ResearchPad - genome-sequencing https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Isolation of a novel species in the genus <i>Cupriavidus</i> from a patient with sepsis using whole genome sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14469 Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become an accessible tool in clinical microbiology, and it allowed us to identify a novel Cupriavidus species. We isolated Gram-negative bacillus from the blood of an immunocompromised patient, and phenotypical and molecular identifications were performed. Phenotypic identification discrepancies were noted between the Vitek 2 (bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France) and Vitek MS systems (bioMérieux). Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, it was impossible to identify the pathogen to the species levels. WGS was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA), and genomic sequence database searching with a TrueBacTM ID-Genome system (ChunLab, Inc., Seoul, Republic of Korea) showed no strains with average nucleotide identity values higher than 95.0%, which is the cut-off for species-level identification. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the bacteria was a new Cupriavidus species that formed a subcluster with Cupriavidus gilardii. WGS holds great promise for accurate molecular identification beyond 16S rRNA gene sequencing in clinical microbiology.

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<![CDATA[Rapid Nanopore Whole-Genome Sequencing for Anthrax Emergency Preparedness]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N823b137e-bf56-4e8d-ab5d-b429cf3fbff8

Human anthrax cases necessitate rapid response. We completed Bacillus anthracis nanopore whole-genome sequencing in our high-containment laboratory from a human anthrax isolate hours after receipt. The de novo assembled genome showed no evidence of known antimicrobial resistance genes or introduced plasmid(s). Same-day genomic characterization enhances public health emergency response.

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<![CDATA[How “simple” methodological decisions affect interpretation of population structure based on reduced representation library DNA sequencing: A case study using the lake whitefish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3bb2bc39-24d6-4fe3-98ed-f97dea058c57

Reduced representation (RRL) sequencing approaches (e.g., RADSeq, genotyping by sequencing) require decisions about how much to invest in genome coverage and sequencing depth, as well as choices of values for adjustable bioinformatics parameters. To empirically explore the importance of these “simple” methodological decisions, we generated two independent sequencing libraries for the same 142 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) using a nextRAD RRL approach: (1) a larger number of loci at low sequencing depth based on a 9mer (library A); and (2) fewer loci at higher sequencing depth based on a 10mer (library B). The fish were selected from populations with different levels of expected genetic subdivision. Each library was analyzed using the STACKS pipeline followed by three types of population structure assessment (FST, DAPC and ADMIXTURE) with iterative increases in the stringency of sequencing depth and missing data requirements, as well as more specific a priori population maps. Library B was always able to resolve strong population differentiation in all three types of assessment regardless of the selected parameters, largely due to retention of more loci in analyses. In contrast, library A produced more variable results; increasing the minimum sequencing depth threshold (-m) resulted in a reduced number of retained loci, and therefore lost resolution at high -m values for FST and ADMIXTURE, but not DAPC. When detecting fine population differentiation, the population map influenced the number of loci and missing data, which generated artefacts in all downstream analyses tested. Similarly, when examining fine scale population subdivision, library B was robust to changing parameters but library A lost resolution depending on the parameter set. We used library B to examine actual subdivision in our study populations. All three types of analysis found complete subdivision among populations in Lake Huron, ON and Dore Lake, SK, Canada using 10,640 SNP loci. Weak population subdivision was detected in Lake Huron with fish from sites in the north-west, Search Bay, North Point and Hammond Bay, showing slight differentiation. Overall, we show that apparently simple decisions about library construction and bioinformatics parameters can have important impacts on the interpretation of population subdivision. Although potentially more costly on a per-locus basis, early investment in striking a balance between the number of loci and sequencing effort is well worth the reduced genomic coverage for population genetics studies. More conservative stringency settings on STACKS parameters lead to a final dataset that was more consistent and robust when examining both weak and strong population differentiation. Overall, we recommend that researchers approach “simple” methodological decisions with caution, especially when working on non-model species for the first time.

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<![CDATA[Prospective Whole-Genome Sequencing in Tuberculosis Outbreak Investigation, France, 2017–2018]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94e81dd5eed0c484655516

During June 2017–April 2018, active tuberculosis with Beijing SIT1 isolates was diagnosed in 14 persons living in 4 distant cities in France. Whole-genome sequencing indicated that these patients belonged to a single transmission chain. Whole-genome sequencing–based laboratory investigations enabled prompt tracing of linked cases to improve tuberculosis control.

