ResearchPad - genetics-and-development-and-non-steroid-hormone-signaling-ii https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[MON-721 Crude Protein of Pyropia Yezoensis Protects Against Tumor Necrosis Factor-á-Induced Myotube Atrophy by Regulating the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Nuclear Factor-Kappab Signaling Pathways in C2C12 Myotubes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8812 Proinflammatory cytokines induce ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis by activating intracellular factors in skeletal muscle, leading to muscle atrophy. Therefore, we investigated the protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis crude protein (PYCP) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced muscle atrophy in vitro. Mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myotubes were treated for 48 h with TNF-α (20 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of PYCP (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL). PYCP at concentrations up to 100 μg/mL did not affect cell viability. Exposure to TNF-α for 48 h significantly decreased the diameter of myotubes, which was increased by treatment with 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL PYCP. PYCP inhibited TNF-α-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation in C2C12 myotubes. In addition, PYCP significantly reduced the levels of phosphorylated p38 and JNK. Moreover, by inhibiting the degradation of inhibitor of kappaB-α, PYCP significantly suppressed the TNF-α-induced increased transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). Furthermore, PYCP inhibited E3-ubiquitin ligases in TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotubes. In conclusion, PYCP ameliorated TNF-α-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated NF-κB pathway, indicating that it has therapeutic potential for related disorders.

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<![CDATA[MON-711 Induction of Apolipoprotein A1 Gene Expression by the Rare Sugar Allulose]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8671 Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is the primary protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and has many well documented properties which promote cardiovascular health. However, clinical trials designed to increase HDL levels by preventing its catabolism have failed in their primary endpoints in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Alternative strategies to increase de-novo apo A-I production may be more attractive. We recently demonstrated that the rare sugar allulose decreases oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both endothelial cells and hepatocytes. During these studies we demonstrated that allulose also induces apo A-I secretion by HepG2 cells. Apo A-I, albumin, and SP1 levels were measured by Western blot. Apo A-I and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effect of allulose on apo A-I promoter activity was measured using transient transfection assays with several plasmids containing various segments and mutations in the apo A-I gene promoter. Apo A-I protein and mRNA levels in cells treated with allulose increased more than two-fold in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were due to the ability of allulose to induce apo A-I gene promoter activity. Using a series of deletion constructs, an allulose-response element was identified in the apo A-I gene promoter which was previously shown to confer induction of apo A-I gene expression by insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF), the insulin response core element (IRCE). Mutation of the IRCE decreased the ability of allulose and insulin to induce apo A-I promoter activity. Allulose treatment also increased expression of the transcription factor SP1, which had been shown previously be essential for the effects of insulin and EGF on apo A-I promoter activity. In conclusion, allulose increased apo A-I gene expression in HepG2 hepatocytes. This effect was mediated by the IRCE in the apo A-I gene promoter and the transcription factor SP1. The rare sugar allulose may have novel anti-atherogenic properties, in part, by increasing HDL levels.

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<![CDATA[MON-708 Characterizing DNA Methylation Signatures in Adipose Tissue from Metabolic Impaired Asymptomatic Individuals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8669 Obesity remains as a global epidemic characterized by progressive metabolic dysregulation in glucose homeostasis. Along with a genetic association in the development of T2D, epigenetic regulation has been suggested as a significant contributor in altered gene expression. Recent studies have described DNA methylation changes in insulin-sensitive tissues involved in T2D pathogenesis, however epigenetic dynamics on early stages to metabolic alterations is still unclear.

We investigated potential DNA methylation signatures in 34 asymptomatic individuals from the GEMM family study. We compared differentially methylated CpG sites (DMC: B value>0 and delta Beta >|10%|; Infinium EPIC array) from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) in different groups of individuals according to BMI (kg/m2) and HbA1c (%) levels as follow: Group A Control (C): n=9, 22.0±1.9 kg/m2, 4.8±0.3%; Group B Overweight (OW) with normal HbA1c: n=6, 27.8±1.6 kg/m2, 5±0.2%; Group C Obese (OB) with normal HbA1c: n=6, 34.6±4.2 kg/m2, 5.2±0.2%; Group D Prediabetes (PD): n=7, 31.1±5.7 kg/m2, 5.9±0.2% and Group E T2D: n=6, 30.6±7.3 kg/m2, 7.2±0.9%.

