ResearchPad - glycocalyx https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[3D-Reconstruction of the human conventional outflow system by ribbon scanning confocal microscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15723 The risk for glaucoma is driven by the microanatomy and function of the anterior segment. We performed a computation-intense, high-resolution, full-thickness ribbon-scanning confocal microscopy (RSCM) of the outflow tract of two human eyes. We hypothesized this would reveal important species differences when compared to existing data of porcine eyes, an animal that does not spontaneously develop glaucoma.MethodsAfter perfusing two human octogenarian eyes with lectin-fluorophore conjugate and optical clearance with benzyl alcohol benzyl benzoate (BABB), anterior segments were scanned by RSCM and reconstructed in 3D for whole-specimen rendering. Morphometric analyses of the outflow tract were performed for the trabecular meshwork (TM), limbal, and perilimbal outflow structures and compared to existing porcine data.ResultsRSCM provided high-resolution data for IMARIS-based surface reconstruction of outflow tract structures in 3D. Different from porcine eyes with an abundance of highly interconnected, narrow, and short collector channels (CCs), human eyes demonstrated fewer CCs which had a 1.5x greater cross-sectional area (CSA) and 2.6x greater length. Proximal CC openings at the level of Schlemm’s canal (SC) had a 1.3x larger CSA than distal openings into the scleral vascular plexus (SVP). CCs were 10.2x smaller in volume than the receiving SVP vessels. Axenfeld loops, projections of the long ciliary nerve, were also visualized.ConclusionIn this high-resolution, volumetric RSCM analysis, human eyes had far fewer outflow tract vessels than porcine eyes. Human CCs spanned several clock-hours and were larger than in porcine eyes. These species differences may point to factors downstream of the TM that increase our vulnerability to glaucoma. ]]> <![CDATA[Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is critical for dengue NS1-induced endothelial glycocalyx degradation and hyperpermeability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af0b540463d7e1d4f6521d7

Vascular leakage is one of the salient characteristics of severe dengue. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of dengue virus (DENV) can stimulate endothelial cells to secrete endothelial hyperpermeability factor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and the glycocalyx degradation factor heparanase 1 (HPA-1). However, it is unclear whether MIF is directly involved in NS1-induced glycocalyx degradation. In this study, we observed that among NS1, MIF and glycocalyx degradation-related molecules, the HPA-1, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and syndecan 1 (CD138) serum levels were all increased in dengue patients, and only NS1 and MIF showed a positive correlation with the CD138 level in severe patients. To further characterize and clarify the relationship between MIF and CD138, we used recombinant NS1 to stimulate human cells in vitro and challenge mice in vivo. Our tabulated results suggested that NS1 stimulation could induce human endothelial cells to secrete HPA-1 and immune cells to secrete MMP-9, resulting in endothelial glycocalyx degradation and hyperpermeability. Moreover, HPA-1, MMP-9, and CD138 secretion after NS1 stimulation was blocked by MIF inhibitors or antibodies both in vitro and in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that MIF directly engages in dengue NS1-induced glycocalyx degradation and that targeting MIF may represent a possible therapeutic approach for preventing dengue-induced vascular leakage.

]]>
<![CDATA[Transfusion of standard-issue packed red blood cells induces pulmonary vasoconstriction in critically ill patients after cardiac surgery—A randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c900d76d5eed0c48407e9d3

Background

Experimental and volunteer studies have reported pulmonary vasoconstriction during transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) stored for prolonged periods. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether transfusion of PRBCs stored over 21 days (standard-issue, siPRBCs) increases pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) to a greater extent than transfusion of PRBCs stored for less then 14 days (fresh, fPRBCs) in critically ill patients following cardiac surgery. The key secondary aim was to assess whether the pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) increases after transfusion of siPRBCs to a greater extent than after transfusion of fPRBCs.

Methods

The study was performed as a single-center, double-blinded, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Leukoreduced PRBCs were transfused while continuously measuring hemodynamic parameters. Systemic concentrations of syndecan-1 were measured to assess glycocalyx injury. After randomizing 19 patients between January 2014 and June 2016, the study was stopped due to protracted patient recruitment.

Results

Of 19 randomized patients, 11 patients were transfused and included in statistical analyses. Eight patients were excluded prior to transfusion, 6 patients received fPRBCs (10±3 storage days), whereas 5 patients received siPRBCs (33±4 storage days). The increase in PAP (7±3 vs. 2±2 mmHg, P = 0.012) was greater during transfusion of siPRBCs than during transfusion of fPRBCs. In addition, the change in PVRI (150±89 vs. -4±37 dyn·s·cm-5·m2, P = 0.018) was greater after transfusion of siPRBCs than after transfusion of fPRBCs. The increase in PAP correlated with the change of systemic syndecan-1 concentrations at the end of transfusion (R = 0.64,P = 0.034).