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<![CDATA[Whole-Genome Sequencing of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains, Tunisia, 2012–2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94e81fd5eed0c484655547

To investigate transmission of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Tunisia, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 46 multidrug-resistant strains isolated during 2012–2016. Core-genome multilocus sequence typing grouped 30 strains (65.2%) into 3 clusters, indicating extensive recent transmission and Haarlem clone predominance. Whole-genome sequencing might help public health services undertake appropriate control actions.

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<![CDATA[Information about variations in multiple copies of bacterial 16S rRNA genes may aid in species identification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c706762d5eed0c4847c6f93

Variable region analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences is the most common tool in bacterial taxonomic studies. Although used for distinguishing bacterial species, its use remains limited due to the presence of variable copy numbers with sequence variation in the genomes. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequences, obtained from completely assembled whole genome and Sanger electrophoresis sequencing of cloned PCR products from Serratia fonticola GS2, were compared. Sanger sequencing produced a combination of sequences from multiple copies of 16S rRNA genes. To determine whether the variant copies of 16S rRNA genes affected Sanger sequencing, two ratios (5:5 and 8:2) with different concentrations of cloned 16S rRNA genes were used; it was observed that the greater the number of copies with similar sequences the higher its chance of amplification. Effect of multiple copies for taxonomic classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences was investigated using the strain GS2 as a model. 16S rRNA copies with the maximum variation had 99.42% minimum pairwise similarity and this did not have an effect on species identification. Thus, PCR products from genomes containing variable 16S rRNA gene copies can provide sufficient information for species identification except from species which have high similarity of sequences in their 16S rRNA gene copies like the case of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus. In silico analysis of 1,616 bacterial genomes from long-read sequencing was also done. The average minimum pairwise similarity for each phylum was reported with their average genome size and average “unique copies” of 16S rRNA genes and we found that the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes showed the highest amount of variation in their copies of their 16S rRNA genes. Overall, our results shed light on how the variations in the multiple copies of the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria can aid in appropriate species identification.

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<![CDATA[Elevated pyrimidine dimer formation at distinct genomic bases underlies promoter mutation hotspots in UV-exposed cancers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2f02d5eed0c484d9cc05

Sequencing of whole cancer genomes has revealed an abundance of recurrent mutations in gene-regulatory promoter regions, in particular in melanoma where strong mutation hotspots are observed adjacent to ETS-family transcription factor (TF) binding sites. While sometimes interpreted as functional driver events, these mutations are commonly believed to be due to locally inhibited DNA repair. Here, we first show that low-dose UV light induces mutations preferably at a known ETS promoter hotspot in cultured cells even in the absence of global or transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (NER). Further, by genome-wide mapping of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) shortly after UV exposure and thus before DNA repair, we find that ETS-related mutation hotspots exhibit strong increases in CPD formation efficacy in a manner consistent with tumor mutation data at the single-base level. Analysis of a large whole genome cohort illustrates the widespread contribution of this effect to recurrent mutations in melanoma. While inhibited NER underlies a general increase in somatic mutation burden in regulatory elements including ETS sites, our data supports that elevated DNA damage formation at specific genomic bases is at the core of the prominent promoter mutation hotspots seen in skin cancers, thus explaining a key phenomenon in whole-genome cancer analyses.

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<![CDATA[Imputation accuracy of wheat genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data using barley and wheat genome references]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0126d5eed0c484038b91

Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) provides high SNP coverage and has recently emerged as a popular technology for genetic and breeding applications in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and many other plant species. Although GBS can discover millions of SNPs, a high rate of missing data is a major concern for many applications. Accurate imputation of those missing data can significantly improve the utility of GBS data. This study compared imputation accuracies among four genome references including three wheat references (Chinese Spring survey sequence, W7984, and IWGSC RefSeq v1.0) and one barley reference genome by comparing imputed data derived from low-depth sequencing to actual data from high-depth sequencing. After imputation, the average number of imputed data points was the highest in the B genome (~48.99%). The D genome had the lowest imputed data points (~15.02%) but the highest imputation accuracy. Among the four reference genomes, IWGSC RefSeq v1.0 reference provided the most imputed data points, but the lowest imputation accuracy for the SNPs with < 10% minor allele frequency (MAF). The W7984 reference, however, provided the highest imputation accuracy for the SNPs with < 10% MAF.

