ResearchPad - glomerulonephritis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Influence of total western diet on docosahexaenoic acid suppression of silica-triggered lupus flaring in NZBWF1 mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14732 Lupus is a debilitating multi-organ autoimmune disease clinically typified by periods of flare and remission. Exposing lupus-prone female NZBWF1 mice to crystalline silica (cSiO2), a known human autoimmune trigger, mimics flaring by inducing interferon-related gene (IRG) expression, inflammation, ectopic lymphoid structure (ELS) development, and autoantibody production in the lung that collectively accelerate glomerulonephritis. cSiO2-triggered flaring in this model can be prevented by supplementing mouse diet with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A limitation of previous studies was the use of purified diet that, although optimized for rodent health, does not reflect the high American intake of saturated fatty acid (SFA), ω-6 PUFAs, and total fat. To address this, we employed here a modified Total Western Diet (mTWD) emulating the 50th percentile U.S. macronutrient distribution to discern how DHA supplementation and/or SFA and ω-6 reduction influences cSiO2-triggered lupus flaring in female NZBWF1 mice. Six-week-old mice were fed isocaloric experimental diets for 2 wks, intranasally instilled with cSiO2 or saline vehicle weekly for 4 wks, and tissues assessed for lupus endpoints 11 wks following cSiO2 instillation. In mice fed basal mTWD, cSiO2 induced robust IRG expression, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine elevation, leukocyte infiltration, ELS neogenesis, and autoantibody production in the lung, as well as early kidney nephritis onset compared to vehicle-treated mice fed mTWD. Consumption of mTWD containing DHA at the caloric equivalent to a human dose of 5 g/day dramatically suppressed induction of all lupus-associated endpoints. While decreasing SFA and ω-6 in mTWD modestly inhibited some disease markers, DHA addition to this diet was required for maximal protection against lupus development. Taken together, DHA supplementation at a translationally relevant dose was highly effective in preventing cSiO2-triggered lupus flaring in NZBWF1 mice, even against the background of a typical Western diet.

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<![CDATA[Clinical value of renal phospholipase A2 receptor deposit in the prognosis evaluation and treatment options of idiopathic membranous nephropathy: A retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6d443a71-77b3-4cdf-9a1b-5ed61cb87e9c

Abstract

Aim

Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a target antigen for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). However, the association between renal PLA2R antigen and disease prognosis had not been fully investigated. In addition, there was a paucity of studies investigating the difference of therapeutic effects between cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A in PLA2R‐associated IMN.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study recruited 300 eligible patients diagnosed with biopsy‐proven IMN between September 2015 and July 2018 in Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital. The remission of proteinuria was compared between PLA2R‐associated and non‐PLA2R‐associated IMN. The difference of therapeutic effects between cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine A were also investigated in PLA2R‐associated IMN.

Results

The positive rate of renal PLA2R antigen in recruited IMN patients was 82.3%. Non‐PLA2R‐associated IMN patients had a higher probability to achieve remission than PLA2R‐associated IMN patients (Log–rank test, P = .013). Multivariate COX analysis showed that renal PLA2R antigen was an independent risk factor for not achieving remission in IMN patients (Hazard Ratio: 1.619; 95% confidence interval: 1.133 to 2.313; P = .008). In PLA2R‐associated IMN, patients receiving cyclophosphamide had a higher probability to achieve remission compared with those receiving cyclosporine A (Log–rank test, P = .018) while there was no difference in renal survival. Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that compared with cyclosporine A, patients receiving cyclophosphamide had a higher probability to achieve remission.

Conclusion

Phospholipase A2 receptor ‐associated IMN patients had a lower probability to achieve remission compared with non‐PLA2R‐associated IMN. Compared with cyclosporine A, cyclophosphamide exerted better therapeutic effects in remission of proteinuria and may be the preferred immunosuppressant for PLA2R‐associated IMN.

SUMMARY AT A GLANCE

This article highlighted the prognostic value of intra‐renal phospholipase A2 receptor deposition in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Renal phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R)‐associated IMN patients had a lower probability to achieve remission compared with non‐PLA2R‐associated IMN.

