ResearchPad - genetics-and-development-and-non-steroid-hormone-signaling-i https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SUN-710 Custom Panel to Diagnosis Genetic Endocrine Disorders in a Tertiary Academic Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8748 Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been transforming the endocrine diagnostic methodology allowing the genetic testing to assume an exploratory role rather than only a confirmatory one. This is possible due to lower costs and increased yield of information. A way to further increase efficiency and sensitivity for variant detection is the use of a sequencing custom panel selecting specific genes for screening. In endocrine disorders, the complex and intricate genotype-phenotype relations and occurrence of diverse comorbidities made the diagnosis challenging. Our aim is to analyze the efficiency of a multigenic panel for molecular diagnosis of endocrine disorders in patients assisted in a tertiary academic hospital, as well as to train academic and medical faculties in the use of molecular tools. Genomic DNA from 282 patients was extracted from blood sample using standard procedures. Sanger method was previously used to screen some candidate genes in half of the patients. The custom panel was designed with 651 genes using the SureDesign tool (Agilent technologies), either associated with the phenotype (OMIM) or candidate genes that englobes developmental (DD), metabolic (MD), and adrenal (AD) disorders. Libraries were prepared with SureSelectXT Target Enrichment kit (Agilent Technologies). The enriched DNA libraries were sequenced in NextSeq 500 (Illumina) with High Output V2 kit (2 x 150 bp). The raw data was aligned to hg19 with BWA-MEM, variant calling was performed using FreeBayes and annotated with ANNOVAR. Filtering took into consideration the rarity (≤1%) of variants in population databases and those in exonic or splice site regions. Variants found were then classified according ACMG/AMP criteria. The categories of Pathogenic (P) and Likely Pathogenic (LP) were considered for molecular diagnosis, while variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were only reported. The average result of 3 runs was: 159Kmm2 of cluster density, 76.5 % of Q30 and 76.6 Gb of data were generated. The mean coverage depth of the targeted regions in panel sequencing data was 237x (SD±110x), with at least 96.3% of the sequenced bases being covered more than 20-fold. Out of the 282 patients, we identified 65 LP/P variants (23%), 22 VUS (8%) and 195 remained undiagnosed (69%). Considering the solved cases, 54 (19.1%) have DD, 6 (2.1%) have MD and 5 (1.8%) have AD. Taking into account that half of the patients had already been previously screened, the data enable new findings in known genes. The application of a multigenic panel aids the training of medical faculty in an academic hospital by showing the big picture of the molecular pathways behind each disorder. This may be particularly helpful considering the higher diagnosis of DD cases. A precise genetic etiology provides improvement in understanding the disease, guides decisions about prevention or treatment, and brings comfort to the affected families.

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<![CDATA[SUN-719 The Impact of FOXA3 on Testicular Steroidogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8656 The Forkhead box(Fox) transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved in organisms and regulate diverse biological processes during development as well as adult life. Among the Fox family, FoxA subfamily members Foxa1-3 have been termed `pioneer’ transcription factors as they bind both nucleosome-bound and nucleosome-free DNA targets with the same recognition site. Foxa3 is the only member of FoxA subfamily that is expressed in both male and female gonads. In the testis, Foxa3 is expressed in spermatids and interstitial Leydig cells. We focused our study to elucidate the role of FOXA3 in Leydig cells and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis. Expression of FOXA3 dramatically decreased in mouse Leydig cells during testicular development. In addition, the time-dependent expression of FOXA3 showed an opposite pattern to that of steroidogenic genes in cAMP-induced primary Leydig cells. Meanwhile, Nur77 is among the prime regulators of steroidogenesis in the testicular Leydig cells. Overexpression of FOXA3 in MA-10 cells (mouse Leydig tumor cell line) repressed the cAMP-induced Nur77 promoter activity, which further resulted in the reduced activity of Nur77-target steroidogenic gene promoters (StAR, CYP17A1and 3β-HSD). Similar to above results, the expression of Nur77 and its target genes,StAR, 3β-HSD and CYP11A1, were repressed by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of FOXA3 in mouse primary Leydig cells, although the expression of CYP17A1, another steroidogenic gene, was differentially affected. These results suggest that FOXA3 locally regulates the expression of steroidogenic genes through Nur77 during testicular development.