Conclusion

Although this study is underpowered and results require verification in larger clinical trials, our findings suggest that transfusion of siPRBCs increases PAP and PVRI to a greater extent than transfusion of fPRBCs in critically ill patients following cardiac surgery. Glycocalyx injury might contribute to pulmonary vasoconstriction associated with transfusion of stored blood.

]]>
<![CDATA[Direct Observation of Enhanced Nitric Oxide in a Murine Model of Diabetic Nephropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad9ab0ee8fa60bb9250

Uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) secondary to redox signaling is a central mechanism in endothelial and macrophage activation. To date studies on the production of nitric oxide (NO) during the development of diabetic complications show paradoxical results. We previously showed that recoupling eNOS by increasing the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) could restore endothelial function and prevent kidney injury in experimental kidney transplantation. Here, we employed a diabetic mouse model to investigate the effects of diabetes on renal tissue NO bioavailability. For this, we used in vivo NO trapping, followed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, we investigated whether coupling of NOS by supplying the cofactor BH4 could restore glomerular endothelial barrier function. Our data show that overall NO availability at the tissue level is not reduced sixteen weeks after the induction of diabetes in apoE knockout mice, despite the presence of factors that cause endothelial dysfunction, and the presence of the endogenous NOS inhibitor ADMA. Targeting uncoupled NOS with the BH4 precursor sepiapterin further increases NO availability, but did not modify renal glomerular injury. Notably, glomerular heparanase activity as a driver for loss of glomerular barrier function was not reduced, pointing towards NOS-independent mechanisms. This was confirmed by unaltered increased glomerular presence of cathepsin L, the protease that activates heparanase.

]]>
<![CDATA[Changes in surface glycosylation and glycocalyx shedding in Trichobilharzia regenti (Schistosomatidae) during the transformation of cercaria to schistosomulum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc86b

The invasive larvae (cercariae) of schistosomes penetrate the skin of their definitive hosts. During the invasion, they undergo dramatic ultrastructural and physiological transitions. These changes result in the development of the subsequent stage, schistosomulum, which migrates through host tissues in close contact with host’s immune system. One of the striking changes in the transforming cercariae is the shedding of their thick tegumental glycocalyx, which represents an immunoattractive structure; therefore its removal helps cercariae to avoid immune attack. A set of commercial fluorescently labeled lectin probes, their saccharide inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies against the trisaccharide Lewis-X antigen (LeX, CD15) were used to characterize changes in the surface saccharide composition of the neuropathogenic avian schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti during the transformation of cercariae to schistosomula, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of various lectins on glycocalyx shedding was evaluated microscopically. The involvement of peptidases and their inhibitors on the shedding of glycocalyx was investigated using T. regenti recombinant cathepsin B2 and a set of peptidase inhibitors. The surface glycocalyx of T. regenti cercariae was rich in fucose and mannose/glucose residues. After the transformation of cercariae in vitro or in vivo within their specific duck host, reduction and vanishing of these epitopes was observed, and galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine emerged. The presence of LeX was not observed on the cercariae, but the antigen was gradually expressed from the anterior part of the body in the developing schistosomula. Some lectins which bind to the cercarial surface also induced secretion from the acetabular penetration glands. Seven lectins induced the shedding of glycocalyx by cercariae, among which five bound strongly to cercarial surface; the effect could be blocked by saccharide inhibitors. Mannose-binding protein, part of the lectin pathway of the complement system, also bound to cercariae and schistosomula, but had little effect on glycocalyx shedding. Our study did not confirm the involvement of proteolysis in glycocalyx shedding.

