ResearchPad - goats https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A model for the assessment of bluetongue virus serotype 1 persistence in Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11225 Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occurrence models and a random forest machine learning algorithm. The endemic model included vector abundance and host-related variables (farm density). The three most relevant variables in the endemic model were the abundance of C. imicola and Obsoletus complex and density of goat farms (AUC 0.86); this model suggests that BTV-1 is more likely to become endemic in central and southwestern regions of Spain. It only requires host- and vector-related variables to identify areas at greater risk of becoming endemic for bluetongue. Our results highlight the importance of suitable Culicoides spp. prediction maps for bluetongue epidemiological studies and decision-making about control and eradication measures.

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<![CDATA[Heat stress modifies the lactational performances and the urinary metabolomic profile related to gastrointestinal microbiota of dairy goats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730b8d5eed0c484f37f98

The aim of the study is to identify the candidate biomarkers of heat stress (HS) in the urine of lactating dairy goats through the application of proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR)-based metabolomic analysis. Dairy does (n = 16) in mid-lactation were submitted to thermal neutral (TN; indoors; 15 to 20°C; 40 to 45% humidity) or HS (climatic chamber; 37°C day, 30°C night; 40% humidity) conditions according to a crossover design (2 periods of 21 days). Thermophysiological traits and lactational performances were recorded and milk composition analyzed during each period. Urine samples were collected at day 15 of each period for 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square—discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) assessment with cross validation were used to identify the goat urinary metabolome from the Human Metabolome Data Base. HS increased rectal temperature (1.2°C), respiratory rate (3.5-fold) and water intake (74%), but decreased feed intake (35%) and body weight (5%) of the lactating does. No differences were detected in milk yield, but HS decreased the milk contents of fat (9%), protein (16%) and lactose (5%). Metabolomics allowed separating TN and HS urinary clusters by PLS-DA. Most discriminating metabolites were hippurate and other phenylalanine (Phe) derivative compounds, which increased in HS vs. TN does. The greater excretion of these gut-derived toxic compounds indicated that HS induced a harmful gastrointestinal microbiota overgrowth, which should have sequestered aromatic amino acids for their metabolism and decreased the synthesis of neurotransmitters and thyroid hormones, with a negative impact on milk yield and composition. In conclusion, HS markedly changed the thermophysiological traits and lactational performances of dairy goats, which were translated into their urinary metabolomic profile through the presence of gut-derived toxic compounds. Hippurate and other Phe-derivative compounds are suggested as urinary biomarkers to detect heat-stressed dairy animals in practice.

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<![CDATA[Self-organization and time-stability of social hierarchies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fed3d5eed0c48413563c

The formation and stability of social hierarchies is a question of general relevance. Here, we propose a simple generalized theoretical model for establishing social hierarchy via pair-wise interactions between individuals and investigate its stability. In each interaction or fight, the probability of “winning” depends solely on the relative societal status of the participants, and the winner has a gain of status whereas there is an equal loss to the loser. The interactions are characterized by two parameters. The first parameter represents how much can be lost, and the second parameter represents the degree to which even a small difference of status can guarantee a win for the higher-status individual. Depending on the parameters, the resulting status distributions reach either a continuous unimodal form or lead to a totalitarian end state with one high-status individual and all other individuals having status approaching zero. However, we find that in the latter case long-lived intermediary distributions often exist, which can give the illusion of a stable society. As we show, our model allows us to make predictions consistent with animal interaction data and their evolution over a number of years. Moreover, by implementing a simple, but realistic rule that restricts interactions to sufficiently similar-status individuals, the stable or long-lived distributions acquire high-status structure corresponding to a distinct high-status class. Using household income as a proxy for societal status in human societies, we find agreement over their entire range from the low-to-middle-status parts to the characteristic high-status “tail”. We discuss how the model provides a conceptual framework for understanding the origin of social hierarchy and the factors which lead to the preservation or deterioration of the societal structure.

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<![CDATA[Synthetic peptides as a novel approach for detecting antibodies against sand fly saliva]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536a0ed5eed0c484a46de6

Background

Hosts repeatedly bitten by sand flies develop antibodies against sand fly saliva and screening of these immunoglobulins can be employed to estimate the risk of Leishmania transmission, to indicate the feeding preferences of sand flies, or to evaluate the effectiveness of vector control campaigns. Previously, antibodies to sand fly saliva were detected using whole salivary gland homogenate (SGH) or recombinant proteins, both of which also have their disadvantages. This is the first study on sand flies where short peptides designed based on salivary antigens were successfully utilized for antibody screening.