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<![CDATA[IL-17 Expression in the Time Course of Acute Anti-Thy1 Glomerulonephritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da03ab0ee8fa60b74c17

Background

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a new pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in immune response and inflammatory disease. The main source of IL-17 is a subset of CD4+ T-helper cells, but is also secreted by non-immune cells. The present study analyzes expression of IL-17 in the time course of acute anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis and the role of IL-17 as a potential link between inflammation and fibrosis.

Methods

Anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis was induced into male Wistar rats by OX-7 antibody injection. After that, samples were taken on days 1, 5, 10 (matrix expansion phase), 15 and 20 (resolution phase). PBS-injected animals served as controls. Proteinuria and histological matrixes score served as the main markers for disease severity. In in vitro experiments, NRK-52E cells were used. For cytokine expressions, mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by utilizing RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.

Results

Highest IL-17 mRNA-expression (6.50-fold vs. con; p<0.05) was found on day 5 after induction of anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis along the maximum levels of proteinuria (113 ± 13 mg/d; p<0.001), histological glomerular-matrix accumulation (82%; p<0.001) and TGF-β1 (2.2-fold; p<0.05), IL-6 mRNA expression (36-fold; p<0.05). IL-17 protein expression co-localized with the endothelial cell marker PECAM in immunofluorescence. In NRK-52E cells, co-administration of TGF-β1 and IL-6 synergistically up-regulated IL-17 mRNA 4986-fold (p<0.001).

Conclusions

The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 is up-regulated in endothelial cells during the time course of acute anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis. In vitro, NRK-52E cells secrete IL-17 under pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory conditions.

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<![CDATA[LPS Nephropathy in Mice Is Ameliorated by IL-2 Independently of Regulatory T Cells Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf5ab0ee8fa60bc27b1

Immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been hypothesized to exert a protective role in animal models of spontaneous (Buffalo/Mna) and/or drug induced (Adriamycin) nephrotic syndrome. In this study, we thought to define whether Tregs can modify the outcome of LPS nephropathy utilizing IL-2 as inducer of tissue and circulating Tregs. LPS (12 mg/Kg) was given as single shot in C57BL/6, p2rx7−/− and Foxp3EGFP; free IL-2 (18.000 U) or, in alternative, IL-2 coupled with JES6-1 mAb (IL-2/anti-IL-2) were injected before LPS. Peripheral and tissue Tregs/total CD4+ cell ratio, urinary parameters and renal histology were evaluated for 15 days. IL-2 administration to wild type mice had no effect on peripheral Tregs number, whereas a significant increase was induced by the IL-2/anti-IL-2 immunocomplex after 5 days. Spleen and lymph nodes Tregs were comparably increased. In p2rx7−/− mice, IL-2/anti-IL-2 treatment resulted in increase of peripheral Tregs but did not modify the spleen and lymph nodes quota. LPS induced comparable and transient proteinuria in both wild type and p2rx7−/− mice. Proteinuria was inhibited by co-infusion of human IL-2, with reduction at each phase of the disease (24 −48 and 72 hours) whereas IL-2/anti-IL-2 produced weaker effects. In all mice (wild type and p2rx7−/−) and irrespective of treatment (IL-2, IL-2/anti-IL-2), LPS was associated with progressive signs of renal pathologic involvement resulting in glomerulosclerosis. In conclusion, IL-2 plays a transient protective effect on proteinuria induced by LPS independent of circulating or tissue Tregs but does not modify the outcome of renal degenerative renal lesions.

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<![CDATA[PLA2R Antibody Levels and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Membranous Nephropathy and Non-Nephrotic Range Proteinuria under Treatment with Inhibitors of the Renin-Angiotensin System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3dab0ee8fa60b88a03

