ResearchPad - global-health https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Estimating the potential impact of behavioral public health interventions nationally while maintaining agreement with global patterns on relative risks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13880 This paper introduces a novel method to evaluate the local impact of behavioral scenarios on disease prevalence and burden with representative individual level data while ensuring that the model is in agreement with the qualitative patterns of global relative risk (RR) estimates. The method is used to estimate the impact of behavioral scenarios on the burden of disease due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetes in the Turkish adult population.MethodsDisease specific Hierarchical Bayes (HB) models estimate the individual disease probability as a function of behaviors, demographics, socio-economics and other controls, where constraints are specified based on the global RR estimates. The simulator combines the counterfactual disease probability estimates with disability adjusted life year (DALY)-per-prevalent-case estimates and rolls up to the targeted population level, thus reflecting the local joint distribution of exposures. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study meta-analysis results guide the analysis of the Turkish National Health Surveys (2008 to 2016) that contain more than 90 thousand observations.FindingsThe proposed Qualitative Informative HB models do not sacrifice predictive accuracy versus benchmarks (logistic regression and HB models with non-informative and numerical informative priors) while agreeing with the global patterns. In the Turkish adult population, Increasing Physical Activity reduces the DALYs substantially for both IHD by 8.6% (6.4% 11.2%), and Diabetes by 8.1% (5.8% 10.6%), (90% uncertainty intervals). Eliminating Smoking and Second-hand Smoke predominantly decreases the IHD burden 13.1% (10.4% 15.8%) versus Diabetes 2.8% (1.1% 4.6%). Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, on the other hand, reduces IHD DALYs by 4.1% (2.8% 5.4%) while not improving the Diabetes burden 0.1% (0% 0.1%).ConclusionWhile the national RR estimates are in qualitative agreement with the global patterns, the scenario impact estimates are markedly different than the attributable risk estimates from the GBD analysis and allow evaluation of practical scenarios with multiple behaviors. ]]> <![CDATA[Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery: A web-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11233 Global surgery is a growing field studying the determinants of safe and affordable surgical care and advocating to gain the global health community's attention. In Cameroon, little is known about the level of knowledge and attitudes of students. Our survey aimed to describe the knowledge and attitudes of Cameroonian medical students towards global surgery.Materials and methodsWe performed an anonymous online survey of final-year Cameroonian medical students. Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for bivariate analysis, and the alpha value was set at 0.05. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results204 respondents with a mean age of 24.7 years (±2.0) participated in this study. 58.3% were male, 41.6% had previously heard or read about global surgery, 36.3% had taken part in a global surgery study, and 10.8% had attended a global surgery event. Mercy Ships was well known (46.5%), and most students believed that surgical interventions were more costly than medical treatments (75.0%). The mean score of the global surgery evaluation was 47.4% (±29.6%), and being able to recognize more global surgery organizations was correlated with having assumed multiple roles during global surgery studies (p = 0.008) and identifying more global surgery indicators (p = 0.04). Workforce, infrastructure, and funding were highlighted as the top priorities for the development of global surgery in Cameroon.ConclusionMedical students are conscious of the importance of surgical care. They lack the opportunities to nurture their interest and should be taught global surgery concepts and skills. ]]> <![CDATA[Experiences of accessing and using breast cancer services in Vietnam: a descriptive qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9128 To understand, describe and analyse the experiences of women with breast cancer in Vietnam when accessing and using breast cancer services.DesignDescriptive qualitative study. Women were interviewed about their experiences from the first time they became aware of symptoms or changes to their body through treatment and post-treatment. This study is the first descriptive study on breast cancer in Vietnam from the perspective of women with a breast cancer diagnosis.ParticipantsWomen (n=13) who had completed or were still receiving treatment for breast cancer, purposively recruited from the north and south of Vietnam.ResultsAn analysis of the experiences of women with breast cancer in Vietnam revealed a lack of awareness and knowledge about breast cancer and symptoms. Family and social support were described as key factors influencing whether a woman accesses and uses breast cancer services. Cost of treatment and out-of-pocket expenditures limited access to services and resulted in significant financial challenges for