residency, they began performing the majority (more than 75%) of their major cases as surgeon junior while current residents (55%) reported they were performing the majority as a second-year resident. Fifty-five percent of residents felt that confidence played a role in the decision to pursue fellowship. Thirty-three percent of our current chief residents and only 34% of the total general surgery residents plan to pursue fellowships. 

Conclusions: Our study showed that our residents appear to have earlier levels of autonomy than that experienced by our practicing surgeons when they were residents. Confidence continues to play a role in the decision to pursue fellowship and overall our residents are confident in technical skills at graduation. Our unique program continues to graduate the majority of our surgical residents into successful general surgery practice.

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<![CDATA[Radiation Therapy as a Modality to Create Abscopal Effects: Current and Future Practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5503d70a-9fd6-4a01-8bfd-8b915ba1012a

In our empathetic understanding of abscopal effect (AbE), research has shown that the immune system is stimulated by radiation, which results in the formation of an AbE. The AbE is referred to as a response from the irradiated volume. Despite the existence of key gaps in our understanding, there is an urgent need to explore what the underlying effect is. The aim of this article is to argue neurosurgeons and the healthcare practitioner's knowledge of the AbE. Our goal is to identify more gaps in our understanding of the AbE and seal other gaps as well. This study will review medical journals and bring together the most updated information related to AbEs.

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