Patients with primary membranous nephropathy (MN) who experience spontaneous remission of proteinuria generally have an excellent outcome without need of immunosuppressive therapy. It is, however, unclear whether non-nephrotic proteinuria at the time of diagnosis is also associated with good prognosis since a reasonable number of these patients develop nephrotic syndrome despite blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. No clinical or laboratory parameters are available, which allow the assessment of risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria. Phospholipase A2 Receptor antibodies (PLA2R-Ab) play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of primary MN and are associated with persistence of nephrotic proteinuria. In this study we analysed whether PLA2R-Ab levels might predict development of nephrotic syndrome and the clinical outcome in 33 patients with biopsy-proven primary MN and non-nephrotic proteinuria under treatment with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. PLA2R-Ab levels, proteinuria and serum creatinine were measured every three months. Nephrotic-range proteinuria developed in 18 (55%) patients. At study start (1.2±1.5 months after renal biopsy and time of diagnosis), 16 (48%) patients were positive for PLA2R-Ab. A multivariate analysis showed that PLA2R-Ab levels were associated with an increased risk for development of nephrotic proteinuria (HR = 3.66; 95%CI: 1.39–9.64; p = 0.009). Immunosuppressive therapy was initiated more frequently in PLA2R-Ab positive patients (13 of 16 patients, 81%) compared to PLA2R-Ab negative patients (2 of 17 patients, 12%). PLA2R-Ab levels are associated with higher risk for development of nephrotic-range proteinuria in this cohort of non-nephrotic patients at the time of diagnosis and should be closely monitored in the clinical management.

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<![CDATA[Urinary Exosomes: A Novel Means to Non-Invasively Assess Changes in Renal Gene and Protein Expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da91ab0ee8fa60ba0489

Background

In clinical practice, there is a lack of markers for the non-invasive diagnosis and follow-up of kidney disease. Exosomes are membrane vesicles, which are secreted from their cells of origin into surrounding body fluids and contain proteins and mRNA which are protected from digestive enzymes by a cell membrane.

Methods

Toxic podocyte damage was induced by puromycin aminonucleoside in rats (PAN). Urinary exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation at different time points during the disease. Exosomal mRNA was isolated, amplified, and the mRNA species were globally assessed by gene array analysis. Tissue-specific gene and protein expression was assessed by RT-qPCR analysis and immunohistochemistry.

Results

Gene array analysis of mRNA isolated from urinary exosomes revealed cystatin C mRNA as one of the most highly regulated genes. Its gene expression increased 7.5-fold by day 5 and remained high with a 1.9-fold increase until day 10. This was paralleled by a 2-fold increase in cystatin C mRNA expression in the renal cortex. Protein expression in the kidneys also dramatically increased with de novo expression of cystatin C in glomerular podocytes in parts of the proximal tubule and the renal medulla. Urinary excretion of cystatin C increased approximately 2-fold.

Conclusion

In this proof-of-concept study, we could demonstrate that changes in urinary exosomal cystatin C mRNA expression are representative of changes in renal mRNA and protein expression. Because cells lining the urinary tract produce urinary exosomal cystatin C mRNA, it might be a more specific marker of renal damage than glomerular-filtered free cystatin C.

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<![CDATA[IFI27 Is a Useful Genetic Marker for Diagnosis of Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy and Membranous Nephropathy Using Peripheral Blood]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6dab0ee8fa60b93766

Diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) depends primarily on renal biopsy, which is expensive and requires hospitalization, creating a demand for noninvasive diagnostic method for this disease. We used DNA microarray analysis to search for genes whose expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) could distinguish between patients with CGN and healthy volunteers (HVs). We selected immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and membranous nephropathy (MN) as typical forms of CGN. The mRNA level of the gene encoding interferon (IFN)-alpha-inducible protein 27, IFI27, which is preferentially expressed in podocytes of glomeruli, was lower in PBMCs of IgAN and MN patients than in those of HVs. This result was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the IFI27 mRNA level was reduced in PBMCs of patients with other types of chronic glomerulonephritis. IFI27 immunohistochemical staining of biopsied specimens also confirmed reduced expression of IFI27 protein in IgAN and MN patients. Based on these results, we propose that IFI27 could serve as a noninvasive diagnostic marker for CGNs using peripheral blood.