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<![CDATA[SUN-712 Familial 46, XY Complete Female External Sex Development with a Non-Mosaic Inherited SRY Gene Variation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8569 Context: SRY, an architectural transcription factor containing a SOX-related high-mobility group (HMG) box, initiates testis formation in the mammalian bipotential gonadal ridge. Inherited human SRY mutations can be associated with differences in sexual differentiation (DSD) with variable phenotypes in a family.

Objective: To describe the clinical, histopathological and molecular features of a novel inherited SRY allele (pMet64Val; consensus box position 9) observed within an extensive pedigree: two 46, XY sisters with primary amenorrhea (16 and 14 years of age; probands P1 and P2), their normal father and brother, and an affected paternal XY grandaunt.

Design, Setting, Participants and Outcome Measurements: Following DNA sequencing to identify the SRY mutation, hormonal studies of the probands and histopathological examination of their gonads were performed. Functional consequences of p.Met64Val (and other mutations at this site) were also investigated.

Results: Breast development in P1 and P2was Tanner II and IV, respectively. Müllerian structures and gonads resembling ovaries were found in each sister. Histopathology revealed gonadal dysgenesis, gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. AMH/MIS, P450 SCC, and P450 aromatase were expressed in gonadoblastoma tissues. Variant p.Met64Val impaired Sox9 transcriptional activation associated with attenuated occupancy of the testis-specific enhancersEnh13 and TESCO.

Conclusion: The partial biological activity of p.Met64Val SRY, maintained at the threshold of SRY function, rationalizes opposing paternal and proband phenotypes (the “the father-daughter paradox”).Sex steroids biosynthesis by gonadoblastoma may delay genetic diagnosis and recognition of gonadal tumors. Quantitative assessment of inherited SRY alleles highlights the tenuous transcriptional threshold of developmental decision-making in the bipotential gonadal ridge.

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<![CDATA[SUN-711 Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of CYP11B2, CYP11B1 and CYP17A1 with Primary Aldosteronism in a Multi-Ethnic Malaysian Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6719 Primary aldosteronism (PA), also known as Conn’s syndrome, is a common curable cause of hypertension. Family studies of essential hypertensive patients suggest that heritable genetic factors play a role in blood pressure regulation1. Interestingly, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes encoding enzymes involved with adrenal steroidogenesis, CYP11B2, CYP11B1 and CYP17A1, associate with increased risk of hypertension2. Therefore, we analysed whether selected SNPs in these genes are associated with PA. We performed an association study using genotype imputation for selected SNPs of the steroidogenic enzyme genes CYP11B2 (rs4546, rs1799998, rs13268025), CYP11B1 (rs6410, rs149845727), and CYP17A1 (rs1004467, rs138009835, rs2150927) from a pilot genome wide association study of Malaysian PA patients and healthy controls which was merged with the Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) population dataset3. Genotype imputation for minor and major alleles was validated using PCR sequencing (n>10 for each genotype). Further, one SNP from each steroidogenic enzyme (CYP11B2:rs1799998, CYP11B1:rs6410 and CYP17A1:rs1004467) was validated using commercial TaqMan genotyping assays on the ABI 7000 Sequence Detection System which was performed on 149 PA patients and 78 non-hypertensive healthy individuals. Case-control genetic association analysis was performed at http://www.oege.org/software/orcalc.html and the association between genotypes and phenotypes was done using the independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis test on SPSS (version 25). The Minor Allele Frequencies (MAFs) for rs1004467, rs6410 and rs1799998 were similar to East Asian populations but differed significantly different from European, African, American and South Asian populations (rs1004467 MAF: C=0.258/298, rs6410 MAF: A=0.265/298, rs1799998 MAF: C=0.225/298). In Chinese patients matched by gender, heterozygotes for rs6410 had significantly increased risk of PA compared to common homozygotes (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.01–9.8, p=0.04). Across patients of different ethnicity, the distribution of aldosterone levels was significantly different (p=0.039). In summary, only SNP rs6410 in Chinese patients matched by gender showed association with PA in our South East Asian cohort. More functional experiments need to be done to find out whether this is causal for PA or whether the SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with the actual functional causative SNPs. Once the functional SNP is known, identification of these germline variants in asymptomatic family members would allow early screening of PA to be offered and potentially provide novel drug targets to treat the disease.

