ResearchPad - genetics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Late-onset Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) Syndrome in a 63-year-old Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14258 Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) usually manifests in early life. Clinical hallmarks of the disease are mitochondrial myopathies, encephalopathy with stroke-like episodes, seizures, and lactic acidosis. It rarely manifests in late adulthood. Here we present the case of a 63-year-old female patient who developed recurrent stroke-like symptoms with typical resolving and remitting pattern of findings on imaging. Later on, it was confirmed as a case of MELAS upon genetic analysis.

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<![CDATA[DAT1 Gene Methylation as an Epigenetic Biomarker in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Commentary]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14075 <![CDATA[Identifying the Transcriptional Regulatory Network Associated With Extrathyroidal Extension in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma by Comprehensive Bioinformatics Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14035 Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) affects papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) prognosis. The objective of this study was to identify biomarkers for ETE and explore the mechanisms controlling its development in PTC. We performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using several datasets. Differential expression analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on 58 paired PTC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to detect ETE-related mRNA and long noncoding (lnc) RNA modules and construct an lncRNA/mRNA network. An independent TCGA dataset containing 438 samples was utilized to validate and characterize the WGCNA results. Functional annotation was used to identify the biological functions and related pathways of ETE modules. Two independent RNA sequencing datasets were combined to crossvalidate relationships between lncRNAs and mRNAs by Pearson correlation analysis. Transcription factors (TFs) for affected genes were predicted using the binding motif data from Ensembl Biomart to construct a TF/lncRNA/mRNA network. Other two independent datasets were used to crossvalidate TF-mRNA associations. Finally, receiver operating characteristic, survival analyses, and Cox proportional hazard regression model were performed to explore the significance of hub genes in ETE diagnosis and PTC prognosis. Three mRNA modules and two lncRNA modules were significantly associated with ETE. Enrichment analysis showed extracellular matrix changes was closely related to the development of ETE. A TF/lncRNA/mRNA regulatory network was constructed containing 33 validated hub genes, 64 lncRNAs, and 64 TFs, all differentially expressed between ETE and non-ETE samples. Unc-5 family C-terminal like [area under the curve (AUC): 0.711], sushi repeat containing protein X-linked 2 (AUC: 0.706), lysyl oxidase (AUC: 0.704), collagen type I alpha 1 chain (AUC: 0.704), and collagen type X alpha 1 chain (AUC: 0.704) were the most highly significant hub genes for ETE diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazard regression model constructed with hub genes showed significant survival differences between low- and high-risk groups (p = 0.00025) and performed good prediction for PTC prognosis(AUC = 0.794; C-index = 0.895). The identification of 33 biomarkers and TF/lncRNA/mRNA regulatory network would provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ETE besides the prognosis model may have important clinical implications in the improvement of PTC risk stratification, therapeutic decision-making, and prognosis prediction.

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<![CDATA[Genetic diversity of <i>Echinococcus multilocularis</i> and <i>Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato</i> in Kyrgyzstan: The A2 haplotype of <i>E</i>. <i>multilocularis</i> is the predominant variant infecting humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13871 Analysis of the genetic variability in Echinococcus species from different endemic countries have contributed to the knowledge in the taxonomy and phylogeography of these parasites. The most important species of this genus, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Echinococcus multilocularis, co-exist in Kyrgyzstan causing serious public health issues. E. granulosus s.l. causes cystic echinococcosis and E. multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. The most relevant finding of our study is the identification of the cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype of E. multilocularis as the most commonly found in humans and dogs. However, it remains unknown if this variant of E. multilocularis, based on genetic differences in mitochondrial genes, presents differences in virulence which could have contributed to the emergence of alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. The results also show a number of non-previously described genetic variants of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.s.

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<![CDATA[Insight into the protein solubility driving forces with neural attention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13832 The solubility of proteins is a crucial biophysical aspect when it comes to understanding many human diseases and to improve the industrial processes for protein production. Due to its relevance, computational methods have been devised in order to study and possibly optimize the solubility of proteins. In this work we apply a deep-learning technique, called neural attention to predict protein solubility while “opening” the model itself to interpretability, even though Machine Learning models are usually considered black boxes. Thank to the attention mechanism, we show that i) our model implicitly learns complex patterns related to emergent, protein folding-related, aspects such as to recognize β-amyloidosis regions and that ii) the N-and C-termini are the regions with the highes signal fro solubility prediction. When it comes to enhancing the solubility of proteins, we, for the first time, propose to investigate the synergistic effects of tandem mutations instead of “single” mutations, suggesting that this could minimize the number of required proposed mutations.