Methodology/Principal findings

Specific IgG was studied in hosts naturally exposed to Phlebotomus orientalis, the main vector of Leishmania donovani in East Africa. Four peptides were designed by the commercial program EpiQuest-B, based on the sequences of the two most promising salivary antigens, yellow-related protein and ParSP25-like protein. Short amino acid peptides were synthesised and modified for ELISA experiments. Specific anti-P. orientalis IgG was detected in sera of dogs, goats, and sheep from Ethiopia. The peptide OR24 P2 was shown to be suitable for antibody screening; it correlated positively with SGH and its specificity and sensitivity were comparable or even better than that of previously published recombinant proteins.

Conclusions/Significance

OR24 P2, the peptide based on salivary antigen of P. orientalis, was shown to be a valuable tool for antibody screening of domestic animals naturally exposed to P. orientalis. We suggest the application of this promising methodology using species-specific short peptides to other sand fly-host combinations.

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<![CDATA[Modeling the spatial distribution of grazing intensity in Kazakhstan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424395d5eed0c4845e06e2

With increasing affluence in many developing countries, the demand for livestock products is rising and the increasing feed requirement contributes to pressure on land resources for food and energy production. However, there is currently a knowledge gap in our ability to assess the extent and intensity of the utilization of land by livestock, which is the single largest land use in the world. We developed a spatial model that combines fine-scale livestock numbers with their associated energy requirements to distribute livestock grazing demand onto a map of energy supply, with the aim of estimating where and to what degree pasture is being utilized. We applied our model to Kazakhstan, which contains large grassland areas that historically have been used for extensive livestock production but for which the current extent, and thus the potential for increasing livestock production, is unknown. We measured the grazing demand of Kazakh livestock in 2015 at 286 Petajoules, which was 25% of the estimated maximum sustainable energy supply that is available to livestock for grazing. The model resulted in a grazed area of 1.22 million km2, or 48% of the area theoretically available for grazing in Kazakhstan, with most utilized land grazed at low intensities (average off-take rate was 13% of total biomass energy production). Under a conservative scenario, our estimations showed a production potential of 0.13 million tons of beef additional to 2015 production (31% increase), and much more with utilization of distant pastures. This model is an important step forward in evaluating pasture use and available land resources, and can be adapted at any spatial scale for any region in the world.

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<![CDATA[Captive-reared European hamsters follow an offensive strategy during risk-assessment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466557d5eed0c484518b18

Understanding whether captive-reared animals destined to reintroduction are still able to discriminate predators has important implications for conservation biology. The endangered European hamster benefits from conservation programs throughout Europe, in which several thousand individuals are released into the wild every year. Despite this, the anti-predator strategy of hamsters and their ability to maintain predator discrimination in captivity remain to be investigated. Here, we explore the predator discrimination behaviour of captive-reared European hamsters and their response to different predation cues. When first exposed to the urine of cats and goats in a Y-maze test, hamsters spent more time close to the cat scent rather than to the goat scent. In a second experiment, during which hamsters were exposed to a non-mobile European ferret (inside a cage), hamsters significantly increased the time spent close to the ferret’s cage and displayed aggressive behaviour towards the ferret. Furthermore, they did not take refuge inside an anti-predation tube (APT), a device designed to upgrade wildlife underpasses and reconnect wild hamster populations. Finally, when exposed to a mobile ferret (but without physical contact), hamsters displayed mobbing and aggressive behaviours towards the ferret, before taking refuge inside the APT. Taken together, our results show that captive-reared hamsters are still able to detect and react to predation cues, but that they initially adopt an offensive strategy (grunting, spitting, mobbing) during the risk-assessment phase. After risk assessment, however, hamsters used the APT as a refuge. Our study provides important insights into the anti-predator behaviour of hamsters. Testing the efficacy of the APT, a device that will allow upgrading wildlife underpasses for the hamster and other rodents, is also of great importance and is instrumental in conservation efforts for these species.