women and their families.ConclusionsVietnam has made huge strides in improving cancer care, and is tackling a complex and expanding public health challenge, however, there are a number of areas requiring strengthening and future research. While Vietnam has successfully expanded social health insurance coverage, changes that increase the percentage of costs covered for specific treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, could benefit women and their families. ]]> <![CDATA[Maximising trichiasis surgery success (MTSS) trial: rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial to improve trachomatous trichiasis surgical outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9121 Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is a condition in which the eyelid turns inward and eyelashes abrade the front part of the eye. To prevent eventual blindness, surgery is recommended. Two surgical procedures are commonly used, bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR) and posterior lamellar tarsal rotation (PLTR). Evidence suggests that incision height and surgery type may affect the risk of postoperative TT (PTT) and other surgical outcomes. However, these studies have not prospectively compared the impact of incision height on surgical outcomes.Methods and analysisMaximising trichiasis surgery Success (MTSS) is a three-arm, randomised clinical trial being conducted in Ethiopia. Participants will be randomly assigned on a 1:1:1 basis to BLTR with a 3 mm incision height, BLTR with a 5 mm incision height, or PLTR 3 mm incision height. Patients are eligible for the trial if they have previously unoperated upper eyelid TT. Follow-up visits will be conducted by trained eye examiners at 1 day, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 months after surgery. The primary outcome is incident PTT within 1 year following surgery. Logistic regression will be used in an intention-to-treat analysis to assess outcome incidence by surgical approach.Ethics and disseminationThe University of North Carolina and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine institution review boards, Ethiopian National Research Ethics Review Committee and Ethiopian Food, Medicine, Healthcare and Administration and Control Authority provided ethics approval for the trial. On completion, trial results will be disseminated at local and international meetings and in peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration number NCT03100747. ]]> <![CDATA[Towards defining the surgical workforce for children: a geospatial analysis in Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9088 The optimal size of the health workforce for children’s surgical care around the world remains poorly defined. The goal of this study was to characterise the surgical workforce for children across Brazil, and to identify associations between the surgical workforce and measures of childhood health.DesignThis study is an ecological, cross-sectional analysis using data from the Brazil public health system (Sistema Único de Saúde).Settings and participantsWe collected data on the surgical workforce (paediatric surgeons, general surgeons, anaesthesiologists and nursing staff), perioperative mortality rate (POMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) across Brazil for 2015.Primary and secondary outcome measuresWe performed descriptive analyses, and identified associations between the workforce and U5MR using geospatial analysis (Getis-Ord-Gi analysis, spatial cluster analysis and linear regression models).FindingsThere were 39 926 general surgeons, 856 paediatric surgeons, 13 243 anaesthesiologists and 103 793 nurses across Brazil in 2015. The U5MR ranged from 11 to 26 deaths/1000 live births and the POMR ranged from 0.11–0.17 deaths/100 000 children across the country. The surgical workforce is inequitably distributed across the country, with the wealthier South and Southeast regions having a higher workforce density as well as lower U5MR than the poorer North and Northeast regions. Using linear regression, we found an inverse relationship between the surgical workforce density and U5MR. An U5MR of 15 deaths/1000 births across Brazil is associated with a workforce level of 5 paediatric surgeons, 200 surgeons, 100 anaesthesiologists or 700 nurses/100 000 children.ConclusionsWe found wide disparities in the surgical workforce and childhood mortality across Brazil, with both directly related to socioeconomic status. Areas of increased surgical workforce are associated with lower U5MR. Strategic investment in the surgical workforce may be required to attain optimal health outcomes for children in Brazil, particularly in rural regions. ]]> <![CDATA[Local emergence in Amazonia of <i>Plasmodium falciparum k13</i> C580Y mutants associated with <i>in vitro</i> artemisinin resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7263 All recommended treatments against malaria include a drug called artemisinin or some of its derivatives. However, there are concerns that Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes most cases of malaria, will eventually develop widespread resistance to the drug. A strain of P. falciparum partially resistant to artemisinin was seen in Cambodia in 2008, and it has since spread across Southeast Asia. The resistance appears to be frequently linked to a mutation known as pfk13 C580Y.