]]>
<![CDATA[Transport of Gold Nanoparticles by Vascular Endothelium from Different Human Tissues]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daadab0ee8fa60ba9ea7

The selective entry of nanoparticles into target tissues is the key factor which determines their tissue distribution. Entry is primarily controlled by microvascular endothelial cells, which have tissue-specific properties. This study investigated the cellular properties involved in selective transport of gold nanoparticles (<5 nm) coated with PEG-amine/galactose in two different human vascular endothelia. Kidney endothelium (ciGENC) showed higher uptake of these nanoparticles than brain endothelium (hCMEC/D3), reflecting their biodistribution in vivo. Nanoparticle uptake and subcellular localisation was quantified by transmission electron microscopy. The rate of internalisation was approximately 4x higher in kidney endothelium than brain endothelium. Vesicular endocytosis was approximately 4x greater than cytosolic uptake in both cell types, and endocytosis was blocked by metabolic inhibition, whereas cytosolic uptake was energy-independent. The cellular basis for the different rates of internalisation was investigated. Morphologically, both endothelia had similar profiles of vesicles and cell volumes. However, the rate of endocytosis was higher in kidney endothelium. Moreover, the glycocalyces of the endothelia differed, as determined by lectin-binding, and partial removal of the glycocalyx reduced nanoparticle uptake by kidney endothelium, but not brain endothelium. This study identifies tissue-specific properties of vascular endothelium that affects their interaction with nanoparticles and rate of transport.

]]>
<![CDATA[Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of the Endothelial Cell Membrane]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db23ab0ee8fa60bcfae9

We applied surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to cationic gold-labeled endothelial cells to derive SERS-enhanced spectra of the bimolecular makeup of the plasma membrane. A two-step protocol with cationic charged gold nanoparticles followed by silver-intensification to generate silver nanoparticles on the cell surface was employed. This protocol of post-labelling silver-intensification facilitates the collection of SERS-enhanced spectra from the cell membrane without contribution from conjugated antibodies or other molecules. This approach generated a 100-fold SERS-enhancement of the spectral signal. The SERS spectra exhibited many vibrational peaks that can be assigned to components of the cell membrane. We were able to carry out spectral mapping using some of the enhanced wavenumbers. Significantly, the spectral maps suggest the distribution of some membrane components are was not evenly distributed over the cells plasma membrane. These results provide some possible evidence for the existence of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane and show that SERS has great potential for the study and characterization of cell surfaces.

]]>
<![CDATA[Glycocalyx Degradation Induces a Proinflammatory Phenotype and Increased Leukocyte Adhesion in Cultured Endothelial Cells under Flow]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5dab0ee8fa60b90406

Leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is an early step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Effective adhesion requires the binding of leukocytes to their cognate receptors on the surface of endothelial cells. The glycocalyx covers the surface of endothelial cells and is important in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of the glycocalyx in leukocyte adhesion under flow. We performed experiments using 3-D cell culture models, exposing human abdominal aortic endothelial cells to steady laminar shear stress (10 dynes/cm2 for 24 hours). We found that with the enzymatic degradation of the glycocalyx, endothelial cells developed a proinflammatory phenotype when exposed to uniform steady shear stress leading to an increase in leukocyte adhesion. Our results show an up-regulation of ICAM-1 with degradation compared to non-degraded controls (3-fold increase, p<0.05) and we attribute this effect to a de-regulation in NF-κB activity in response to flow. These results suggest that the glycocalyx is not solely a physical barrier to adhesion but rather plays an important role in governing the phenotype of endothelial cells, a key determinant in leukocyte adhesion. We provide evidence for how the destabilization of this structure may be an early and defining feature in the initiation of atherosclerosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Prevents Heparanase Induction and the Development of Proteinuria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da68ab0ee8fa60b92561

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) deficiency exacerbates proteinuria and renal injury in several glomerular diseases, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We recently showed that heparanase is essential for the development of experimental diabetic nephropathy and glomerulonephritis, and hypothesize that heparanase expression is regulated by eNOS. Here, we demonstrate that induction of adriamycin nephropathy (AN) in C57BL/6 eNOS-deficient mice leads to an increased glomerular heparanase expression accompanied with overt proteinuria, which was not observed in the AN-resistant wild type counterpart. In vitro, the eNOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) induced heparanase expression in cultured mouse glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, ADMA enhanced transendothelial albumin passage in a heparanase-dependent manner. We conclude that eNOS prevents heparanase induction and the development of proteinuria.

]]>
<![CDATA[Oral Streptococci Utilize a Siglec-Like Domain of Serine-Rich Repeat Adhesins to Preferentially Target Platelet Sialoglycans in Human Blood]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db19ab0ee8fa60bcdd40

Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group streptococci have a selective advantage in colonizing damaged cardiac valves and cause infective endocarditis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Absence of the Epithelial Glycocalyx As Potential Tumor Marker for the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7dab0ee8fa60b9918d