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<![CDATA[Human plague associated with Tibetan sheep originates in marmots]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b8b29ea40307c405292ca55

The Qinghai-Tibet plateau is a natural plague focus and is the largest such focus in China. In this area, while Marmota himalayana is the primary host, a total of 18 human plague outbreaks associated with Tibetan sheep (78 cases with 47 deaths) have been reported on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau since 1956. All of the index infectious cases had an exposure history of slaughtering or skinning diseased or dead Tibetan sheep. In this study, we sequenced and compared 38 strains of Yersinia pestis isolated from different hosts, including humans, Tibetan sheep, and M. himalayana. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified from our isolates and reference strains. The phylogenetic relationships illustrated in our study, together with the finding that the Tibetan sheep plague clearly lagged behind the M. himalayana plague, and a previous study that identified the Tibetan sheep as a plague reservoir with high susceptibility and moderate sensitivity, indicated that the human plague was transmitted from Tibetan sheep, while the Tibetan sheep plague originated from marmots. Tibetan sheep may encounter this infection by contact with dead rodents or through being bitten by fleas originating from M. himalayana during local epizootics.

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<![CDATA[Can we monitor adaptation of juvenile goats to a new social environment through continuous qualitative behaviour assessment?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a289b463d7e4513b8980c

We aimed to verify whether Continuous Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (10 observers used a list of six qualitative descriptors) paired with Temporal Dominant Behavioural Expression (the same observers were asked to select the dominant descriptor and to score its intensity level) was able to monitor fluctuations of animal behaviour expression over time. We applied these techniques to three groups of juvenile goats either weaned (group C), or un-weaned (groups WOM and WM). Each animal was separated from its group, moved to group C and tested for 30 min either while their mothers were at pasture, or while their mothers were in an adjacent pen (group WOM and WM, respectively). Animals from group C were separated from their group and immediately reintroduced to it. TDBE duration and score of each descriptor of behavioural expression were able to detect differences among groups but were unable to describe how the behaviour of the goats changed as the time progressed. TDBE curves described the evolution of each behavioural expression of each animal over time but were unable to detect differences among groups. The χ2 test conducted on peaks of dominance, albeit displaying the variations of the behavioural expression over time and allowing the assessment of differences among groups, focussed on occurrences of higher agreement between observers while neglecting most of the information concerning the descriptors above the level of significance. Conversely, based on mixed analysis of variance with the fixed effects of group, test interval and group x test interval (animal nested into group and observer were considered to be random), most of the descriptors were able to discriminate the three experimental groups while preserving the information on the fluctuations of the behavioural expression of the animals during the test.

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<![CDATA[Occurrence and genetic characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from adult goats in Sichuan Province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fb3463d7e0897c6e020

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common gastrointestinal protozoa in mammals. Many studies have been conducted on the distribution of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in sheep and cattle. However, in China, information about molecular characterization and genetic analysis of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in goats is limited. In this study, 342 fecal samples from adult goats were collected from 12 farms in Sichuan Province, China. The occurrence of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in adult goats was 14.9% (51/342) and 4.7% (16/342), respectively. All G. duodenalis were identified as assemblage E, with two novel genotypes (assemblages E17 and E18) being detected at the beta-giardin (bg) locus. Based on three loci—beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh)—multilocus sequence typing revealed three novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs) of assemblage E (MLG-E1, E2, E3 (sc)). Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA-based PCR identified two Cryptosporidium species, namely C. xiaoi (11/16) and C. suis (5/16). This study is not only the first to report C. suis infection in adult goats in China but is also the first to use the MLG approach to identify G. duodenalis in adult goats.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in South African, French and Argentinian Angora Goats from Genome-Wide SNP Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ab6e

The Angora goat populations in Argentina (AR), France (FR) and South Africa (SA) have been kept geographically and genetically distinct. Due to country-specific selection and breeding strategies, there is a need to characterize the populations on a genetic level. In this study we analysed genetic variability of Angora goats from three distinct geographical regions using the standardized 50k Goat SNP Chip. A total of 104 goats (AR: 30; FR: 26; SA: 48) were genotyped. Heterozygosity values as well as inbreeding coefficients across all autosomes per population were calculated. Diversity, as measured by expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.371 in the SA population to 0.397 in the AR population. The SA goats were the only population with a positive average inbreeding coefficient value of 0.009. After merging the three datasets, standard QC and LD-pruning, 15 105 SNPs remained for further analyses. Principal component and clustering analyses were used to visualize individual relationships within and between populations. All SA Angora goats were separated from the others and formed a well-defined, unique cluster, while outliers were identified in the FR and AR breeds. Apparent admixture between the AR and FR populations was observed, while both these populations showed signs of having some common ancestry with the SA goats. LD averaged over adjacent loci within the three populations per chromosome were calculated. The highest LD values estimated across populations were observed in the shorter intervals across populations. The Ne for the Angora breed was estimated to be 149 animals ten generations ago indicating a declining trend. Results confirmed that geographic isolation and different selection strategies caused genetic distinctiveness between the populations.