Southeast Asia and Amazonia are considered to be hotspots for antimalarial drug resistance, and the pfk13 C580Y mutation was detected in the South American country of Guyana in 2010. To examine whether the mutation was still circulating in this part of the world, Mathieu et al. collected and analyzed 854 samples across Guyana between 2016 and 2017. Overall, 1.6% of the samples had the pfk13 C580Y mutation, but this number was as high as 8.8% in one region. Further analyses revealed that the mutation in Guyana had not spread from Southeast Asia, but that it had occurred in Amazonia independently.

To better understand the impact of the pfk13 C580Y mutation, Mathieu et al. introduced this genetic change into non-resistant parasites from a country neighbouring Guyana. As expected, the mutation made P. falciparum highly resistant to artemisinin, but it also slowed the growth rate of the parasite. This disadvantage may explain why the mutation has not spread more rapidly through Guyana in recent years.

Artemisinin and its derivatives are always associated with other antimalarial drugs to slow the development of resistance; there are concerns that reduced susceptibility to artemisinin leads to the parasites becoming resistant to the partner drugs. Further research is needed to evaluate how the pfk13 C580Y mutation affects the parasite’s response to the typical combination of drugs that are given to patients.

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<![CDATA[Conceptual model for pluralistic healthcare behaviour: results from a qualitative study in southwestern Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N591f0bae-e030-4e0e-b0e8-f5b52060ea55 Medical pluralism, or concurrent utilisation of multiple therapeutic modalities, is common in various international contexts, and has been characterised as a factor contributing to poor health outcomes in low-resource settings. Traditional healers are ubiquitous providers in most regions, including the study site of southwestern Uganda. Where both informal and formal healthcare services are both available, patients do not engage with both options equally. It is not well understood why patients choose to engage with one healthcare modality over the other. The goal of this study was to explain therapeutic itineraries and create a conceptual framework of pluralistic health behaviour.MethodsIn-depth interviews were conducted from September 2017 to February 2018 with patients seeking care at traditional healers (n=30) and at an outpatient medicine clinic (n=30) in Mbarara, Uganda; the study is nested within a longitudinal project examining HIV testing engagement among traditional healer-using communities. Inclusion criteria included age ≥18 years, and ability to provide informed consent. Participants were recruited from practices representing the range of healer specialties. Following an inductive approach, interview transcripts were reviewed and coded to identify conceptual categories explaining healthcare utilisation.ResultsWe identified three broad categories relevant to healthcare utilisation: (1) traditional healers treat patients with ‘care’; (2) biomedicine uses ‘modern’ technologies and (3) peer ‘testimony’ influences healthcare engagement. These categories describe variables at the healthcare provider, healthcare system and peer levels that interrelate to motivate individual engagement in pluralistic health resources.ConclusionsPatients perceive clear advantages and disadvantages to biomedical and traditional care in medically pluralistic settings. We identified factors at the healthcare provider, healthcare system and peer levels which influence patients’ therapeutic itineraries. Our findings provide a basis to improve health outcomes in medically pluralistic settings, and underscore the importance of recognising traditional healers as important stakeholders in community health. ]]> <![CDATA[Quantifying antibiotic impact on within-patient dynamics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase resistance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ecc8fa1-20b8-4271-9018-7ac9004c16bc Bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics are a growing global health crisis. One type of antibiotic resistance arises when certain bacteria that can produce enzymes called extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (or ESBLs for short) become more common in the gut. These enzymes stop important antibiotics, like penicillin, from working. However, exactly which antibiotics and treatment durations contribute to the emergence of this antibiotic resistance remain unknown.

Now, Niehus et al. find certain antibiotics that are associated with an increase in the number of gut bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes for ESBL enzymes. First, rectal swabs collected from 133 patients from three European hospitals were analysed to measure the total gut bacteria and the number of genes for ESBL enzymes. These samples had been collected at several time points including when the patient was first admitted to hospital, then every two to three days during their stay, and finally when they were discharged.