References: 1Timberlake et al., Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2001 Jan;10(1):71-9. 2MacKenzie et al., Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Mar 7;18(3). pii: E579. 3Teo et al., Genome Res. 2009 Nov;19(11):2154-62.

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<![CDATA[SUN-723 CDH2 Gene Analysis in a Cohort of Patients with Congenital Hypopituitarism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6687 Introduction: Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones. Pathogenic allelic variants in genes implicated in pituitary development were associated in 15% of the patients with congenital hypopituitarism (CH). To improve the molecular diagnosis we performed whole exome sequencing of ten patients born from consanguineous parents with CH. One patient with GH, TSH, ACTH and LH/FSH deficiencies presented an allelic variant c.865G>A, p.V289I in CDH2 gene (exon 7) in homozygous state that was absent in populational databanks. CDH2 produces an N-cadherin protein implicated in cellular adhesion and is responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition during pituitary development and differentiation. Aim: To analyze the CDH2 gene in a cohort of unrelated patients with CH. Methods: We selected 143 patients with CH from a single Brazilian center. Genomic DNA, extracted by salting out technique, was submitted to PCR amplification of 15 coding regions, except CG rich exon 1, of the CDH2 gene followed by the Sanger sequencing. Rare allelic variant frequency (MAF<1%) was searched in the populational data bank (ExAC, gnomAD, ABraom). Bioinformatic sites (Human Splicing Finder, Polyphen2, Mutation Taster and Mutation assessor) were used to look for deleterious effects. Results: Three allelic variants were found in this cohort. The allelic variant CDH2 (c.865G>A, p.V289I) was found in heterozygous state in a male patient with short stature diagnosed with GH and TSH deficiencies at the age of 11 that evolved with LH/FSH and ACTH deficiencies. Family segregation showed 3 among 11 normal siblings heterozygous carriers. This variant is rare, in heterozygous state, in populational data bank and it was predicted as deleterious or possibly harmful. The allelic variant c.1202C> A (p.A401D), in exon 9, was found in heterozygous state in a female patient with isolated GH deficiency and intellectual disability. The variant was absent in the databases and predicted as deleterious or disease-causing. The variant was absent in the mother and stepsister and the father was not available for testing. The c.1430_1431delCCinsTG allelic variant (p.P477L) was found in heterozygous state in a patient with septo-optic dysplasia, GH, TSH and ACTH deficiencies. It was absent in the databases and was predicted as deleterious or disease causing. The Human Splicing Finder predicted exonic splicing enhancer breakdown leading to the loss of 93 nucleotides. Normal mother is heterozygous carrier suggesting incomplete penetrance. Conclusion: Heterozygous variants in CDH2 were found in 2% of a cohort of Brazilian patients with congenital hypopituitarism and none in homozygous or compound heterozygous state. Further CDH2 analyses in unrelated patients from different ethnic backgrounds are needed to establish the role CDH2 variants in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism.