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<![CDATA[HBV-Associated Postinfectious Acute Glomerulonephritis: A Report of 10 Cases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae4ab0ee8fa60bbcd1f

Postinfectious acute glomerulonephritis (PIGN) may occur after various bacterial and viral infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a cause of chronic glomerulonephritis. We report here 10 cases (ages 7–20 years-old) of chronic HBV carriers with acute glomerulonephritis, with positive glomerular staining of hepatitis B surface antigen, and detectable presence of HBV DNA in the glomeruli. This form of PIGN, HBV-PIGN, has not been previously identified. To further characterize clinical and pathological features of HBV- PIGN, we selected 10 cases of age-matched non-HBV PIGN for comparison. While both HBV associated PIGN and non-HBV PIGN similarly presented as proteinuria, hematuria, and hypertension, there was a trend of higher acute kidney injury and worsened prognosis in HBV-PIGN. 6 months after the onset, 4 patients with HBV associated PIGN did not show improvement from the disease, whereas all patients with non-HBV PIGN had complete or partial recovery. Pathologically, both HBV associated PIGN and non-HBV PIGN showed typical diffuse glomerular endocapillary proliferation, but HBV associated PIGN differed from classical PIGN with much fewer sub-epithelial glomerular “hump-shape” immune complex depositions. In conclusion, we have identified a novel association of HBV infection with acute glomerulonephritis.

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<![CDATA[The Structural and Functional Organization of the Podocyte Filtration Slits Is Regulated by Tjp1/ZO-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9eeab0ee8fa60b6d7ff

Blood filtration in the kidney glomerulus is essential for physiological homeostasis. The filtration apparatus of the kidney glomerulus is composed of three distinct components: the fenestrated endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane, and interdigitating foot processes of podocytes that form the slit diaphragm. Recent studies have demonstrated that podocytes play a crucial role in blood filtration and in the pathogenesis of proteinuria and glomerular sclerosis; however, the molecular mechanisms that organize the podocyte filtration barrier are not fully understood. In this study, we suggest that tight junction protein 1 (Tjp1 or ZO-1), which is encoded by Tjp1 gene, plays an essential role in establishing the podocyte filtration barrier. The podocyte-specific deletion of Tjp1 down-regulated the expression of podocyte membrane proteins, impaired the interdigitation of the foot processes and the formation of the slit diaphragm, resulting in glomerular dysfunction. We found the possibility that podocyte filtration barrier requires the integration of two independent units, the pre-existing epithelial junction components and the newly synthesized podocyte-specific components, at the final stage in glomerular morphogenesis, for which Tjp1 is indispensable. Together with previous findings that Tjp1 expression was decreased in glomerular diseases in human and animal models, our results indicate that the suppression of Tjp1 could directly aggravate glomerular disorders, highlights Tjp1 as a potential therapeutic target.

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<![CDATA[Pre-Transplant Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affect Kidney Allograft Survival: A Multi-Center Study in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0eab0ee8fa60b78c1d

Background

Pre-transplant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors affect the development of CV events even after successful kidney transplantation (KT). However, the impact of pre-transplant CV risk factors on allograft failure (GF) has not been reported.

Methods and Findings

We analyzed the graft outcomes of 2,902 KT recipients who were enrolled in a multi-center cohort from 1997 to 2012. We calculated the pre-transplant CV risk scores based on the Framingham risk model using age, gender, total cholesterol level, smoking status, and history of hypertension. Vascular disease (a composite of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease) was noted in 6.5% of the patients. During the median follow-up of 6.4 years, 286 (9.9%) patients had developed GF. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, pre-transplant vascular disease was associated with an increased risk of GF (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.66–3.80). The HR for GF (comparing the highest with the lowest tertile regarding the pre-transplant CV risk scores) was 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.23). In the competing risk model, both pre-transplant vascular disease and CV risk score were independent risk factors for GF. Moreover, the addition of the CV risk score, the pre-transplant vascular disease, or both had a better predictability for GF compared to the traditional GF risk factors.

Conclusions

In conclusion, both vascular disease and pre-transplant CV risk score were independently associated with GF in this multi-center study. Pre-transplant CV risk assessments could be useful in predicting GF in KT recipients.

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<![CDATA[Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afa0327463d7e217812b647

This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiogenic agents.