Combining the analysis of the samples with details of the patients’ charts showed that treatment with two antibiotics: cefuroxime and ceftriaxone, was linked to an increase in ESBL genes in the gut bacteria. Other antibiotics – namely, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and oral ciprofloxacin – were associated with a decrease in the number of bacteria with ESBL genes. Niehus et al. then performed further analysis to see if different treatment regimens affected how long patients were carrying gut bacteria with ESBL genes. This predicted that a longer course of meropenem, 14 days rather than 5 days, would shorten the length of time patients carried ESBL-resistant bacteria in their guts by 70%, although this effect will likely depend on the location of the hospital and the local prevalence of other types of antibiotic resistance.

This analysis reveals new details about how antibiotic treatment can affect ESBL resistance genes. More studies are needed to understand how antibiotics affect other antibiotic resistance genes and how resistant bacteria spread. This will help scientists understand how much specific antibiotic regimens contribute to antibiotic resistance. It may also help scientists develop new antibiotic treatment strategies that reduce antibiotic resistance.

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<![CDATA[Sex Differences in Mortality From COVID-19 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naca62fe8-36a1-4319-a1e6-0c1cfa8de335 <![CDATA[Geographic Variation and Associated Covariates of Diabetes Prevalence in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfae144f1-3668-4867-b48f-035ada0ebffd Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder affecting human health worldwide, with increasing prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Gaps in knowledge regarding factors that lead to diabetes and its association with tuberculosis (TB) endemicity at the national scale still exist, mainly because of the lack of large-scale dual testing and appropriate evaluation methods.ObjectivesTo identify locations in India where diabetes prevalence is concentrated, examine the association of diabetes with sociodemographic and behavioral covariates, and uncover where high regional TB endemicity overlaps with diabetes.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis cross-sectional study included 803 164 men aged 15 to 54 years and women aged 15 to 49 years who participated in the Demographic Health Survey (2015-2016), carried out by the India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare using a 2-stage clustered sampling, which included a diabetes estimation component. The survey was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016, and data analysis was conducted from July 2018 to January 2019.ExposuresSelf-reported diabetes status.Main Outcomes and MeasuresSelf-reported diabetes status was used to estimate the association of covariates, including educational level, sex, age, religion, marital status, alcohol use, tobacco use, obesity status, and household socioeconomic level, with diabetes prevalence. Additionally, regional tuberculosis endemicity level, estimated using the India TB report for 2014 from the Revised National TB Program, was included to evaluate the national extent of the spatial overlap of diabetes and TB.ResultsAmong 803 164 sampled individuals (691 982 [86.2%] women; mean [SD] age, 30.09 [9.97] years), substantial geographic variation in diabetes prevalence in India was found, with a concentrated burden at the southern coastline (cluster 1, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana: prevalence, 3.01% [1864 of 61 948 individuals]; cluster 2, Tamil Nadup and Kerala: prevalence, 4.32% [3429 of 79 435 individuals]; cluster 3, east Orissa: prevalence, 2.81% [330 of 11 758 individuals]; cluster 4, Goa: prevalence, 4.43% [83 of 1883 individuals]). Having obesity and overweight (odds ratio [OR], 2.44; 95% CI, 2.18-2.73; P < .001; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.52-1.82; P < .001, respectively), smoking tobacco (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.66-5.56; P < .001), and consuming alcohol (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37-2.95; P < .001) were associated with increased odds of diabetes. Regional TB endemicity and diabetes spatial distributions showed that there is a lack of consistent geographical overlap between these 2 diseases (eg, TB cluster 4: 60 213 TB cases; 186.79 diabetes cases in 20 183.88 individuals; 0.93% diabetes prevalence; TB cluster 8: 47 381 TB cases; 180.53 diabetes cases in 22 449.18 individuals; 0.80% diabetes prevalence; TB cluster 9: 37 620 TB cases, 601.45 diabetes cases in 12 879.36 individuals; 4.67% diabetes prevalence).Conclusions and RelevanceIn this study, identifying spatial clusters of diabetes on the basis of a nationally representative survey suggests that India may face different levels of disease severity, and each region might need to implement control strategies that are more appropriate for its unique epidemiologic context. ]]> <![CDATA[Alcohol consumption and employment: a cross-sectional study of office workers and unemployed people]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N28c772c5-9f34-41bf-a5f0-b9404861d62f

Background

Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with toxic and addictive properties. Biomarkers like GGT, AST, ALT and MCV are influenced by excessive ethanol consumption. Alcohol consumption represents a health risk and it has been linked to unemployment. The aim of this study how working status predict alcohol consumption through a cross sectional study comparing alcohol-related biomarkers levels in office workers and unemployed people.