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<![CDATA[De novo mutations in the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase, cause intellectual disability and developmental delay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae490d5eed0c484589f74

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10−11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

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<![CDATA[Deepbinner: Demultiplexing barcoded Oxford Nanopore reads with deep convolutional neural networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfdb372d5eed0c4845c990b

Multiplexing, the simultaneous sequencing of multiple barcoded DNA samples on a single flow cell, has made Oxford Nanopore sequencing cost-effective for small genomes. However, it depends on the ability to sort the resulting sequencing reads by barcode, and current demultiplexing tools fail to classify many reads. Here we present Deepbinner, a tool for Oxford Nanopore demultiplexing that uses a deep neural network to classify reads based on the raw electrical read signal. This ‘signal-space’ approach allows for greater accuracy than existing ‘base-space’ tools (Albacore and Porechop) for which signals must first be converted to DNA base calls, itself a complex problem that can introduce noise into the barcode sequence. To assess Deepbinner and existing tools, we performed multiplex sequencing on 12 amplicons chosen for their distinguishability. This allowed us to establish a ground truth classification for each read based on internal sequence alone. Deepbinner had the lowest rate of unclassified reads (7.8%) and the highest demultiplexing precision (98.5% of classified reads were correctly assigned). It can be used alone (to maximise the number of classified reads) or in conjunction with other demultiplexers (to maximise precision and minimise false positive classifications). We also found cross-sample chimeric reads (0.3%) and evidence of barcode switching (0.3%) in our dataset, which likely arise during library preparation and may be detrimental for quantitative studies that use multiplexing. Deepbinner is open source (GPLv3) and available at https://github.com/rrwick/Deepbinner.

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<![CDATA[No unexpected CRISPR-Cas9 off-target activity revealed by trio sequencing of gene-edited mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4f2cc6463d7e25bffba86c

CRISPR-Cas9 technologies have transformed genome-editing of experimental organisms and have immense therapeutic potential. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, concerns remain over the potential for off-target effects. Recent studies have addressed these concerns using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of gene-edited embryos or animals to search for de novo mutations (DNMs), which may represent candidate changes introduced by poor editing fidelity. Critically, these studies used strain-matched, but not pedigree-matched controls and thus were unable to reliably distinguish generational or colony-related differences from true DNMs. Here we used a trio design and whole genome sequenced 8 parents and 19 embryos, where 10 of the embryos were mutagenised with well-characterised gRNAs targeting the coat colour Tyrosinase (Tyr) locus. Detailed analyses of these whole genome data allowed us to conclude that if CRISPR mutagenesis were causing SNV or indel off-target mutations in treated embryos, then the number of these mutations is not statistically distinguishable from the background rate of DNMs occurring due to other processes.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of willingness to pay for expanded carrier screening among women and couples undergoing preconception carrier screening]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b60175b463d7e3bf2e777d6

Background

Expanded carrier screening can provide risk information for numerous conditions. Understanding how individuals undergoing preconception expanded carrier screening value this information is important. The NextGen study evaluated the use of genome sequencing for expanded carrier screening and reporting secondary findings, and we measured participants’ willingness to pay for this approach to understand how it is valued by women and couples planning a pregnancy.

Methods

We assessed 277 participants’ willingness to pay for genome sequencing reporting carrier results for 728 gene/condition pairs and results for 121 secondary findings. We explored the association between attitudes and demographic factors and willingness to pay for expanded carrier screening using genome sequencing and conducted interviews with 58 of these participants to probe the reasoning behind their preferences.

Results

Most participants were willing to pay for expanded carrier screening using genome sequencing. Willingness to pay was associated with income level and religiosity, but not risk status for a condition in the carrier panel. Participants willing to pay nothing or a small amount cited issues around financial resources, whereas those willing to pay higher amounts were motivated by “peace of mind” from carrier results.

