ResearchPad - geriatric-care https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The prevalence of poor sleep quality and associated risk factors among Chinese elderly adults in nursing homes: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14729 Sleep problems have become the most common complaints among the elderly. There are a few studies that explored the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors among the elderly in nursing homes. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of poor sleep quality and its associated factors among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes.MethodsA total of 817 elderly residents, from 24 nursing homes, were included in this cross-sectional study. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and poor sleep quality was defined as PSQI >5. Multiple binary logistic regression was used to estimate the strength of the association between risk factors and poor sleep quality in terms of adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and interactions of risk factors for poor sleep quality were also examined.ResultsThe prevalence of poor sleep quality was 67.3% (95% CI: 64.0, 70.5%) among the Chinese elderly in nursing homes. Multiple binary logistic regression results showed that participants with the following characteristics had an increased risk of poor sleep quality after adjustments for other confounders: being 70–79 years old (AOR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.92) or 80 years old and above (AOR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.68, 4.24); having one to two kinds of chronic diseases (AOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.39, 3.01) or three or more kinds of chronic diseases (AOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.39, 4.00); depression symptoms (AOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.11), anxiety symptoms (AOR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.18), and social support(AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99). Additive interactions were detected between age and anxiety symptoms (AOR: 8.34, 95% CI: 4.43, 15.69); between chronic disease and anxiety symptoms (AOR: 8.61, 95% CI; 4.28, 17.31); and between social support and anxiety symptoms (AOR: 6.43, 95% CI: 3.22, 12.86).ConclusionsThe prevalence of poor sleep quality among the elderly in nursing homes is relatively high. Besides, anxiety symptoms has additive interactions with age, chronic disease and social support for poor sleep quality. These findings have significant implications for interventions that aim to improve sleep quality among elderly residents in nursing homes. ]]> <![CDATA[Nutritional assessment of community-dwelling older adults in rural Nepal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcaff

Background

Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal’s health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal. Therefore, our aims are two-fold: To assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in one typical Nepali village, Okharpauwa, in Nuwakot District, Nepal; and concurrently, to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool.

Methods

A cross-sectional field study was conducted with a sample of 242 elderly people in Okharpauwa, Nepal to obtain prevalence of malnutrition. Differences in demographic and lifestyle factors between these who were malnourished, those at risk of malnourishment, and those who had adequate nutritional status were analyzed. The MNA tool was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated.

Results

111 males and 131 females, with a mean age of 69.8±7.4 years, participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 21.4±3.9 kg/m2; the mean MNA score was 19.3±4.2. BMI was significantly correlated with the total MNA score (r = 0.58; p<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MNA were 81%, 86% and 67% respectively. Of the 242 elderly sampled, 24% were malnourished and 65% were at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition was more prevalent among females (29%) than males (18%), and most prevalent among the marginalized Dalit ethnic group (40%). Elderly persons who were married and literate had better nutritional health than their counterparts.

Conclusions

The MNA appears to be a valid and sensitive tool for rapid nutritional screening of the elderly in Nepal. The prevalence of malnutrition was high among Nepalese elderly in the Okharpauwa VDC, which requires urgent health monitoring and management attention.

]]>
<![CDATA[Examining the construct and known-group validity of a composite endpoint for The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum Data Set (TOPICS-MDS); A large-scale data sharing initiative]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc782

Background

Preference-weighted multi-faceted endpoints have the potential to facilitate comparative effectiveness research that incorporates patient preferences. The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey—Composite endpoint (TOPICS-CEP) is potentially a valuable outcome measure for evaluating interventions in geriatric care as it combines multiple outcomes relevant to older persons in a single metric. The objective of this study was to validate TOPICS-CEP across different study settings (general population, primary care and hospital).

Methods

Data were extracted from TOPICS Minimum Dataset (MDS), a pooled public-access national database with information on older persons throughout the Netherlands. Data of 17,603 older persons were used. Meta-correlations were performed between TOPICS-CEP indexed scores, EuroQol5-D utility scores and Cantril’s ladder life satisfaction scores. Mixed linear regression analyses were performed to compare TOPICS-CEP indexed scores between known groups, e.g. persons with versus without depression.

Results

In the complete sample and when stratified by study setting TOPICS-CEP and Cantril’s ladder were moderately correlated, whereas TOPICS-CEP and EQ-5D were highly correlated. Higher mean TOPICS-CEP scores were found in persons who were: married, lived independently and had an education at university level. Moreover, higher mean TOPICS-CEP scores were found in persons without dementia, depression, and dizziness with falls, respectively. Similar results were found when stratified by subgroup.

Conclusion

This study supports that TOPICS-CEP is a robust measure which can potentially be used in broad settings to identify the effect of intervention or of prevention in elderly care.

]]>
<![CDATA[MRSA Prevalence and Risk Factors among Health Personnel and Residents in Nursing Homes in Hamburg, Germany – A Cross-Sectional Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dfab0ee8fa60b68f39

Introduction

The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals causes problems in nursing homes. Staff in geriatric nursing homes are at greater risk of MRSA colonisation. The aim of the study was to describe the occupational exposure to MRSA among health personnel in geriatric nursing.