Methods

This study includes 157 office workers and 157 unemployed people, who were recruited from January to December 2018. A propensity score matching procedure was applied to obtain two homogenous groups in terms of age and gender. A non-parametric analysis was performed on serum biomarkers that are generally altered by alcohol consumption. Logistic regression models were designed to evaluate how working status predict abnormal biomarker levels related with alcohol consumption.

Results

No differences in median biomarker values were found between groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that office work is a negative predictor of pathological biomarker levels. Office workers had a significant relation with the levels of GGT (OR 0.48; 95% CI [0.28–0.84]), AST (OR 0.42; 95% CI [0.22–0.78]), ALT (OR 0.39; 95% CI [0.23–0.66]), and MCV (OR 0.37; 95% CI [0.19–0.70]).

Conclusion

Office workers had lower absolute frequencies of pathological values of alcohol consumption biomarkers, after matching for age and gender compared with unemployed people. In addition, a significant negative association between office work is a negative predictor of biomarker levels of alcohol consumption. These results showed that work is an important determinant of health and that can represent a benefit for workers in terms of reducing the risk of consuming alcohol.

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<![CDATA[Activity-specific mobility of adults in a rural region of western Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e9b6131-dcc1-4ce3-b41a-e8af9aa39f8c

Improving rural household access to resources such as markets, schools and healthcare can help alleviate poverty in low-income settings. Current models of geographic accessibility to various resources rarely take individual variation into account due to a lack of appropriate data, yet understanding mobility at an individual level is key to knowing how people access their local resources. Our study used both an activity-specific survey and GPS trackers to evaluate how adults in a rural area of western Kenya accessed local resources. We calculated the travel time and time spent at six different types of resource and compared the GPS and survey data to see how well they matched. We found links between several demographic characteristics and the time spent at different resources, and that the GPS data reflected the survey data well for time spent at some types of resource, but poorly for others. We conclude that demography and activity are important drivers of mobility, and a better understanding of individual variation in mobility could be obtained through the use of GPS trackers on a wider scale.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of the adult US population regarding the novel coronavirus outbreak]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N553f4024-2f4a-46cb-88f1-f6e3510ba4a4

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is spreading globally. Although COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic and risk for infection in the United States (US) is currently high, at the time of survey administration the risk of infection in the US was low. It is important to understand the public perception of risk and trust in sources of information to better inform public health messaging. In this study, we surveyed the adult US population to understand their risk perceptions about the COVID-19 outbreak. We used an online platform to survey 718 adults in the US in early February 2020 using a questionnaire that we developed. Our sample was fairly similar to the general adult US population in terms of age, gender, race, ethnicity and education. We found that 69% of the respondents wanted the scientific/public health leadership (either the CDC Director or NIH Director) to lead the US response to COVID-19 outbreak as compared to 14% who wanted the political leadership (either the president or Congress) to lead the response. Risk perception was low (median score of 5 out of 10) with the respondents trusting health professionals and health officials for information on COVID-19. The majority of respondents were in favor of strict infection prevention policies to control the outbreak. Given our results, the public health/scientific leadership should be at the forefront of the COVID-19 response to promote trust.

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<![CDATA[Will COVID-19 become the next neglected tropical disease?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3ea3a36c-f707-4121-8cab-1c306bbb1993 ]]> <![CDATA[A systematic analysis of online public engagement with 10 videos on major global health topics involving 229 459 global online viewers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3b3d99f1-0091-4076-884f-455c1341be28

Background

Online interest in issues specific to global health outside of times of pandemics or other crises is rather limited. To achieve long term global health goals, public support and engagement needs to be fostered on a continual basis. Strategies for capturing the attention of the general public online for the persisting problems outside of emergency situations are poorly defined. There are only a few isolated examples of success. In this study we explored the engagement of the viewers with different global health topics that were provided on public and privately advertised YouTube channels.