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<![CDATA[SUN-722 Liver Leptin Receptor Gene Network Moderates the Effects of Early Life Adversity on Anxiety and Depression Problems in Children and Adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6301 Leptin is a hormone involved in the regulation of food intake, with receptors largely expressed centrally and peripherally, in structures like the hypothalamus and the liver. Beyond its well-known actions as an energy-balance regulator, leptin is linked to psychiatric disorders. Considering that the association between genetic and early environmental factors contributes to psychopathology, disruptions of leptin signaling could be a key mechanism in this interaction. To investigate this possibility, we created an expression-based polygenic risk score (ePRS) reflecting variations in the function of the LepR gene network in the liver and hypothalamus, and investigated its interaction with postnatal adversity on Child Behavior Checklist in 4 years old children (main cohort: MAVAN, N=137) and 17 years old teenagers (Replication Cohort: ALSPAC, N=2630). There is an interaction effect between adversity exposure and liver-based LepR-ePRS, increasing depressive and anxiety problems on the MAVAN cohort (β=78.16, p=0.02, β=83.77, p=0.01). In ALSPAC, the results were replicated, showing an interaction between adversity exposure and liver-based LepR-ePRS, increasing the depression score and somatic symptoms (β=24.65, p=0.005; β=33.51, p=0.009). No significant interactions were found using the hypothalamus-based LepR-ePRS (p>0.05), suggesting specificity for the liver LepR gene network to predict these behavioral outcomes. A parallel-independent component analysis showed relationships between the SNPs from the liver ePRS-LepR and gray matter density in cortical areas involved in emotion regulation (middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and anterior cingulate). Finally, the relationship between gene and MRI components in this analysis is moderated by the history of early life adversity exposure. Enrichment analysis of the liver LepR co-expression network shows that these genes are related to biological processes including regulation of glucose transport, cholesterol metabolism and cellular glucose homeostasis, which indicates possible underlying mechanisms linking peripheral metabolism-related gene expression and the development of emotional symptoms. Our data supports the hypothesis that exposure to early adversity affects emotional behavior, and the liver LepR gene network is an important moderator of these effects. Further studies on development of emotional symptoms should consider metabolic markers to understand these complex phenotypes.

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<![CDATA[SUN-715 IIM May Influence Matured Oocytes’ DNA Methylation of PCOS Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6014 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age and is the main cause of anovulatory infertility. To increase the number of oocytes obtained, controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) has become a routine choice for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), which is one of the common assisted reproductive technologies for PCOS patients. However, for these patients, there is a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Obtaining in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes, and then in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer of mature oocytes provides a possible way for people to solve the above problems. Since the IVM technology will expose oocytes to in vitro conditions for a longer period of time, theoretically increasing the risk of the oocytes being affected by the culture environment, further research and explorations are needed for study in gene programming, epigenetics, etc. Therefore, to explore the impact of IVM operation on embryonic development is of great significance for further clarifying assisted reproductive safety and improving IVM operation conditions. Here we focused on DNA methylation reprogramming process which was essential for embryonic development. We tested the DNA methylation of sperm, IVM oocytes and IVM generated early stage embryos including pronucleus, 4cell, 8cell, morula, inner cell mass, trophoectoderm (TE) as well as six-week embryos by Nimble Gen Human DNA Methylation 3x729K CpG Island Plus RefSeq Promoter Array and compared the data with our published genome-wide DNA methylomes of human gametes and early embryos generated from in vivo maturation oocytes. We showed that IVM embryos show abnormal DNA methylation reprogramming pattern. By analyzing the abnormally reprogrammed promoters, we further found that IVM may affect the functions of demethylation related genes. Oocytes from IVM manipulation were tested with higher DNA methylation levels, and their abnormal methylated promoters mainly enriched in immune and metabolism pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the DNA methylation of TE, which was directly related with implantation process and revealed the abnormal methylated promoters were related with metabolism pathway too. Our data support that IVM may influence the DNA methylome of oocytes, which in turn affects the methylome of their embryos. However, due to the limited number of samples and the inability of the chip to cover all CpG sites, the results of this study require further research and validation.

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<![CDATA[SUN-724 Associations of GPR174 and ITM2A Genes on X Chromosome with Early Onset Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Korean]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_5928 Background: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) are female predominant and the biology of sexual dimorphism is not clearly understood. Recently, GPR174 and ITM2A on X chromosome have been newly suggested as autoimmune thyroid disease susceptible loci.

Methods: Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune related genes on X chromosome were analyzed in 108 Korean children (girls =90, boys =18) with AITD [Hashimoto disease (HD) = 40, Graves′ disease (GD) = 68, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) = 37, and non-TAO =60] with gender ratio matched normal control 106 controls (female = 43, male = 63).