Detection of cancer at an early stage is pivotal for successful treatment and long term survival, yet early diagnosis requires sensitive and specific markers that can be easily detected by screening procedures. Differences in the surface structure of tumor and healthy cells, if sufficiently pronounced and discernible, may serve that purpose. We analyzed the luminal surface of healthy and neoplastic human colorectal tissues for the presence and architecture of the glycocalyx—a dense network of highly glycosylated proteins—using transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructural analyses showed that 93% of healthy mucosae were covered by an intact glycocalyx. Contrarily, on over 90% of the surface of neoplastic cells the glycocalyx was absent. The sensitivity and specificity of our marker “absence of a glycocalyx” are excellent, being 91% (83–96%) and 96% (89–99%) for adenocarcinomas and 94% (73–100%) and 92% (85–97%) for precancerous polyps (means and 95% confidence intervals). Using a cell culture model we could demonstrate that a particulate probe targeting a cell surface receptor usually concealed beneath the glycocalyx can bind selectively to glycocalyx-free areas of a tumor cell layer. We propose that the absence of a glycocalyx may serve as novel type of tumor marker. If the absence of the glycocalyx can be detected e.g. via binding of imaging probes to non-shielded surface receptors of anomalously differentiated cells, this tumor marker could be used to enable early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

]]>
<![CDATA[Structural Basis for Substrate Specificity of Mammalian Neuraminidases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fdab0ee8fa60b7291b

The removal of sialic acid (Sia) residues from glycoconjugates in vertebrates is mediated by a family of neuraminidases (sialidases) consisting of Neu1, Neu2, Neu3 and Neu4 enzymes. The enzymes play distinct physiological roles, but their ability to discriminate between the types of linkages connecting Sia and adjacent residues and between the identity and arrangement of the underlying sugars has never been systematically studied. Here we analyzed the specificity of neuraminidases by studying the kinetics of hydrolysis of BODIPY-labeled substrates containing common mammalian sialylated oligosaccharides: 3′Sia-LacNAc, 3′SiaLac, SiaLex, SiaLea, SiaLec, 6′SiaLac, and 6′SiaLacNAc. We found significant differences in substrate specificity of the enzymes towards the substrates containing α2,6-linked Sia, which were readily cleaved by Neu3 and Neu1 but not by Neu4 and Neu2. The presence of a branching 2-Fuc inhibited Neu2 and Neu4, but had almost no effect on Neu1 or Neu3. The nature of the sugar residue at the reducing end, either glucose (Glc) or N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) had only a minor effect on all neuraminidases, whereas core structure (1,3 or 1,4 bond between D-galactose (Gal) and GlcNAc) was found to be important for Neu4 strongly preferring β3 (core 1) to β4 (core 2) isomer. Neu3 and Neu4 were in general more active than Neu1 and Neu2, likely due to their preference for hydrophobic substrates. Neu2 and Neu3 were examined by molecular dynamics to identify favorable substrate orientations in the binding sites and interpret the differences in their specificities. Finally, using knockout mouse models, we confirmed that the substrate specificities observed in vitro were recapitulated in enzymes found in mouse brain tissues. Our data for the first time provide evidence for the characteristic substrate preferences of neuraminidases and their ability to discriminate between distinct sialoside targets.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reproducibility of sublingual microcirculation parameters obtained from sidestream darkfield imaging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c940580d5eed0c484538ac6

Background

Changes in the microcirculation may be used as a surrogate outcome in studies on cardiovascular disease. We assessed the reliability characteristics of the sublingual microcirculation parameters Vascular Density (VD), Red Blood Cell Filling (RBCF), and Perfused Boundary Region (PBR) as obtained by sidestream darkfield imaging.

Methods

For each of the three parameters, the variance components of measurement, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), the Standard Error of Measurement, and the limits of agreement were estimated for the intra-rater setting (N = 50) and the inter-rater setting (N = 48). Subsequently, as a proof of concept, the reliability measures were used for a power analysis to design studies to evaluate the effect of acute stimuli–i.e. having a meal (N = 50) and cigarette smoking (N = 21) on the three parameters.

Results

Reproducibility was poor for all three parameters. The intra-rater ICC for 2 measurements was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.53) for the VD, 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.69) for the RBCF, and 0.33 (95% CI: 0.08–0.56) for the PBR. The standard errors of measurement and the limits of agreement for all three parameters were larger than most statistically significant intra-individual or inter-individual differences reported in previous studies. The proofs of concept showed that sample sizes in excess of 600 subjects are necessary to reach statistical significance for the observed effects of having a meal or smoking on VD and PBR.

Conclusions

The reliability of the three sublingual microcirculation parameters in their current form appears to be low and a large sample size is advisable for their use in conditions similar to those we describe.

]]>