Methods

We developed the Massive Open Online Course “Survival: The Story of Global Health”, consisting of 10 educational videos on major global health topics. We conducted two experiments in two separate samples of viewers. The first was based on posting videos on a YouTube channel between August 30 and September 30, 2017 and collecting analytics on the viewership. By June 30, 2019 this approach attracted 41 305 viewers. The second experiment was more controlled and conducted on a private YouTube channel and the videos were advertised to reach a high number of viewers. This attracted 188 154 viewers and we collected data on viewers' behaviour using YouTube Analytics. We investigated the nature of engagement, which was defined by 22 different parameters.

Results

In the first experiment, there were clear differences in all measured parameters of engagement based on the topic of the video. Episodes on pandemics (14 594 views) and human evolution (10 761 views) were clear outliers, while the remaining 8 episodes received between 1110 and 3197 views. In the second experiment, there were several clear differences between the 10 videos in the parameters analysed through YouTube Analytics. Episode 2 on maternal and child health had the highest view rate (18.90%), followed by Episode 7 on international organisations in global health (16.83%). At the bottom of the rank were Episode 6 on ageing and dying (view rate of 13.83%) and Episode 5 on non-communicable diseases (view rate 14.59%).

Conclusions

We determined that 5 main interdependent factors contributed to the success or failure of our global health videos: Responsive content, timing, contribution to public debate, emotional valency and endorsement from an authentic scientific voice with a strong public profile. Several of these factors are also recognised as important in marketing research which may indicate the value of such techniques for use in a global health context. In order to communicate long term sustainable solutions to complex issues in a capricious media landscape focused on transient issues the global health community needs to embrace novel marketing approaches.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of public engagement with ten major global health topics on a social network profile and a newspaper website]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfefaa75f-8e4c-4445-8ad6-5caf91d38138

Background

Efforts in global health and development have broad political support and substantial financial commitment from most governments. However, this support could be greater if global health issues featured more prominently in the public debate. It has proven quite difficult to make global health issues attractive for viewing and engaging with, as compared to other forms of entertainment or public debates in the media.

Methods

Within the Massive Open Online Course “Survival: The Story of Global Health”, we created 10 educational videos on major global health topics. Between August 1 and September 30, 2017, we posted each episode with a brief background text on the Facebook profile of the narrator, who had an average of 450 friends and further 800 followers throughout the period of study. We studied the interaction of Facebook friends and followers with each posted video, tracing the number of their “likes”, “shares” and “comments”. Moreover, a popular Croatian online newspaper portal with about 250 000 daily viewers shared three of these stories after they were posted on Facebook and views, shares and comments were monitored. We recorded the effect on the number of YouTube views of the featured videos.

Results

The 10 posts received between 65 and 274 “likes” on the Facebook profile and between 2 and 124 shares, receiving between 0 and 17 comments. The three episodes that were shared by the online newspaper portal were further shared between 164 and 2820 times, receiving between 8 and 111 comments from the general public. The effect of these two promotion channels on YouTube viewership resulted in between 107 and 9784 views of the 10 featured videos, with the number of “likes” received on YouTube ranging between 0 and 43. The video that raised the most attention and shares was the one on the history of pandemics, which also had the highest number of shares on YouTube (n=69), followed by the video on human evolution (n = 14). Topics of non-communicable diseases, ageing and dying, and the future of humanity were also popular, while the topics more specific to global health raised less interest - ie, maternal and child mortality, major infectious diseases, international organizations, inequality and equity, and the UN Millennium Development Goals.

Conclusion

Our study showed that the interest in “core” global health topics was, as a rule, lower than in the topics which have a more general appeal - such as pandemic threat, human origins, ageing and dying. If we aim to increase public interest in global health topics, a feasible strategy would be to adjust the language and presentation used to be of more appeal to popular culture. Linking promotional materials to other popular topics that are dominating the public debate or capturing their interest could prove to be a successful strategy to achieve this.