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<![CDATA[Impacts of host gender on <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> risk in rural Uganda—A mixed-methods approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13851 Globally, over 230 million people are infected with schistosomiasis, an infectious disease caused by parasitic helminths. Humans can get infected when they contact water which contains Schistosoma parasites. Although the disease can be treated with a drug, people get rapidly reinfected in certain high-transmission settings. Drug treatment alone may not be sufficient to eliminate this disease and additional interventions such as health promotion or improvements in water and sanitation need to be scaled up. To provide recommendations to these control programmes we carried out interdisciplinary research in Eastern Uganda to understand the influence of gender on schistosomiasis risk. We found that the water contact behaviour of boys and girls is quite similar, and we did not see differences in reinfection or genetic diversity of the parasite between boys and girls. Differences in water contact between genders is greater in adults, and further research is required for these individuals. In this setting, infection rates are high in school-aged children and there are no differences between genders. These results emphasise improved control efforts for all school-aged children in communities like these. Our interdisciplinary approach provided complementary findings. Such an integrated approach can therefore have more power to meaningfully inform policy on schistosomiasis control.

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<![CDATA[<i>In silico</i> analyses identify lncRNAs: WDFY3-AS2, BDNF-AS and AFAP1-AS1 as potential prognostic factors for patients with triple-negative breast tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13870 Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are characterized as having 200 nucleotides or more and not coding any protein, and several been identified as differentially expressed in several human malignancies, including breast cancer.MethodsHere, we evaluated lncRNAs differentially expressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) from a cDNA microarray data set obtained in a previous study from our group. Using in silico analyses in combination with a review of the current literature, we identify three lncRNAs as potential prognostic factors for TNBC patients.ResultsWe found that the expression of WDFY3-AS2, BDNF-AS, and AFAP1-AS1 was associated with poor survival in patients with TNBCs. WDFY3-AS2 and BDNF-AS are lncRNAs known to play an important role in tumor suppression of different types of cancer, while AFAP1-AS1 exerts oncogenic activity.ConclusionOur findings provided evidence that WDFY3-AS2, BDNF-AS, and AFAP1-AS1 may be potential prognostic factors in TNBC development. ]]> <![CDATA[Calibration curves by <sup>60</sup>Co with low dose rate are different in terms of dose estimation – a comparative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13897 Biological dosimetry aims to estimate individual absorbed doses due ionizing radiation exposure. The dicentric chromosomes are considered the most specific biomarker for dose estimation. This study aimed to compare calibration curves for linear low energy transfer (LET) radiation built from low dose rates and whether they vary in terms of dose estimation. For that we did a search in the literature of all calibration curves produced with low dose rates and we simulated the dose estimation from pre-established dicentric’s frequencies. The information on methodologies and cytogenetic results of each study were analyzed. As expected dose rate influence β coefficients, especially at higher doses. However, we have seen that some doses were not statistically different but they should be, because there is a significant association between the productions of dicentrics and dose rate. This comparative study reinforced the robustness of the dicentric assay and its importance in biological dosimetry. We also emphasized that the dose rate was an important factor in dose estimations. Thus, intercomparison exercises should take into account the dose rates of the participating laboratories, because the dose rates might explain why some results of estimated doses fall outside the recommendations.

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<![CDATA[Improvement of steatotic rat liver function with a defatting cocktail during <i>ex situ</i> normothermic machine perfusion is not directly related to liver fat content]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13803 There is a significant organ shortage in the field of liver transplantation, partly due to a high discard rate of steatotic livers from donors. These organs are known to function poorly if transplanted but make up a significant portion of the available pool of donated livers. This study demonstrates the ability to improve the function of steatotic rat livers using a combination of ex situ machine perfusion and a “defatting” drug cocktail. After 6 hours of perfusion, defatted livers demonstrated lower perfusate lactate levels and improved bile quality as demonstrated by higher bile bicarbonate and lower bile lactate. Furthermore, defatting was associated with decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Rehabilitation of marginal or discarded steatotic livers using machine perfusion and tailored drug therapy can significantly increase the supply of donor livers for transplantation.