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<![CDATA[Trehalose, an mTOR Independent Autophagy Inducer, Alleviates Human Podocyte Injury after Puromycin Aminonucleoside Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3aab0ee8fa60b87990

Glomerular diseases are commonly characterized by podocyte injury including apoptosis, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and detachment. However, the strategies for preventing podocyte damage remain insufficient. Recently autophagy has been regarded as a vital cytoprotective mechanism for keeping podocyte homeostasis. Thus, it is reasonable to utilize this mechanism to attenuate podocyte injury. Trehalose, a natural disaccharide, is an mTOR independent autophagy inducer. It is unclear whether trehalose alleviates podocyte injury. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of trehalose in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-treated podocytes which mimic cell damage in minimal change nephrotic syndrome in vitro. Human conditional immortalized podocytes were treated with trehalose with or without PAN. Autophagy was investigated by immunofluorescence staining for LC3 puncta and Western blotting for LC3, Atg5, p-AMPK, p-mTOR and its substrates. Podocyte apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry and by measuring lactate dehydrogenase activity respectively. We also performed migration assay to examine podocyte recovery. It was shown that trehalose induced podocyte autophagy in an mTOR independent manner and without reactive oxygen species involvement. Podocyte apoptosis significantly decreased after trehalose treatment, while the inhibition of trehalose-induced autophagy abolished its protective effect. Additionally, the disrupted actin cytoskeleton of podocytes was partially reversed by trehalose, accompanying with less lamellipodias and diminished motility. These results suggested that trehalose induced autophagy in human podocytes and showed cytoprotective effects in PAN-treated podocytes.

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<![CDATA[Increased trefoil factor 2 levels in patients with chronic kidney disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc858

In chronically damaged tissue, trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides ensure epithelial protection and restitution. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), TFF1 and TFF2 are reported to be upregulated. Especially in the early phase, CKD is associated with silently ongoing renal damage and inflammation. Moreover, many patients are diagnosed late during disease progression. We therefore sought to investigate the potential of TFF2 as biomarker for CKD. We followed 118 patients suffering from predialysis CKD and 23 healthy volunteers. TFF2 concentrations were measured using ELISA. Our results showed, that median TFF2 serum levels were significantly higher in patients with later CKD stages as compared to healthy controls (p < 0.001) or early stages (p < 0.001). In patients with mid CKD stages TFF2 serum levels were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p = 0.002). Patients with early or mid CKD stages had significantly higher TFF2 urine concentrations than later CKD stages (p < 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). Fractional TFF2 excretion differed significantly between early CKD stages and healthy controls (p = 0.01). ROC curve showed that TFF2 levels can predict different CKD stages (AUC > 0.75). In conclusion, urine and serum TFF2 levels of CKD patients show a different profile dependent on CKD stages. Whereas TFF2 urine levels continuously decreased with disease progression, TFF2 serum concentrations progressively increased from the early to later CKD stages, indicating changes in renal function and offering the potential to examine the course of CKD.

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<![CDATA[Patient Age and the Prognosis of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b906ba

Background

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is increasingly seen in older patients. However, differences in disease presentation and outcomes between older and younger IMN patients remain controversial. We compared patient characteristics between younger and older IMN patients.

Methods

We recruited 171 Japanese patients with IMN, including 90 (52.6%) patients <65 years old, 40 (23.4%) patients 65–70 years, and 41 (24.0%) patients ≥71 years. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between younger and older IMN patients.

Results

During a median observation period of 37 months, 103 (60.2%) patients achieved complete proteinuria remission, which was not significantly associated with patient age (P = 0.831). However, 13 (7.6%) patients were hospitalized because of infection. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models identified older age [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 3.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–7.49, per 10 years; P = 0.003], prednisolone use (adjusted HR = 11.8, 95% CI: 1.59–242.5; P = 0.014), and cyclosporine used in combination with prednisolone (adjusted HR = 10.3, 95% CI: 1.59–204.4; P = 0.012) as significant predictors of infection. A <25% decrease in proteinuria at 1 month after immunosuppressive therapy initiation also predicted infection (adjusted HR = 6.72, 95% CI: 1.51–37.8; P = 0.012).

Conclusions

Younger and older IMN patients had similar renal outcomes. However, older patients were more likely to develop infection when using immunosuppressants. Patients with a poor response in the first month following the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be carefully monitored for infection and may require a faster prednisolone taper.

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<![CDATA[Significance of Urinary Full-Length Megalin in Patients with IgA Nephropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2dab0ee8fa60b8324c

Background and Objectives

Megalin is highly expressed at the apical membranes of proximal tubular epithelial cells. A urinary full-length megalin (C-megalin) assay is linked to the severity of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. This study examined the relationship between levels of urinary C-megalin and histological findings in adult patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN).