Conclusion

Women and couples planning a pregnancy value genome sequencing. The potentially high out-of-pocket cost of this service could result in healthcare disparities, since maximum amounts that participants were willing to pay were higher than a typical copay and related to income.

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<![CDATA[Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f0ab0ee8fa60b6e20a

Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development, bile chemotaxis, and physico-metabolic pathways in C. sinensis that presented in this study will guide further studies to identify novel drug targets and diagnostic antigens.

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<![CDATA[A High Resolution Case Study of a Patient with Recurrent Plasmodium vivax Infections Shows That Relapses Were Caused by Meiotic Siblings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daefab0ee8fa60bc0be8

Plasmodium vivax infects a hundred million people annually and endangers 40% of the world's population. Unlike Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax parasites can persist as a dormant stage in the liver, known as the hypnozoite, and these dormant forms can cause malaria relapses months or years after the initial mosquito bite. Here we analyze whole genome sequencing data from parasites in the blood of a patient who experienced consecutive P. vivax relapses over 33 months in a non-endemic country. By analyzing patterns of identity, read coverage, and the presence or absence of minor alleles in the initial polyclonal and subsequent monoclonal infections, we show that the parasites in the three infections are likely meiotic siblings. We infer that these siblings are descended from a single tetrad-like form that developed in the infecting mosquito midgut shortly after fertilization. In this natural cross we find the recombination rate for P. vivax to be 10 kb per centimorgan and we further observe areas of disequilibrium surrounding major drug resistance genes. Our data provide new strategies for studying multiclonal infections, which are common in all types of infectious diseases, and for distinguishing P. vivax relapses from reinfections in malaria endemic regions. This work provides a theoretical foundation for studies that aim to determine if new or existing drugs can provide a radical cure of P. vivax malaria.

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<![CDATA[Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Provide Insights into Nematode-Trap Formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba73fd

Nematode-trapping fungi are “carnivorous” and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927) was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome Analysis of the Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad7ab0ee8fa60bb84fa

Background

The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13%) matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene orthology (GO), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE) libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults). To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed.

Conclusion/Significance

This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance.

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<![CDATA[The Genome Sequence of the Leaf-Cutter Ant Atta cephalotes Reveals Insights into Its Obligate Symbiotic Lifestyle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbaf02

Leaf-cutter ants are one of the most important herbivorous insects in the Neotropics, harvesting vast quantities of fresh leaf material. The ants use leaves to cultivate a fungus that serves as the colony's primary food source. This obligate ant-fungus mutualism is one of the few occurrences of farming by non-humans and likely facilitated the formation of their massive colonies. Mature leaf-cutter ant colonies contain millions of workers ranging in size from small garden tenders to large soldiers, resulting in one of the most complex polymorphic caste systems within ants. To begin uncovering the genomic underpinnings of this system, we sequenced the genome of Atta cephalotes using 454 pyrosequencing. One prediction from this ant's lifestyle is that it has undergone genetic modifications that reflect its obligate dependence on the fungus for nutrients. Analysis of this genome sequence is consistent with this hypothesis, as we find evidence for reductions in genes related to nutrient acquisition. These include extensive reductions in serine proteases (which are likely unnecessary because proteolysis is not a primary mechanism used to process nutrients obtained from the fungus), a loss of genes involved in arginine biosynthesis (suggesting that this amino acid is obtained from the fungus), and the absence of a hexamerin (which sequesters amino acids during larval development in other insects). Following recent reports of genome sequences from other insects that engage in symbioses with beneficial microbes, the A. cephalotes genome provides new insights into the symbiotic lifestyle of this ant and advances our understanding of host–microbe symbioses.