Results: In AITD, the frequencies of GPR174 rs3810711 T allele (OR=6.0, cP =0.000), GRP174 rs3827440 T allele (OR=6.0, cP =0.000), ITM2A-GPR174 rs5912838 A allele (OR=2.7, cP =0.001) were increased and of GPR174 rs3810711 CC genotype (OR=0.2, cP =0.000), GRP174 rs3827440 CC genotype (OR=0.2, cP =0.000), ITM2A-GPR174 rs5912838 CC genotype (OR=0.4, cP =0.000)were lower than controls. In GD, the frequencies of GPR174 rs3810711 T allele (OR=8.4, cP =0.000), GRP174 rs3827440 T allele (OR=8.4, cP =0.000), ITM2A-GPR174 rs5912838 A allele (OR=3.3, cP =0.000) were increased and GPR174 rs3810711 CC genotype (OR=0.1, cP =0.000), C allele (OR=0.5, cP =0.044), GRP174 rs3827440 CC genotype (OR=0.2, cP =0.000), C allele (OR=0.5, cP =0.044), ITM2A-GPR174 rs5912838 CC genotype (OR=0.4, cP =0.000) were lower than controls. In HD, the frequencies of GPR174 rs3810711 T allele (OR=3.9, cP =0.003), GRP174 rs3827440 T allele(OR=3.9, cP =0.003) were increased and GPR174 rs3810711 CC genotype (OR=0.3, cP =0.004), rs3827440 CC genotype (OR=3.9, cP =0.003) were lower than controls. In thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, the frequencies of GPR174 rs3810711 T allele (OR=7.9, cP =0.000), GRP174 rs3827440 T allele (OR=7.9, cP =0.000), ITM2A-GPR174 rs5912838 A allele (OR=3.1, cP =0.001) were increased and of GPR174 rs3810711 CC genotype (OR=0.1, cP =0.000), GRP174 rs3827440 CC genotype (OR=0.1, cP =0.000), ITM2A-GPR174 rs5912838 CC genotype (OR=0.3, cP =0.014)were lower than controls.

Conclusions. Our results suggest that polymorphisms of GPR174 and ITM2A genes on X chromosome might contribute to the pathogenesis of AITD.

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<![CDATA[SUN-709 MiR-200c Expression Profiles in Plasma of 46,XY DSD Patients of Unknown Etiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd7fb554b-6e1f-46bd-884b-eff6d7b40db2 Introduction: Despite the use of robust techniques for diagnosis, such as arrays and large-scale sequencing of patients with differences of sex development (DSD), the etiology of a great number of DSD patients remains unclear. Investigation of alternative signaling pathways and epigenetic factors is scarce in 46,XY DSD patients. The ZEB proteins have been related to the occurrence of hypospadias in humans, a feature often observed in the atypical genitalia of patients with 46,XY DSD. Additionally, miR-200c has been reported to regulate ZEB. Objective: To evaluate the expression of miR-200c in plasma samples of 46,XY DSD patients with unknown etiology. Methods: Plasma miR-200c of six adult 46,XY DSD patients with unknown etiology (age 18-33, mean 19±8) and 15 adult male controls (age 18-55, mean 29±10 yo) were analyzed. External Masculinization Score (EMS) was used to describe the undervirilization degree of patients’ external genitalia and to classify them in two groups with low EMS (LEMS: 0-4.9 points) and high EMS (HEMS: 5-10 points). All patients presented atypical genitalia with hypospadias. miR-200c was selected based on its targeting to ZEB1 and in silico analysis; miR-23a was used as internal normalization control. RNA was extracted from plasma samples with Magmax Mirvana Total RNA isolation kit. cDNA was synthesized using TaqMan Advanced miRNA cDNA Synthesis Kit and qPCR was performed using TaqMan Advanced miRNA. The data analysis of qPCR results of patients, of each individualized patient and also the EMS groups were compared with the control group by statistical test. Results: LEMS group presented lower expression values of miR-200c when compared to HEMS group (P=0.0001) and control group (p=0.0009), but no difference was observed when comparing HEMS group and controls, the two patients with lower miR-200c expression presented the lowest EMS (EMS- 3 and 3.5). Altogether, patients presented lower values of miR-200c, although not significantly (p=0.09). Discussion: These findings corroborate with previous literature data correlating miR200-c, ZEB1 and hypospadias. The regulatory loop of miR-200c/Zeb1 was previously demonstrated in rats with hypospadias, confirming that low expression of miR-200c induce a higher Zeb1 expression. The ZEB1 upregulation in penile tissue is positively correlated with the severity of hypospadias in animal models and humans. In the present study, 46,XY DSD patients with severe genital undervirilization had lower miR-200c expression in plasma. Conclusion: Plasma miRNA expression patterns may be a new strategy research in 46,XY DSD, contributing for understanding the processes involved in the external genitalia development.