We found 43 overlapping genes with shared pathways in all groups, mainly those related to metabolism and adipogenesis. We also documented particular altered methylated genes, in each group (OW: 386, OB:1005, PD:76 and T2D:189). Pathway enrichment analysis in OB and T2D was mainly related to glucose metabolism, while in OW and PD was NOTCH signaling. All groups displayed a consistent hypermethylation in RARA, ESR1 and NCOR2, well known genes involved in lipid metabolism. Additionally, we describe for the first time, a progression toward hypomethylation in ARHGAP15 and MTAP, related with an impaired metabolic status. Otherwise, analysis of overlapping CpG sites revealed a consistently hypermethylated state in OW (86.42%), OB (86.48%) and PD (51.72%), in contrast with the hypomethylation state (56.3%) observed in the T2D group, previously observed elsewhere (1).

In conclusion, comparison of methylation in SCAT obtained from OW, OB, PD and T2D individuals, display potential pathways and DMC signatures specific in each group. Common novel overlapping genes in global DNA methylation profiles of SCAT, were also observed.

Reference: (1) Barajas-Olmos et al., BMC Med Genet. 2018 Feb 21;19(1):1-8.

Nothing to Disclose: FE, FB, AM, EH, GEMM, ER, RB, LO.

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<![CDATA[MON-725 Transcriptome Profiling in Postnatal Pituitary Gland Identifies Cell Type-Driven Sex-Specific Changes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8581 The pituitary gland is integral to the regulation of growth, metabolism, puberty, reproduction, and stress responses. Previously, we found that many genes associated with age-at-menarche in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) displayed increasingly sex-biased expression across the pubertal transition in the mouse pituitary. However, whether this trend exists beyond puberty-related genes was not known. In addition, the regulatory mechanisms underlying these gene expression changes remained to be explored. To answer these questions, we profiled the transcriptome, including microRNAs, of mouse pituitary in both sexes across pubertal transition in an unbiased manner and leveraged a recently published pituitary single cell transcriptome to explore cellular composition changes. We found that the most dynamic temporal changes in both mRNA and miRNA expression occur prior to puberty, underscoring a role for regulation of early pituitary postnatal development. We also observed ~900 genes displaying sex-biased expression patterns, arising during early development and becoming increasingly biased across puberty, including known sex-biased genes such as Fshb and Lhb. However, sex differences in miRNA expression are less pronounced, only 13 miRNAs were found to be sex-biased, suggesting lesser contribution of miRNAs to sex-biased gene expression relative to other forms of regulation. To assess whether pituitary cellular composition could underlie changes in gene expression across pubertal transition, we performed single cell deconvolution of our bulk pituitary gland gene expression. Interestingly, we found that sex differences in cell proportions were estimated to emerge across puberty: a greater proportion of lactotropes was found among females, and greater proportions of gonadotropes and somatotropes were found among males. We observed sex-biased expression patterns of marker genes for these cell types, including Prl, Fshb, and Gh. This finding suggests that cell proportion differences between sexes likely contribute to whole pituitary transcriptome changes we observed, however, to what extent remains to be studied. Together our study indicates that miRNAs play a substantial role in regulation of pituitary postnatal development but that differences in cellular composition may contribute more robustly to sex-biased gene expression.