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<![CDATA[SNP Detection from De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing in the Bivalve Macoma balthica: Marker Development for Evolutionary Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d4ab0ee8fa60b65621

Hybrid zones are noteworthy systems for the study of environmental adaptation to fast-changing environments, as they constitute reservoirs of polymorphism and are key to the maintenance of biodiversity. They can move in relation to climate fluctuations, as temperature can affect both selection and migration, or remain trapped by environmental and physical barriers. There is therefore a very strong incentive to study the dynamics of hybrid zones subjected to climate variations. The infaunal bivalve Macoma balthica emerges as a noteworthy model species, as divergent lineages hybridize, and its native NE Atlantic range is currently contracting to the North. To investigate the dynamics and functioning of hybrid zones in M. balthica, we developed new molecular markers by sequencing the collective transcriptome of 30 individuals. Ten individuals were pooled for each of the three populations sampled at the margins of two hybrid zones. A single 454 run generated 277 Mb from which 17K SNPs were detected. SNP density averaged 1 polymorphic site every 14 to 19 bases, for mitochondrial and nuclear loci, respectively. An scan detected high genetic divergence among several hundred SNPs, some of them involved in energetic metabolism, cellular respiration and physiological stress. The high population differentiation, recorded for nuclear-encoded ATP synthase and NADH dehydrogenase as well as most mitochondrial loci, suggests cytonuclear genetic incompatibilities. Results from this study will help pave the way to a high-resolution study of hybrid zone dynamics in M. balthica, and the relative importance of endogenous and exogenous barriers to gene flow in this system.

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<![CDATA[Artificial Polyploidy Improves Bacterial Single Cell Genome Recovery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b740a1

Background

Single cell genomics (SCG) is a combination of methods whose goal is to decipher the complete genomic sequence from a single cell and has been applied mostly to organisms with smaller genomes, such as bacteria and archaea. Prior single cell studies showed that a significant portion of a genome could be obtained. However, breakages of genomic DNA and amplification bias have made it very challenging to acquire a complete genome with single cells. We investigated an artificial method to induce polyploidy in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 by blocking cell division and have shown that we can significantly improve the performance of genomic sequencing from a single cell.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We inhibited the bacterial cytoskeleton protein FtsZ in B. subtilis with an FtsZ-inhibiting compound, PC190723, resulting in larger undivided single cells with multiple copies of its genome. qPCR assays of these larger, sorted cells showed higher DNA content, have less amplification bias, and greater genomic recovery than untreated cells.

Significance

The method presented here shows the potential to obtain a nearly complete genome sequence from a single bacterial cell. With millions of uncultured bacterial species in nature, this method holds tremendous promise to provide insight into the genomic novelty of yet-to-be discovered species, and given the temporary effects of artificial polyploidy coupled with the ability to sort and distinguish differences in cell size and genomic DNA content, may allow recovery of specific organisms in addition to their genomes.

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<![CDATA[Nucleosomes Correlate with In Vivo Progression Pattern of De Novo Methylation of p16 CpG Islands in Human Gastric Carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db08ab0ee8fa60bc9146

Background

The exact relationship between nucleosome positioning and methylation of CpG islands in human pathogenesis is unknown.

Methodology/Principal Findings

In the present study, we characterized the nucleosome position within the p16 CpG island and established a seeding methylation-specific PCR (sMSP) assay based on bisulfite modification to enrich the p16 alleles containing methylated-CpG at the methylation “seeding" sites within its intron-1 in gastric carcinogenesis. The sMSP-positive rate in primary gastric carcinoma (GC) samples (36/40) was significantly higher than that observed in gastritis (19/45) or normal samples (7/13) (P<0.01). Extensive clone sequencing of these sMSP products showed that the density of methylated-CpGs in p16 CpG islands increased gradually along with the severity of pathological changes in gastric tissues. In gastritis lesions the methylation was frequently observed in the region corresponding to the exon-1 coding-nucleosome and the 5′UTR-nucleosome; the methylation was further extended to the region corresponding to the promoter-nucleosome in GC samples. Only few methylated-CpG sites were randomly detected within p16 CpG islands in normal tissues. The significantly inversed relationship between the p16 exon-1 methylation and its transcription was observed in GC samples. An exact p16 promoter-specific 83 bp-MSP assay confirms the result of sMSP (33/55 vs. 1/6, P<0.01). In addition, p16 methylation in chronic gastritis lesions significantly correlated with H. pylori infection; however, such correlation was not observed in GC specimens.

Conclusions/Significance

It was determined that de novo methylation was initiated in the coding region of p16 exon-1 in gastritis, then progressed to its 5′UTR, and ultimately to the proximal promoter in GCs. Nucleosomes may function as the basic extension/progression unit of de novo methylation of p16 CpG islands in vivo.

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