ResearchPad - genetics-of-immunity https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Genes Encoding Recognition of the <i>Cladosporium fulvum</i> Effector Protein Ecp5 Are Encoded at Several Loci in the Tomato Genome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11291 The molecular interactions between tomato and Cladosporium fulvum have been an important model for molecular plant pathology. Complex genetic loci on tomato chromosomes 1 and 6 harbor genes for resistance to Cladosporium fulvum, encoding receptor like-proteins that perceive distinct Cladosporium fulvum effectors and trigger plant defenses. Here, we report classical mapping strategies for loci in tomato accessions that respond to Cladosporium fulvum effector Ecp5, which is very sequence-monomorphic. We screened 139 wild tomato accessions for an Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response, and in five accessions, the Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response segregated as a monogenic trait, mapping to distinct loci in the tomato genome. We identified at least three loci on chromosomes 1, 7 and 12 that harbor distinct Cf-Ecp5 genes in four different accessions. Our mapping showed that the Cf-Ecp5 in Solanum pimpinellifolium G1.1161 is located at the Milky Way locus. The Cf-Ecp5 in Solanum pimpinellifolium LA0722 was mapped to the bottom arm of chromosome 7, while the Cf-Ecp5 genes in Solanum lycopersicum Ontario 7522 and Solanum pimpinellifolium LA2852 were mapped to the same locus on the top arm of chromosome 12. Bi-parental crosses between accessions carrying distinct Cf-Ecp5 genes revealed putative genetically unlinked suppressors of the Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response. Our mapping also showed that Cf-11 is located on chromosome 11, close to the Cf-3 locus. The Ecp5-induced hypersensitive response is widely distributed within tomato species and is variable in strength. This novel example of convergent evolution could be used for choosing different functional Cf-Ecp5 genes according to individual plant breeding needs.

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<![CDATA[Tools Allowing Independent Visualization and Genetic Manipulation of Drosophila melanogaster Macrophages and Surrounding Tissues]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfae88bd5eed0c48483fff8

Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses, and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid a fuller understanding of these processes, but are lacking. Here, we describe a comprehensive set of transgenic lines that allow this. These include extremely brightly fluorescing mCherry-based lines that allow GAL4-independent visualization of plasmatocyte nuclei, the cytoplasm, or the actin cytoskeleton from embryonic stage 8 through adulthood in both live and fixed samples even as heterozygotes, greatly facilitating screening. These lines allow live visualization and tracking of embryonic plasmatocytes, as well as larval plasmatocytes residing at the body wall or flowing with the surrounding hemolymph. With confocal imaging, interactions of plasmatocytes and inner tissues can be seen in live or fixed embryos, larvae, and adults. They permit efficient GAL4-independent Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis/sorting of plasmatocytes throughout life. To facilitate genetic studies of reciprocal signaling, we have also made a plasmatocyte-expressing QF2 line that, in combination with extant GAL4 drivers, allows independent genetic manipulation of both plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues, and GAL80 lines that block GAL4 drivers from affecting plasmatocytes, all of which function from the early embryo to the adult.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Ceruloplasmin as a Gene that Affects Susceptibility to Glomerulonephritis Through Macrophage Function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b409206463d7e5939a91e29

Crescentic glomerulonephritis (Crgn) is a complex disorder where macrophage activity and infiltration are significant effector causes. In previous linkage studies using the uniquely susceptible Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, we have identified multiple crescentic glomerulonephritis QTL (Crgn) and positionally cloned genes underlying Crgn1 and Crgn2, which accounted for 40% of total variance in glomerular inflammation. Here, we have generated a backcross (BC) population (n = 166) where Crgn1 and Crgn2 were genetically fixed and found significant linkage to glomerular crescents on chromosome 2 (Crgn8, LOD = 3.8). Fine mapping analysis by integration with genome-wide expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the same BC population identified ceruloplasmin (Cp) as a positional eQTL in macrophages but not in serum. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed Cp as a protein QTL in rat macrophages. WKY macrophages overexpress Cp and its downregulation by RNA interference decreases markers of glomerular proinflammatory macrophage activation. Similarly, short incubation with Cp results in a strain-dependent macrophage polarization in the rat. These results suggest that genetically determined Cp levels can alter susceptibility to Crgn through macrophage function and propose a new role for Cp in early macrophage activation.

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