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<![CDATA[Genome reconstruction of the non-culturable spinach downy mildew <i>Peronospora effusa</i> by metagenome filtering]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13800 Peronospora effusa (previously known as P. farinosa f. sp. spinaciae, and here referred to as Pfs) is an obligate biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew on spinach (Spinacia oleracea). To combat this destructive many disease resistant cultivars have been bred and used. However, new Pfs races rapidly break the employed resistance genes. To get insight into the gene repertoire of Pfs and identify infection-related genes, the genome of the first reference race, Pfs1, was sequenced, assembled, and annotated. Due to the obligate biotrophic nature of this pathogen, material for DNA isolation can only be collected from infected spinach leaves that, however, also contain many other microorganisms. The obtained sequences can, therefore, be considered a metagenome. To filter and obtain Pfs sequences we utilized the CAT tool to taxonomically annotate ORFs residing on long sequences of a genome pre-assembly. This study is the first to show that CAT filtering performs well on eukaryotic contigs. Based on the taxonomy, determined on multiple ORFs, contaminating long sequences and corresponding reads were removed from the metagenome. Filtered reads were re-assembled to provide a clean and improved Pfs genome sequence of 32.4 Mbp consisting of 8,635 scaffolds. Transcript sequencing of a range of infection time points aided the prediction of a total of 13,277 gene models, including 99 RxLR(-like) effector, and 14 putative Crinkler genes. Comparative analysis identified common features in the predicted secretomes of different obligate biotrophic oomycetes, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. Their secretomes are generally smaller, compared to hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic oomycete species. We observe a reduction in proteins involved in cell wall degradation, in Nep1-like proteins (NLPs), proteins with PAN/apple domains, and host translocated effectors. The genome of Pfs1 will be instrumental in studying downy mildew virulence and for understanding the molecular adaptations by which new isolates break spinach resistance.

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<![CDATA[TIM, a targeted insertional mutagenesis method utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 in <i>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13864 Generation and subsequent analysis of mutants is critical to understanding the functions of genes and proteins. Here we describe TIM, an efficient, cost-effective, CRISPR-based targeted insertional mutagenesis method for the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. TIM utilizes delivery into the cell of a Cas9-guide RNA (gRNA) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) together with exogenous double-stranded (donor) DNA. The donor DNA contains gene-specific homology arms and an integral antibiotic-resistance gene that inserts at the double-stranded break generated by Cas9. After optimizing multiple parameters of this method, we were able to generate mutants for six out of six different genes in two different cell-walled strains with mutation efficiencies ranging from 40% to 95%. Furthermore, these high efficiencies allowed simultaneous targeting of two separate genes in a single experiment. TIM is flexible with regard to many parameters and can be carried out using either electroporation or the glass-bead method for delivery of the RNP and donor DNA. TIM achieves a far higher mutation rate than any previously reported for CRISPR-based methods in C. reinhardtii and promises to be effective for many, if not all, non-essential nuclear genes.

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<![CDATA[Low LEF1 expression is a biomarker of early T-cell precursor, an aggressive subtype of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13868 Early T-cell precursor (ETP) is the only subtype of acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. Patients with ETP tend to have worse disease outcomes. ETP is defined by a series of immune markers. The diagnosis of ETP status can be vague due to the limitation of the current measurement. In this study, we performed unsupervised clustering and supervised prediction to investigate whether a molecular biomarker can be used to identify the ETP status in order to stratify risk groups. We found that the ETP status can be predicted by the expression level of Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1) with high accuracy (AUC of ROC = 0.957 and 0.933 in two T-ALL cohorts). The patients with ETP subtype have a lower level of LEF1 comparing to the those without ETP. We suggest that incorporating the biomarker LEF1 with traditional immune-phenotyping will improve the diagnosis of ETP.

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<![CDATA[Early correction of synaptic long-term depression improves abnormal anxiety-like behavior in adult GluN2B-C456Y-mutant mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13831 Mice that carry a heterozygous, autism spectrum disorder-risk C456Y mutation in the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2B show decreased protein levels, hippocampal NMDAR currents, and NMDAR-dependent long-term depression and have abnormal anxiolytic-like behavior. Early, but not late, treatment of the young mice with the NMDAR agonist D-cycloserine rescues these phenotypes.