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements

Urine samples voided in the morning on the day of renal biopsy were obtained from 73 patients with IgAN (29 men and 44 women; mean age, 33 years) and 5 patients with membranous nephropathy (MN). Renal pathologic variables were analyzed using the Oxford classification of IgAN, the Shigematsu classification and the Clinical Guidelines of IgAN in Japan. The levels of urinary C-megalin were measured by sandwich ELISA.

Results

Histological analysis based on the Oxford classification revealed that the levels of urinary C-megalin were correlated with mesangial hypercellularity in IgAN patients (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04–3.27, P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the levels of urinary C-megalin and the severity of chronic extracapillary abnormalities according to the Shigematsu classification in IgAN patients (β = 0.33, P = 0.008). The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in all risk levels of IgAN patients requiring dialysis using the Clinical Guidelines of IgAN in Japan than in the control group. The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in the high risk and very high risk grades than in the low risk grade (P<0.05). The levels of urinary C-megalin were significantly higher in MN patients compared to the control group.

Conclusions

The levels of urinary C-megalin are associated with histological abnormalities in adult IgAN patients. There is a possibility that urinary C-megalin is an independent predictor of disease progression of IgAN. In addition, our results suggest that urinary C-megalin is a marker of glomerular abnormalities in various glomerular diseases as well as IgAN.

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<![CDATA[Rapamycin Ameliorates Nephropathy despite Elevating Hyperglycemia in a Polygenic Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes, NONcNZO10/LtJ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da78ab0ee8fa60b977f0

While rapamycin treatment has been reported to have a putatively negative effect on glucose homeostasis in mammals, it has not been tested in polygenic models of type 2 diabetes. One such mouse model, NONcNZO10/LtJ, was treated chronically with rapamycin (14 ppm encapsulated in diet) and monitored for the development of diabetes. As expected, rapamycin treatment accelerated the onset and severity of hyperglycemia. However, development of nephropathy was ameliorated, as both glomerulonephritis and IgG deposition in the subendothelial tuft were markedly reduced. Insulin production and secretion appeared to be inhibited, suppressing the developing hyperinsulinemia present in untreated controls. Rapamycin treatment also reduced body weight gain. Thus, rapamycin reduced some of the complications of diabetes despite elevating hyperglycemia. These results suggest that multiple factors must be evaluated when assessing the benefit vs. hazard of rapamycin treatment in patients that have overt, or are at risk for, type 2 diabetes. Testing of rapamycin in combination with insulin sensitizers is warranted, as such compounds may ameliorate the putative negative effects of rapamycin in the type 2 diabetes environment.

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<![CDATA[Frequency of COL4A3/COL4A4 Mutations amongst Families Segregating Glomerular Microscopic Hematuria and Evidence for Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response. Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Is a Frequent Development during Ageing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b87d5b

Familial glomerular hematuria(s) comprise a genetically heterogeneous group of conditions which include Alport Syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN). Here we investigated 57 Greek-Cypriot families presenting glomerular microscopic hematuria (GMH), with or without proteinuria or chronic kidney function decline, but excluded classical AS. We specifically searched the COL4A3/A4 genes and identified 8 heterozygous mutations in 16 families (28,1%). Eight non-related families featured the founder mutation COL4A3-p.(G1334E). Renal biopsies from 8 patients showed TBMN and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Ten patients (11.5%) reached end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) at ages ranging from 37-69-yo (mean 50,1-yo). Next generation sequencing of the patients who progressed to ESKD failed to reveal a second mutation in any of the COL4A3/A4/A5 genes, supporting that true heterozygosity for COL4A3/A4 mutations predisposes to CRF/ESKD. Although this could be viewed as a milder and late-onset form of autosomal dominant AS, we had no evidence of ultrastructural features or extrarenal manifestations that would justify this diagnosis. Functional studies in cultured podocytes transfected with wild type or mutant COL4A3 chains showed retention of mutant collagens and differential activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) cascade. This signifies the potential role of the UPR cascade in modulating the final phenotype in patients with collagen IV nephropathies.