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<![CDATA[SUN-LB130 Identification of IGSF1 Ligands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nad9a27b6-8220-4848-9c9f-3628fc5cf0be <![CDATA[SUN-713 Prevalence of Renal Cysts in Patients with Carney Complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34e3fa55-40c4-4034-a103-685c23f9ccd0 50 y and in men. Among published studies, the prevalence of renal cysts detected by MRI was 27%, detected by CT was 20-41%, and detected by US was 4-17% (Mensel, et al., 2018; Choi, et al., 2016). In these studies, the male to female ratio in patients with renal cysts ranged from 1.4:1 to 2.93:1. Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant multiple endocrine neoplasia and lentiginosis syndrome predominantly caused by aberrant cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling mostly (but not always) due to germline inactivating defects in PRKAR1A which encodes the regulatory subunit type 1α of PKA. In a small retrospective study, 5 of 9 subjects with CNC had renal cysts on MRI or CT (Ye, et al., 2017). This same study evaluated the development of renal cysts in kidney-specific Prkar1a knockout mice, where all mice developed a renal cystic phenotype. To determine the prevalence of renal cysts, we performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with CNC evaluated at our institution between 1984 and 2019 who underwent renal imaging with MRI, CT, and/or US. We hypothesized that CNC leads to renal formation of cysts in humans, with increased number of renal cysts and earlier age at detection. 117 patients with CNC (69 female [59%], 48 male [41%]) were evaluated with renal imaging (56% MRI, 41% CT, 3% US). Of these, 39 (33%) patients had renal cysts that were first detected on imaging between the ages of 13 and 58 y (mean age at diagnosis 37.1 ±12.7 y; 5 [13%] 12-19 y, 5 [13%] 20-29 y, 10 [26%] 30-39 y, 11 [28%] 40-49 y, and 8 [21%] 50-59 y). The mean number of cysts was 1.3 ±0.7, and mean dominant cyst size was 1.2 ±0.9 cm. Average creatinine at diagnosis was 0.8 ±0.2 mg/dl. Of the patients with renal cysts, 22 were female (56% of patients with renal cysts, 32% of females with CNC that underwent renal imaging) and 17 were male (44% of patients with renal cysts, 35% of males with CNC that underwent renal imaging). There was no difference in the prevalence of renal cysts between males and females (35% vs 32%, p=.70, for a 1.1:1 ratio). Age, number, and dominant cyst size were also not different between sexes (p=.51, p=.84, and p=.26, respectively). However, creatinine levels were higher in males (0.9 ±0.1 vs 0.7 ±0.1, p<.001). All 39 patients with renal cysts had defects in PRKAR1A as compared to 73 of 78 (94%) patients with CNC that did not have renal cysts on imaging (p=.17). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of renal cysts in patients with CNC with both males and females being affected equally, in contrast to the majority of previously reported population studies. They also suggest that renal cysts may develop in patients with CNC at a younger age. These results can be further validated by comparison to a cohort of healthy controls. ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-709 MiR-200c Expression Profiles in Plasma of 46,XY DSD Patients of Unknown Etiology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na0bd7de9-d5ac-4c75-b533-65fd2b41bd55