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<![CDATA[MON-722 Cross-Species Glucocorticoid-Sensitive Posterior Dentate Gyrus Gene Network: Developing a Polygenic Score Associated to Susceptibility to Depression After Early Life Adversity Exposure in Humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6954 Exposure to stress during the life-course has consistently been associated with neuropsychological disorders, but the precise role of stress released glucocorticoids remains unclear in this context. We aimed at using hippocampal gene expression data from macaques to identify clusters of genes sensible to glucocorticoid exposure and create a biologically relevant polygenic score to investigate emotional disorders in a child and adult humans exposed to early adversity. RNA-sequencing data from the posterior dentate gyrus (pDG) of adult Macaca fascicularis females treated with Betamethasone (glucocorticoid) or saline injections for 8 consecutive days were analyzed from two cohorts: Singapore (reference) and Vietnam (replication) with N=12/each. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify clusters (modules) of co-expressed genes associated with betamethasone. In Singaporean animals, genes were clustered in 52 modules, in which 5 were associated with betamethasone. Two modules were preserved in a replication dataset (Vietnam) and in data from female rats treated with corticosterone for 6 weeks, being the black module (557 genes, P=0.01, r=0.7) the one having the highest correlation with glucocorticoid exposure. Gene ontology analysis (FDR<0.05, Metacore®) revealed that this module is associated with transcription processes. The SNPs derived from genes within the module were used to calculate an expression-based polygenic risk score (ePRS) in the human samples, weighing each SNP by the slope of the association between genotype and gene expression (GTex). Linear regression analysis showed a significant interaction between ePRS and early adversity on the Dominique - major depressive disorder domain (β=1304; P=0.003; N=65) in girls aged 6 years (MAVAN), in which a higher ePRS was associated with more symptoms as the adversity scores increases (simple slope analysis,P=0.004). A comparable interaction between the ePRS and postnatal adversity was also observed in adult women (UK Biobank), in which there was an increased risk for early depression onset (β= -424.3, P=0.04; N=13899). In the adult cohort, whole brain gray matter volume was also associated with differences in the expression of the genes that composed the ePRS-black network (main ePRS effect, β=1865776, P=0.03, N=10902). Glucocorticoid exposure affects a specific group of genes in pDG of adult female macaques and rats, influencing transcriptional processes. Variations in the expression of this gene network sensible to glucocorticoids were associated with susceptibility for the development of depression in girls and adult women exposed to early life adversity. These show the importance of glucocorticoids on the development of depressive symptoms. The gene network affected by glucocorticoids can guide future pharmacological or mechanistic studies in other samples or species.

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<![CDATA[MON-709 Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing Deciphers POMC Neuron Destiny]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6880 The hypothalamus is one of the critical brain nodes regulating body weight and energy homeostasis. Within this node, Pomc neurons sense nutrient and hormonal signals to release melanocortin peptides that induce satiety, whereas AgRP/NPY neurons exert opposite effects by releasing AGRP that promotes feeding. Immature neurons in the hypothalamic ventricular zone start to express Pomc at E10.5, reach a maximum number at E14.5 and then decrease to stabilize at E18.5. However, it remains elusive how Pomc expressing precursors adopt their final cell fates. Therefore, the goal of this study was to decipher the temporal sequence of transcription factor (TF) expression leading to the terminal differentiation of POMC neurons. Red fluorescent cells collected from dissociated hypothalami of Pomc-tDimer-dsRed mice at six critical developmental time points - E11.5, E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P5 and P12- were FACS sorted for the 10X genomics scRNA-seq pipeline. Unsupervised cell clustering identified 11 distinct clusters based on their transcriptional profiles. Eight of the clusters were highly-enriched for neuronal signature genes and were further characterized based on their transcript levels for Pomc (high, medium or low) and other distinct feature genes. Cells in the Pomchigh cluster expressed genes identified previously to modulate Pomc expression, including Isl1, Nkx2-1, and Tbx3, together with several novel candidate TFs. Unexpectedly, Nr5a1, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus marker gene encoding SF1, was highly expressed in the Pomchigh cluster at early stages. One of the Pomclow clusters highly expressed Otp, Agrp, Npy, Sst and Calcr while a second was highly enriched with Tac2, Kiss1, Pdyn, Prlr, Ar and Esr1 transcripts. All the clusters showed direct correlations of embryonic stage with the expression of progressively more mature markers of differentiation, thereby extending previous reports of these clusters based on single time points. Moreover, our results uncovered five novel Pomc neuron clusters with unique patterns of TF gene expression. For comparison of these data to the adult hypothalamus, we performed a TRAP-Seq study using PomcCreERT,Rosa26eGFP-L10a mice. Prdm12 and Tbx3 were among the most highly differentially expressed TFs in the POMC neuron affinity purified translatome. Similarly, Cited1, Npy2r, and Asb4 were highly expressed in both the Pomchigh cluster and the TRAP-Seq derived POMC translatome. This comprehensive molecular characterization of POMC cells during development sheds new light on the molecular diversification of early POMC neuron precursors and provides a valuable resource for elucidating the regulatory mechanisms defining POMC neuron subgroups in the hypothalamus.