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<![CDATA[<i>Ehrlichia chaffeensis</i> TRP120-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of tumor suppressor FBW7 increases oncoprotein stability and promotes infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13827 E. chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that replicates in mononuclear phagocytes by secreting effectors that manipulate host cell processes and exploit evolutionarily conserved pathways. This investigation reveals the complex and expanding role of the E. chaffeensis TRP120 moonlighting effector as a ubiquitin (Ub) ligase targeting host nuclear proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that E. chaffeensis TRP120 HECT Ub ligase targets the nuclear tumor suppressor Skp1-cullin-1-FBOX E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase complex substrate recognition subunit, F-BOX and WD domain repeating-containing 7 (FBW7) for degradation. FBW7 is a central regulator of broadly acting host cell oncoproteins involved in cell proliferation and survival. The reduction in FBW7 through TRP120-mediated ubiquitination increases cellular oncoprotein levels and promotes E. chaffeensis infection. This study illuminates novel bacterial effector-host interactions, the importance and interplay of both host and bacterial Ub ligases and the Ub-proteasome system for infection, and mechanisms whereby evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways are hijacked by obligately intracellular pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Patients infected with <i>Mycobacterium africanum</i> versus <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> possess distinct intestinal microbiota]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13847 Mycobacterium africanum (MAF) is a hypovirulent mycobacterium species that is co-endemic with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in West Africa and is selectively responsible for up to half the tuberculosis cases in this region. Why some individuals become infected with MAF versus MTB is unclear but has been suggested to be determined by differential host immune competency. Since the microbiome has now been implicated in numerous studies to generally influence host resistance to disease, we investigated whether differences in the intestinal microbiota might associate with MAF as compared with MTB infection. This report presents the first analysis of the intestinal microbiome of MAF-infected subjects as well as a comparison with the microbiota of co-endemic MTB patients and reveals that the microbiota of individuals with MAF infection display both decreased diversity and distinct differences in microbial taxa when compared to both MTB-infected and healthy controls. Furthermore, our data reveal for the first time in TB patients a correlation between the abundance of certain taxa and host blood transcriptional changes related to immune function. Our study also establishes that antibiotic treatment induces parallel changes in the gut microbiota of MAF- and MTB-infected patients. Although not directly addressed in the present study, the findings presented here raise the possibility that the microbiota or other host physiologic or immune factors closely associated with it may be a factor underlying the differential susceptibility of West Africans to MAF infection. In addition, the data identify certain commensal taxa that could be tested in future studies as specific determinants of this association.

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<![CDATA[Interaction between host genes and <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> lineage can affect tuberculosis severity: Evidence for coevolution?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13824 Susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) is affected by genetic variation in both the human host and the causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, prior studies of the genetics of each species have not explained a large part of TB risk. The possibility exists that risk can be better estimated from patterns of variation in the two species as a unit, such that some combinations provide increased risk, or in the presence of TB, increased disease severity. We hypothesized that alleles in the two species that have co-existed for long periods are more likely to reduce disease severity so as to promote prolonged co-occurrence. We tested this by studying TB severity in two patient cohorts from Uganda for which paired MTB-human DNA were available. We examined severity, as measured by the Bandim TBscore, and assessed whether there was an interaction between MTB lineage and SNPs in the host with this metric. Our results indicate that the most recent TB lineage (L4.6/Uganda) when found together with an ancestral allele in SLC11A1 resulted in more severe disease. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that MTB and human have coevolved to modulate TB severity.

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<![CDATA[Scedar: A scalable Python package for single-cell RNA-seq exploratory data analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13837 In single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) experiments, the number of individual cells has increased exponentially, and the sequencing depth of each cell has decreased significantly. As a result, analyzing scRNA-seq data requires extensive considerations of program efficiency and method selection. In order to reduce the complexity of scRNA-seq data analysis, we present scedar, a scalable Python package for scRNA-seq exploratory data analysis. The package provides a convenient and reliable interface for performing visualization, imputation of gene dropouts, detection of rare transcriptomic profiles, and clustering on large-scale scRNA-seq datasets. The analytical methods are efficient, and they also do not assume that the data follow certain statistical distributions. The package is extensible and modular, which would facilitate the further development of functionalities for future requirements with the open-source development community. The scedar package is distributed under the terms of the MIT license at https://pypi.org/project/scedar.