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<![CDATA[Circulating TNF Receptors Are Significant Prognostic Biomarkers for Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db44ab0ee8fa60bd7e57

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. A biomarker to accurately indicate the severity of iMN and predict long-term prognosis is insufficient. Here, we evaluated the clinical significance of circulating tumor necrosis factor receptors (cTNFRs) as prognostic biomarkers of iMN with nephrotic syndrome. A total of 113 patients with biopsy-proven iMN and 43 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Ninety patients with iMN had nephrotic range proteinuria. Levels of cTNFRs were measured by using serum samples collected at the time of initial diagnosis. Levels of cTNFRs were higher in the patients with nephrotic syndrome than in those with subnephrotic range proteinuria or in the healthy volunteers (P for trend <0.001). Estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria tended to worsen as the cTNFRs levels increased. Having a cTNFR1 level within the highest tertile was a significant risk factor for renal progression after adjustment, in comparison with the other tertiles (hazard ratio [HR], 3.39; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.48–7.78; P = 0.004). The cTNFR2 level within the highest tertile also significantly increased the risk of renal progression (HR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.43–7.54; P = 0.005). Renal tubular TNFRs expression was associated with cTNFRs level. However, the cTNFRs levels were not associated with autoantibody against phospholipase A2 receptor reactivity/levels or treatment response. This study demonstrated that cTNFRs levels at the time of initial diagnosis could predict renal progression in patients with iMN.

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<![CDATA[The Molecular Phenotype of Endocapillary Proliferation: Novel Therapeutic Targets for IgA Nephropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daffab0ee8fa60bc5fe5

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disease. Endocapillary proliferation is associated with higher risk of progressive disease, and clinical studies suggest that corticosteroids mitigate this risk. However, corticosteroids are associated with protean cellular effects and significant toxicity. Furthermore the precise mechanism by which they modulate kidney injury in IgAN is not well delineated. To better understand molecular pathways involved in the development of endocapillary proliferation and to identify novel specific therapeutic targets, we evaluated the glomerular transcriptome of microdissected kidney biopsies from 22 patients with IgAN. Endocapillary proliferation was defined according to the Oxford scoring system independently by 3 nephropathologists. We analyzed mRNA expression using microarrays and identified transcripts differentially expressed in patients with endocapillary proliferation compared to IgAN without endocapillary lesions. Next, we employed both transcription factor analysis and in silico drug screening and confirmed that the endocapillary proliferation transcriptome is significantly enriched with pathways that can be impacted by corticosteroids. With this approach we also identified novel therapeutic targets and bioactive small molecules that may be considered for therapeutic trials for the treatment of IgAN, including resveratrol and hydroquinine. In summary, we have defined the distinct molecular profile of a pathologic phenotype associated with progressive renal insufficiency in IgAN. Exploration of the pathways associated with endocapillary proliferation confirms a molecular basis for the clinical effectiveness of corticosteroids in this subgroup of IgAN, and elucidates new therapeutic strategies for IgAN.

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<![CDATA[Decreased miR-26a Expression Correlates with the Progression of Podocyte Injury in Autoimmune Glomerulonephritis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad1ab0ee8fa60bb6755

MicroRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. We analyzed glomerular microRNA expression in B6.MRLc1, which serve as a mouse model of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. We found that miR-26a was the most abundantly expressed microRNA in the glomerulus of normal C57BL/6 and that its glomerular expression in B6.MRLc1 was significantly lower than that in C57BL/6. In mouse kidneys, podocytes mainly expressed miR-26a, and glomerular miR-26a expression in B6.MRLc1 mice correlated negatively with the urinary albumin levels and podocyte-specific gene expression. Puromycin-induced injury of immortalized mouse podocytes decreased miR-26a expression, perturbed the actin cytoskeleton, and increased the release of exosomes containing miR-26a. Although miR-26a expression increased with differentiation of immortalized mouse podocytes, silencing miR-26a decreased the expression of genes associated with the podocyte differentiation and formation of the cytoskeleton. In particular, the levels of vimentin and actin significantly decreased. In patients with lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy, glomerular miR-26a levels were significantly lower than those of healthy controls. In B6.MRLc1 and patients with lupus nephritis, miR-26a levels in urinary exosomes were significantly higher compared with those for the respective healthy control. These data indicate that miR-26a regulates podocyte differentiation and cytoskeletal integrity, and its altered levels in glomerulus and urine may serve as a marker of injured podocytes in autoimmune glomerulonephritis.

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