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<![CDATA[MON-712 Restoration of Growth and Fertility in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Model with PROP1 Knockout Generated by CRISPR/Cas9 Genomic Editing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6801 Introduction: Hypopituitarism is defined as the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones and can occur due to pathogenic allelic variants in transcription factors involved in pituitary development. PROP1 gene is responsible for progenitor cell migration from the marginal zone to the anterior lobe, and its terminal differentiation into corticotropes and gonadotropes cell lines besides somatotropes, lactotropes and thyrotropes due to POU1F1 (also known as PIT1) activation. In humans, mutations in the PROP1 gene are the most common cause of congenital hypopituitarism with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and progressive ACTH deficiencies. A dwarf phenotype with short stature, pituitary hormone deficiency, and infertility has been described in humans and Ames mice lineage harboring mutations in the PROP1/Prop1 gene. Another valuable animal model used in basic research is the zebrafish (Danio rerio) due to a high homology in neuroendocrine functioning. To test the potential of this model, in our previous study, a 32bp insertion carrying a stop codon was directed into the second exon of prop1 with CRISPR/Cas9, establishing a homozygous mutant strain (prop1mut). Objective: To characterize the phenotype and expression patterns of transcription factors and hormones in the zebrafish prop1mut lineage. Methods: prop1, pit1, and gh1 mRNA levels were analyzed during embryonic development at 24 and 72 hours post-fertilization (hpf). RNA from 30 pooled embryos was extracted using DirectZol RNA Miniprep. cDNA was synthesized from 1ug of total RNA using High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit and qPCR was performed using SYBR Green PCR Master Mix. Gene expression was normalized to ef1a and the prop1mut group was compared with the control wild type group (WT). Animals were kept in the tanks at a density of 15 animals/liter and images were acquired at 13 and 20 days post fertilization (dpf) after brief anesthetization using a stereomicroscope and measured in ImageJ software to determine the larval standard length from nose to the end of the spinal cord. Results: At 24 and 72hpf, prop1mut embryos expressed the altered prop1 mRNA at similar levels to the prop1 expression observed in WT. Lower pit1 expression in prop1mut embryos was observed at both periods (p<0.01). Albeit in low levels, similar gh1 expression was observed in both lineages at 24hpf, and prop1mut embryos presented lower gh1 expression at 72hpf (p<0.001). prop1mut larvae presented a significant decrease in size at 13dpf (p<0.001) but not at 20dpf. Conclusion: In this study, the prop1mut zebrafish model exhibited a dwarf phenotype during larval development associated with diminished pit1 and gh1 expression during the embryonic stage. Additionally, in the juvenile stage, the development rate in prop1mut animals was restored, presenting similar standard lengths observed in WT animals.