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<![CDATA[SNP markers for low molecular glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at the <i>Glu-A3</i> and <i>Glu-B3</i> loci in bread wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13817 The content and composition of seed storage proteins is largely responsible for wheat end-use quality. They mainly consist of polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins. According to their electrophoretic mobility, gliadins and glutenins are subdivided into several fractions. Glutenins are classified as high molecular weight or low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs, respectively). LMW-GSs are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci. We designed a set of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are able to detect SDS-PAGE alleles at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. The SNP markers captured the diversity of alleles in 88 international reference lines and 27 Mexican cultivars, when compared to SDS-PAGE and STS markers, however, showed a slightly larger percent of multiple alleles, mainly for Glu-B3. SNP markers were then used to determine the Glu-1 and Glu-3 allele composition in 54 CIMMYT historical lines and demonstrated to be useful tool for breeding programs to improve wheat end product properties.

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<![CDATA[Genetic and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Revealed DEGs Involved in the Purple Leaf Formation in <i>Brassica juncea</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13103 Brassica juncea is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed in China for its edible stalks and leaves. The purple leaf mustard, which is rich in anthocyanins, is eye-catching and delivers valuable nutrition. However, the molecular mechanism involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis has not been well studied in B. juncea. Here, histological and transcriptome analyses were used to characterize the purple leaf color and gene expression profiles. Free-hand section analysis showed that the anthocyanin was mainly accumulated in the adaxial epidermal leaf cells. The anthocyanin content in the purple leaves was significantly higher than that in the green leaves. To investigate the critical genes and pathways involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation, the transcriptome analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple and green leaves from the backcrossed BC3 segregation population in B. juncea. A total of 2,286 different expressed genes were identified between the purple and green leaves. Among them, 1,593 DEGs were up-regulated and 693 DEGs were down-regulated. There were 213 differently expressed transcription factors among them. The MYB and bHLH transcription factors, which may regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, were up-regulated in the purple leaves. Interestingly, most of the genes involved in plant–pathogen interaction pathway were also up-regulated in the purple leaves. The late biosynthetic genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly up-regulated in the purple leaves of B. juncea. The up regulation of BjTT8 and BjMYC2 and anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (BjC4H, BjDFR, and BjANS) may activate the purple leaf formation in B. juncea. This study may help to understand the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in B. juncea.

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<![CDATA[Asian Sand Dust Particles Increased Pneumococcal Biofilm Formation <i>in vitro</i> and Colonization in Human Middle Ear Epithelial Cells and Rat Middle Ear Mucosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13093 Air pollutants such as Asian sand dust (ASD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are risk factors for otitis media (OM). In this study, we evaluate the role of ASD in pneumococcal in vitro biofilm growth and colonization on human middle ear epithelium cells (HMEECs) and rat middle ear using the rat OM model.MethodsS. pneumoniae D39 in vitro biofilm growth in the presence of ASD (50–300 μg/ml) was evaluated in metal ion-free BHI medium using CV-microplate assay, colony-forming unit (cfu) counts, resazurin staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and confocal microscopy (CF). Biofilm gene expression analysis was performed using real-time RT-PCR. The effects of ASD or S. pneumoniae individually or on co-treatment on HMEECs were evaluated by detecting HMEEC viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In vivo colonization of S. pneumoniae in the presence of ASD was evaluated using the rat OM model, and RNA-Seq was used to evaluate the alterations in gene expression in rat middle ear mucosa.ResultsS. pneumoniae biofilm growth was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the presence of ASD. SEM and CF analysis revealed thick and organized pneumococcal biofilms in the presence of ASD (300 μg/ml). However, in the absence of ASD, bacteria were unable to form organized biofilms, the cell size was smaller than normal, and long chain-like structures were formed. Biofilms grown in the presence of ASD showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in biofilm formation (luxS), competence (comA, comB, ciaR), and toxin production (lytA and ply). Prior exposure of HMEECs to ASD, followed by treatment for pneumococci, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis, and ROS production. In vivo experiment results showed significantly (P < 0.05) more than 65% increased bacteria colonization in rat middle ear mucosa in the presence of ASD. The apoptosis, cell death, DNA repair, inflammation and immune response were differentially regulated in three treatments; however, number of genes expressed in co-treatments was higher than single treatment. In co-treatment, antimicrobial protein/peptide-related genes (S100A family, Np4, DEFB family, and RATNP-3B) and OM-related genes (CYLD, SMAD, FBXO11, and CD14) were down regulated, and inflammatory cytokines and interleukins, such as IL1β, and TNF-related gene expression were elevated.ConclusionASD presence increased the generation of pneumococcal biofilms and colonization. ]]>