Methods

A point prevalence survey was conducted among health personnel and residents of geriatric nursing homes within the greater Hamburg district. Nasal swabs and, where relevant, wound swabs were collected for the screening survey. Risk factors for MRSA colonisation were identified by means of a questionnaire and using the files held on the residents. Where tests on nursing staff were positive, a control swab was taken; when the results were confirmed positive, decolonisation was performed. The responsible general practitioners were notified of positive MRSA findings among residents. A molecular biological examination of the MRSA samples was performed.

Results

A total of 19 institutions participated in the study. Nasal swabs were taken from 759 nursing staff and 422 residents. Prevalence of MRSA was 1.6% among staff and 5.5% among residents. MRSA colonisation among health personnel indicated a correlation with male gender (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4–14.1). Among the residents, chronic skin diseases (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0–10.3) and indwelling devices (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.1) were identified as risk factors. No link between MRSA in residents and in health personnel could be established.

Conclusion

The number of MRSA colonisations among nursing staff and residents of geriatric nursing homes in Hamburg was rather low at 1.6% and 5.5% respectively and equates to the results of other surveys in non-outbreak scenarios.

]]>
<![CDATA[External validity of randomized controlled trials in older adults, a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc971

Background

To critically assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) it is important to know what older adults have been enrolled in the trials. The aim of this systematic review is to study what proportion of trials specifically designed for older patients report on somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty in the patient characteristics.

Methods

PubMed was searched for articles published in 2012 and only RCTs were included. Articles were further excluded if not conducted with humans or only secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn. The current review analyzed this random sample and further selected trials when the reported mean age was ≥ 60 years. We extracted geriatric assessments from the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria.

Results

In total 1396 trials were analyzed and 300 trials included. The median of the reported mean age was 66 (IQR 63–70) and the median percentage of men in the trials was 60 (IQR 45–72). In 34% of the RCTs specifically designed for older patients somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment or frailty were reported in the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Physical and mental functioning was reported most frequently (22% and 14%). When selecting RCTs on a mean age of 70 or 80 years the report of geriatric assessments in the patient characteristics was 46% and 85% respectively but represent only 5% and 1% of the trials.

Conclusion

Somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty are underreported even in RCTs specifically designed for older patients published in 2012. Therefore, it is unclear for clinicians to which older patients the results can be applied. We recommend systematic to transparently report these relevant characteristics of older participants included in RCTs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Associations of low-intensity light physical activity with physical performance in community-dwelling elderly Japanese: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be04f2

Background

Physical activity and physical performance relate to quality of life, mortality, and morbidity in elderly people. However, little is known about differences in physical performance related to low-intensity light physical activity (LLPA), high-intensity light physical activity (HLPA), and moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and how they are separated by sex in elderly populations.

Aims

This study aimed to determine differences in LLPA, HLPA, MPA, and physical performance, and associations between these measures in community-dwelling elderly men and women.

Methods

Physical activity and physical performance such as timed-up-and-go test, one-leg standing time, and maximum gait speed were measured in 181 community-dwelling elderly men (mean age, 75.1 ± 5.3 years) and 109 women (mean age, 73.4 ± 4.8 years) in 2013. Physical activity was classified as LLPA (1.6~1.9 METs of physical activity), HLPA (2.0~2.9 METs of physical activity), and MPA (over 3 METs of physical activity). The association between the values of these three intensities of physical activity in the participants was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of physical performance values with the three groups defined by accelerometer-measured physical activity intensity adjusted for sociographic, behavioral, and multiple diseases in the participants.

Results

MPA was beneficially associated with all physical performance indicators in the men (all P<0.05) and women (all P<0.05). Only HLPA showed significant associations with the timed-up-and-go test (P = 0.001) and maximum gait speed (P = 0.006) in women.

Discussion

These results may support the notion that not only HLPA in women but MPA in both sexes appears to improve physical performance in elderly populations.

Conclusion

The present study findings provide novel epidemiological evidence for the potential benefits of HLPA in women and also reinforce the potential benefits of MPA in both sexes, which is the mainstay of public health recommendations.

]]>
<![CDATA[Gastroenteritis Outbreaks Associated with the Emergence of the New GII.4 Sydney Norovirus Variant during the Epidemic of 2012/13 in Shenzhen City, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6cab0ee8fa60b9312a

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans worldwide. Since late 2012, a new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 has caused a significant increase in NoV epidemics in several countries. From November of 2012 to January of 2013, three gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in two social welfare homes (Outbreaks A and B) and a factory (Outbreak C) in Shenzhen city of China. Feces and swabs were collected for laboratory tests for causative agents. While no bacterial pathogen was identified, all three outbreaks were caused by NoVs with detection rates of 26.2% (16/61) at Outbreak A, 35.2% (38/108) at Outbreak B), and 59.3% (16/27) at Outbreaks C. For Outbreak B, 25 of the 29 symptomatic individuals (86.2%) and 13 of the 79 asymptomatic individuals (16.5%) were found NoV-positive. For Outbreak C, an asymptomatic food handler was NoV-positive. All thirteen NoV sequences from the three outbreaks were classified into genogroup II and genotype 4 (GII.4), which we identified to be the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant. The genome of two isolates from Outbreaks A and B were recombinant with the opening reading frame (ORF) 1 of GII.4 Osaka 2007 and ORF2 and 3 of the GII.4 New Orleans. Our study indicated that the GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant emerged and caused the outbreaks in China.

]]>