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<![CDATA[MON-713 Nuclear Corepressor; SMRT Acts as an Important Regulator for Both Beta-Oxidation and the Maturation of Myogenesis in Mouse C2C12 Cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6458 Background: Silencing Mediator of Retinoid and Thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT; NCoR2) is a transcriptional corepressor which has been recognized as an important player in the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis and the somatic development in mouse embryo. SMRT protein is also widely expressed in the mouse connective tissues, for example adipocyte and skeletal muscle, and we recently reported that the mouse of global deletion of SMRT causes significant obesity which is independent from thyroid hormone signaling and thermogenesis. However, the tissue specific role of SMRT in skeletal muscle is still unelucidated. Methods: To clarify this, we took the gene targeting strategy for SMRT using CRISPR Cas9, and made the myogenic C2C12 clone which lacks SMRT protein (C2C12-SMRTKO; SKO). For this study, wild type C2C12 cell (WT) and SKO cell were cultured in differentiation medium (DMEM+2% horse serum) for 5-6 days, and analyses for gene expression compared two cell types were performed. Results: We found the significant up-regulations of muscle specific beta-oxidation related genes (ex. Ppar delta, Ampk2), and higher protein level of PGC-1A in the SKO cell, suggesting that SKO cell had similar gene profile to that of rodent skeletal muscle in the exercise test. On the other hand, confocal microscopic analysis showed SKO cell had decreased cell-fusion and loss of myotube, indicating that the morphology was similar to immature mouse myoblasts. Further gene analyses compared between WT and SKO cell demonstrated that SKO cell had higher expressions of myogenic markers; MyoD and Myogenin. However, interestingly, the lower expressions of muscle constitutive genes; MHC, Actin, and Alpha-dystrobrevin were found in the SKO cell. These data indicate that the SKO cell has incomplete muscle fiber formation. Conclusion: Taken together, we demonstrate that SMRT works as a pivotal transcriptional mediator for both beta-oxidation and the process of myotube formation in C2C12 cell. Further inquiry for the cause of sarcopenia-like phenotype manifested in the SKO cell will be needed.

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<![CDATA[MON-716 A Novel Human Heterozygous STAT5B Variant Leads to Impaired Growth and Developmental Defects in Zebrafish Embryos]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67b5b1de-9808-4c9c-95ac-9ad597b1a865 <![CDATA[MON-715 How Heterogeneous Are Pituitary Thyrotropes?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na78a2538-7f1c-47d3-9d43-c21fa9134ec9 <![CDATA[MON-718 Abundant Circulation of Functional Short Non-Coding RNAs Expressed from the Intergenic Area in Mouse Serum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f1e583e-4017-46aa-afa8-eb955feb361a <![CDATA[MON-719 The Cellular and Molecular Landscape of Hypothalamic Patterning and Differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nca442cf2-5171-4cfa-9ef2-d0cc4f4ebcbf

Abstract

The hypothalamus is a central regulator of physiological homeostasis. During development, multiple transcription factors coordinate the patterning and specification of hypothalamic nuclei. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling hypothalamic patterning and cell fate specification are poorly understood. To identify genes that control these processes, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) to profile mouse hypothalamic gene expression across multiple developmental time points. We have further utilised scRNA-Seq to phenotype mutations in genes that play major roles in early hypothalamic patterning. To first understand hypothalamic development, hypothalami were collected at both embryonic (E10-E16, E18) and postnatal (PN4, PN8, PN14, PN45) time points. At early stages, when the bulk of hypothalamic patterning occurs (E11-E13), we observe a clear separation between mitotic progenitors and postmitotic neural precursor cells. We likewise observed clean segregation among cells expressing regional hypothalamic markers identified in previous large-scale analysis of hypothalamic development. This analysis reveals new region-specific markers and identifies candidate genes for selectively regulating patterning and cell fate specification in individual hypothalamic regions. With our rich dataset of developing mouse hypothalamus, we integrated our dataset with the Allen Brain Atlas

data, publicly available adult hypothalamic scRNA-Seq dataset to understand hierarchy of hypothalamic cell differentiation, as well as re-defining cell types of the hypothalamus.