Abstract

Introduction: Despite the use of robust techniques for diagnosis, such as arrays and large-scale sequencing of patients with differences of sex development (DSD), the etiology of a great number of DSD patients remains unclear. Investigation of alternative signaling pathways and epigenetic factors is scarce in 46,XY DSD patients. The ZEB proteins have been related to the occurrence of hypospadias in humans, a feature often observed in the atypical genitalia of patients with 46,XY DSD. Additionally, miR-200c has been reported to regulate ZEB. Objective: To evaluate the expression of miR-200c in plasma samples of 46,XY DSD patients with unknown etiology. Methods: Plasma miR-200c of six adult 46,XY DSD patients with unknown etiology (age 18-33, mean 19±8) and 15 adult male controls (age 18-55, mean 29±10 yo) were analyzed. External Masculinization Score (EMS) was used to describe the undervirilization degree of patients’ external genitalia and to classify them in two groups with low EMS (LEMS: 0-4.9 points) and high EMS (HEMS: 5-10 points). All patients presented atypical genitalia with hypospadias. miR-200c was selected based on its targeting to ZEB1 and in silico analysis; miR-23a was used as internal normalization control. RNA was extracted from plasma samples with Magmax Mirvana Total RNA isolation kit. cDNA was synthesized using TaqMan Advanced miRNA cDNA Synthesis Kit and qPCR was performed using TaqMan Advanced miRNA. The data analysis of qPCR results of patients, of each individualized patient and also the EMS groups were compared with the control group by statistical test. Results: LEMS group presented lower expression values of miR-200c when compared to HEMS group (P=0.0001) and control group (p=0.0009), but no difference was observed when comparing HEMS group and controls, the two patients with lower miR-200c expression presented the lowest EMS (EMS- 3 and 3.5). Altogether, patients presented lower values of miR-200c, although not significantly (p=0.09). Discussion: These findings corroborate with previous literature data correlating miR200-c, ZEB1 and hypospadias. The regulatory loop of miR-200c/Zeb1 was previously demonstrated in rats with hypospadias, confirming that low expression of miR-200c induce a higher Zeb1 expression. The ZEB1 upregulation in penile tissue is positively correlated with the severity of hypospadias in animal models and humans. In the present study, 46,XY DSD patients with severe genital undervirilization had lower miR-200c expression in plasma. Conclusion: Plasma miRNA expression patterns may be a new strategy research in 46,XY DSD, contributing for understanding the processes involved in the external genitalia development.

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<![CDATA[SUN-725 Clinical and Genetic Features of Families with Maternally Inherited Central Precocious Puberty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5109a888-ac61-479f-ba20-91409827b9bb

Abstract

: The clinical recognition of familial central precocious puberty (CPP) has significantly increased in the last years. This fact can be related to the recent descriptions of genetic causes associated with this pediatric condition, such as loss-of-function mutations of two imprinted genes (

and

). Inherited defects in both genes cause paternally inherited CPP. However, no genetic abnormality has been described in families with maternally inherited CPP so far.

: To characterize the clinical and genetic features of several families with maternally inherited CPP.

: We analyzed clinical and genetic features of children with familial CPP. No brain MRI alterations were detected in the selected patients with CPP.

and

pathogenic mutations were excluded. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in selected cases.

: We studied 177 children from 141 families with familial CPP. Paternal inheritance was evidenced in 44 families (31%), whereas 58 (41%) had maternally inheritance. Indeterminate inheritance was detected in the remaining families. Maternally inherited CPP affected mainly female patients (69 girls and two boys). Thelarche occurred at mean age of 6.1 ± 1.9 years in this female group. Most of girls had Tanner 3 (41%) and Tanner 4 (35%) breast development at first evaluation. One boy had additional syndromic features (macrosomia, autism, bilateral eyelid ptosis, high arcade palate, irregular teeth and abnormal gait). The pedigree analysis of patients with maternally inherited CPP revealed the following affected family members: 42 mothers, 10 grandmothers, 11 sisters, 12 aunts, and 11 female cousins. Most of the families (41) had two affected consecutive generations, while eight families had three affected generations. No consanguinity was referred. Ongoing molecular analysis revealed two rare heterozygous variants in the boy with syndromic CPP and three affected family members with precocious menarche (mother, maternally half-sister, and maternally aunt): a frameshift deletion (p.F144fs) in

; and a missense variant (p.P267L) in

, which encodes a protein involved in estrogen hydroxylation and it was related to menarche timing in genome-wide association studies.