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<![CDATA[Effective approaches to public engagement with global health topics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nca773a2c-bd49-40a7-8ae0-42aca2c36a60

Background

“Public engagement” in science is a term that covers a broad spectrum of activities undertaken by the scientific community. The precise definitions are constantly evolving to incorporate new means of engagement, facilitated by emerging technologies. Global health research is amenable to community engagement and popularization, but it is difficult to know which strategies work best to attract considerable attention from the public.

Methods

This is a review of the articles and documents that address the question of public engagement with topics in medical sciences, particularly in global health. Semantic searches were conducted using Google Scholar rather than indexed databases due to poor indexing of the topic. More than 1000 titles were screened and 48 articles were retained as most useful. It then moves to a more specific topic of the online public engagement in global health.

Results

The review presents the attempts to define public engagement in science and its general importance, particularly in the field of global health. Examples of the latter include tobacco use, vaccination, and maternal and child health. In reviewing effective approaches to public engagement in global health through online video campaigns, it studies the examples of crowdfunding, USAID’s First Public Engagement Campaign, World Health Organization's Social Media Campaigns and the impact of Global Health Media Project.

Conclusions

This review reveals three key gaps in the understanding of determinants of effective online public engagement in global health. The mixed results of traditional mass media campaigns in global health emphasise the calls for more research on message content. A framework for effective message content would help in both raising awareness of key issues and creating behaviour change in the general public. Moreover, it is surprising to find no formal research on what constitutes effective video content in global health. Finally, few studies considered important metrics to track in social media campaigns. There is a clear need to investigate which video features are effective in global health online public engagement. Success will be defined through key video marketing metrics and tracked in order to isolate effective content features.

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<![CDATA[The next pandemic: on the front lines against humankind's gravest dangers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb1e56e7a-944d-4382-8b29-77bb81a67b31 ]]> <![CDATA[Impact of community piped water coverage on re-infection with urogenital schistosomiasis in rural South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na9993ddb-20e8-4c4c-b531-5728d4ec080d

Previously, we demonstrated that coverage of piped water in the seven years preceding a parasitological survey was strongly predictive of Schistosomiasis haematobium infection in a nested cohort of 1976 primary school children (Tanser, 2018). Here, we report on the prospective follow up of infected members of this nested cohort (N = 333) for two successive rounds following treatment. Using a negative binomial regression fitted to egg count data, we found that every percentage point increase in piped water coverage was associated with 4.4% decline in intensity of re-infection (incidence rate ratio = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–0.98, p=0.004) among the treated children. We therefore provide further compelling evidence in support of the scaleup of piped water as an effective control strategy against Schistosoma haematobium transmission.

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<![CDATA[Association of metabolically healthy obesity and elevated risk of coronary artery calcification: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67905ba7-0360-4346-a147-36188b4ec61b

Background

Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) is defined as obesity with less than two parameters of metabolic abnormalities. Some studies report that MHO individuals show similar risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) individuals, but the results are conflicting. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) reflects the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and is a useful tool to predict future risk of CVD. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether MHO is associated with elevated risk of CAC.

Method

We searched Cochrane, PubMed, and Embase up to April 19, 2019. Prospective cohort and cross-sectional studies examining the association between MHO subjects and CAC were included with MHNO as the reference. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effect models. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were applied to define possible sources of heterogeneity. We conducted this research following a pre-established protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD 42019135006).

Results

A total of nine studies were included in this review and six studies with 23,543 participants were eligible for the meta-analysis. Compared with MHNO subjects, MHO had a higher odds of CAC (OR 1.36, 95% CI [1.11 to 1.66]; I2 = 39%). In the subgroup analysis, the risk associated with MHO participants was significant in cohort studies (OR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.15,1.87], I2 = 0%), and borderline significant in cross-sectional studies. The risk of CAC was also significant in MHO participants defined by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) (OR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.25,1.93], I2 = 0%). The univariate meta-regression model showed that age and smoking status were possible effect modifiers for MHO and CAC risk.

Conclusion

Our meta-analysis showed that MHO phenotypes were associated with elevated risk of CAC compared with MHNO, which reflects the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. People with obesity should strive to achieve normal weight even when only one metabolic abnormality is present.

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