We next used scRNA-Seq to phenotype multiple mutant lines, including a line that has been extensively characterised as a proof of concept (

overexpression), and lines that have not been characterised (

,

,

deletion). We show that this approach can rapidly and comprehensively characterize mutants that have altered hypothalamic patterning, and in doing so, have identified multiple genes that simultaneously repress posterior hypothalamic identity while promoting prethalamic identity. This result supports a modified columnar model of organization for the diencephalon, where prethalamus and hypothalamus are situated in adjacent dorsal and ventral domains of the anterior diencephalon. These data serve as a resource for further studies of hypothalamic development and dysfunction, and able to delineate transcriptional regulatory networks of hypothalamic formation.

Lastly, using our mouse hypothalamus as a guideline, we are comparing dataset of developing chicken, zebrafish and human hypothalamus, to identify evolutionarily conserved and divergent region-specific gene regulatory networks. We aim to use this knowledge and information of key molecular pathways of human hypothalamic development and produce human hypothalamus organoids.

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<![CDATA[MON-710 ACVR1 Activation in Primary and iPS-Derived Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells Impairs Myogenic Transcriptional Signature and Function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne7da8bf0-ecfb-4ffc-a17b-2a46b729ca7a <![CDATA[MON-723 Identification of Thyrotrope Signature Genes and Regulatory Elements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N812f2245-26ce-4b47-b854-f76eb76128ed <![CDATA[MON-724 Crude Protein Extract of Pyropia Yezoensis Protects Against Tumor Necrosis Factor-á-Induced Apoptosis and Atrophy in C2C12 Myotubes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0e04b850-0d0a-49fe-9d64-9c8e483e1d4b <![CDATA[MON-727 The Chromatin Landscape of Glucocorticoid Regulated Genes in Mouse Embryonic Neural Stem / Progenitor Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na82cc79a-99f9-4055-9b22-91423a692c32 <![CDATA[MON-LB130 Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling and Stress in the Developing Mammalian Germline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6ccb883-4e84-4dec-b3d4-478376cd19ca <![CDATA[MON-726 Modifications of FOXO1 and GATA4-NKX2.5 Signaling Induce Human Enteroendocrine Differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N569245ee-4c80-4489-96ba-d9cb6d7f8a3b <![CDATA[MON-717 Novel GLI2 Mutations Identified in Pediatric Patients with Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency: One Gene, Various Genotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01cbf356-3765-49fa-b894-7d7c0971d5d5 <![CDATA[MON-LB129 A Pilot Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) on Primary Aldosteronism Patients in a Multi-Ethnic Malaysian Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfeced7dd-3003-4bb9-acdf-45d727aed4de 1%) were used to perform association analysis using the Chi-square Test which was then subjected to multiple testing corrections (Bonferroni correction). As expected with a pilot sample size, no variants passed the suggestive significant threshold of Bonferroni corrected P-value < 5 x 10-6 (-log10 P = 5.3). However, 27 SNPs had the uncorrected P-value<0.0002, odds ratio >2, and differences of frequencies in cases compared to control >0.1 or <-0.2, of which 3 genes (SRGAP3, AUTS2, and RORA) associated with these SNPs were also highlighted in the UK Biobank database of 72 patients with primary aldosteronism (https://biobankengine.stanford. edu/coding/HC189). Of these, RORA has recently been found to be down-regulated in adrenals from PA patients and spontaneously hypertensive rat adrenals compared to control adrenalsa,b. RORA encodes for the protein retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor alpha, a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors (NR1F1). Interestingly, adrenal is the second organ to skin with the highest expression of RORA and treatment of angiotensin II in the adrenocortical cell line H295R increases RORA expressionc,d. Taken together, this pilot GWAS highlights RORA as a potential nuclear hormone receptor that regulates aldosterone production.References aChu et al., Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2017;10(9):10009-10018. bTanaka et al., Hypertens Res 2019;42(2):165-173. cNogueira et al., Mol Cell Endocrinol 2009; 302(2): 230–236. dGTEx Analysis Release V7 (dbGaP Accession phs000424.v7.p2)AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education Grant (FRGS/1/2015/SKK08/UKM/02/3), The National University of Malaysia (UKM) University Grant (GUP-2016-083), and The UKM Medical Center Fundamental Grant (FF-2016-302). ]]>