: Maternally inherited CPP was diagnosed mainly in girls, who had thelarche at mean age of 6 years old. Dominant pattern of inheritance was more prevalent, with direct maternal transmission in 72% of the studied families. New candidate genes might be implicated with maternally inherited CPP.

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<![CDATA[SUN-LB129 Thyroglobulin Stimulates the Secretion of Thyroxine From Thyroid Epithelial Cells in Suspension Culture via Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N50e645ba-385d-4995-a1f4-acd6a954bd84 <![CDATA[SUN-717 SG-2 a Novel Multi-Target Directed Ligand (MTDL) for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases (NDDS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neaa08e0e-7868-4726-a5fb-6dffaed6ef7f <![CDATA[SUN-721 Implementation of Whole Exome Sequencing for Clinical Diagnostics: A Prospective Busan Kyung-Sang Regional Co-Work Team Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N13f2c5ce-f096-4d19-aa15-6c7ab7c09095 <![CDATA[SUN-LB133 Analysis of Clinical Characteristics and Gene Mutation in Four Cases of Gitelman Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N638b9b37-e5e7-49a7-b31d-8efbacc046d3 <![CDATA[SUN-LB131 Association of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Product (RAGE) Gene Polymorphisms & Serum Levels of Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) With Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in Mexican Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7e9bbefe-ecad-48bb-a6b5-ed91417e8480 Abstract Background. RAGE, a multi-ligand type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, transduces biological signals associated with chronic cellular stress related with inflammatory responses, tissue damage, chronic and degenerative diseases (1). sRAGE is a variant of RAGE derived from cell surface cleavage mechanisms that could potentially act as endogenous inhibitors of RAGE activity (2). RAGE gene is highly polymorphic, with polymorphisms that could be responsible for disease development, like -374T/A (rs1800624) and -429T/C (rs1800625) polymorphisms. These are located in the promoter region and have marked effect on transcriptional activity. However, there have been conflicting findings between the potential association of RAGE polymorphisms and the development of diseases. In this work, we evaluated -374T/A (rs1800624) and -429T/C (rs1800625) polymorphisms and measured serum sRAGE levels in Mexican population with MS. Methods. A group of healthy men without any component of the MS (n=80), and a group of men with the MS (n=80) according to the harmonized criteria for the MS were included in this study. Blood genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped by RT-PCR for the -374T/A and -429T/C polymorphisms of RAGE gene. sRAGE in serum was measured with an ELISA kit. Results. The studied population complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.58 for -374T/A, and p=0.79 for -429T/C). Differences were observed in all the components of the MS between the two groups (MS vs. healthy subjects, p<0.000). However, there were no differences in the population according to their genotype for the -374T/A (p=0.57) and -429T/C (p=0.59) polymorphisms. There was no difference in glucose (p=0.22), triglycerides (p=0.99), and cHDL (p=0.88) levels, or waist circumference (p=0.84) according to the genotype for the -374T/A polymorphism. The same was observed for the -429T/C polymorphism (glucose p=0.57, triglycerides p=0.69, cHDL p=0.77, waist circumference p=0.99). No association of MS with the -374T/A nor 429T/C polymorphism was found. There were no differences between groups in circulating sRAGE levels (p=0.132). Conclusion. According to our results, the -374T/A and -429T/C polymorphisms of RAGE gene are not associated with the MS in Mexican population, and have no influence on serum sRAGE levels. Some other factors could be playing a role for the high prevalence of the MS, such as eating habits. Gender should be taken into consideration, for our study was performed in men exclusively. References. (1) Serveaux-Dancer M et al., Dis Markers. 2019 Feb 4;2019:2067353. (2) Schmidt AM. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;72:1-8. ]]> <![CDATA[SUN-714 Phenotype of Patients Carrying the c.709(-7-2)del PRKAR1A Mutation in a Large Cohort of 41 Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8f2fb4de-78b5-4778-88f2-6d47a49293c2 <![CDATA[SUN-LB132 Frequency and Impact of Mutations in Tumor Suppressor Gene CDC73 in General Population and Malignant Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndce4b623-bff9-4e49-b2d7-3152c4808807