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<![CDATA[Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ambient Air after a Large Q Fever Outbreak]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da00ab0ee8fa60b73e81

One of the largest Q fever outbreaks ever occurred in the Netherlands from 2007–2010, with 25 fatalities among 4,026 notified cases. Airborne dispersion of Coxiella burnetii was suspected but not studied extensively at the time. We investigated temporal and spatial variation of Coxiella burnetii in ambient air at residential locations in the most affected area in the Netherlands (the South-East), in the year immediately following the outbreak. One-week average ambient particulate matter < 10 μm samples were collected at eight locations from March till September 2011. Presence of Coxiella burnetii DNA was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations with various spatial and temporal characteristics were analyzed by mixed logistic regression. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 56 out of 202 samples (28%). Airborne Coxiella burnetii presence showed a clear seasonal pattern coinciding with goat kidding. The spatial variation was significantly associated with number of goats on the nearest goat farm weighted by the distance to the farm (OR per IQR: 1.89, CI: 1.31–2.76). We conclude that in the year after a large Q fever outbreak, temporal variation of airborne Coxiella burnetii is suggestive to be associated with goat kidding, and spatial variation with distance to and size of goat farms. Aerosol measurements show to have potential for source identification and attribution of an airborne pathogen, which may also be applicable in early stages of an outbreak.

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<![CDATA[Expression and activity of multidrug resistance proteins in mature endothelial cells and their precursors: A challenging correlation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb29

Active cellular transporters of harmful agents—multidrug resistance (mdr) proteins—are present in tumor, stem and endothelial cells, among others. While mdr proteins are broadly studied in tumor cells, their role in non-tumor cells and the significance of their action not connected with removal of harmful xenobiotics is less extensively documented. Proper assessment of mdr proteins expression is difficult. Mdr mRNA presence is most often evaluated but that does not necessarily correlate with the protein level. The protein expression itself is difficult to determine; usually cells with mdr overexpression are studied, not cells under physiological conditions, in which a low expression level of mdr protein is often insufficient for detection in vitro. Various methods are used to identify mdr mRNA and protein expression, together with functional tests demonstrating their biological drug transporting activities. Data comparing different methods of investigating expression of mdr mRNAs and their corresponding proteins are still scarce. In this article we present the results of a study concerning mdr mRNA and protein expression. Our goal was to search for the best method to investigate the expression level and functional activity of five selected mdr proteins—MDR1, BCRP, MRP1, MRP4 and MRP5—in established in vitro cell lines of human endothelial cells (ECs) and their progenitors. Endothelial cells demonstrated mdr presence at the mRNA level, which was not always confirmed at the protein level or in functional tests. Therefore, several different assays had to be applied for evaluation of mdr proteins expression and functions in endothelial cells. Among them functional tests seemed to be the most conclusive, although not very specific.

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<![CDATA[The Study on Biological Function of Keratin 26, a Novel Member of Liaoning Cashmere Goat Keratin Gene Family]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da45ab0ee8fa60b8b528

In our research, we explored the relationship between Keratin 26 and the regulation of fine hair, BMP signaling pathway, MT, FGF5, and IGF-I. The result of hybridization in situ revealed that Keratin 26 was specially expressed in cortex of skin hair follicles; the result of immunohistochemistry indicated that Keratin 26 was expressed in internal root sheath, external root sheath. Then, Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that relative expressive quantity of Keratin 26 was 1.08 or 3.3 × greater in secondary follicle than primary follicle during anagen or catagen; the difference during anagen was not remarkable (p>0.05), however, that of catagen was extremely significant (p<0.01). Relative expressive quantity of Keratin 26 increased during telogen; the difference was extremely significant (p<0.01). Moreover, after Noggin expression interference using RNAi technology, we found that relative expressive quantity of Keratin 26 extremely remarkably declined (p<0.01); after K26 overexpression, we found that relative expressive quantity of Noggin extremely remarkably increased (p<0.01). We detected expressive quantity change of Keratin 26 and Keratin 26 using Real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence technologies after fibroblasts were treated with MT, FGF5 or IGF-I; the results indicated that MT and FGF5 played a positive role in Keratin 26 and Keratin 26 expression, IGF-I played a negative role in Keratin 26 expression, positive role in Keratin 26 expression. The results above showed that Keratin 26 could inhibit cashmere growth, and was related to entering to catagen and telogen of hair follicles; Keratin 26 and BMP signaling pathway were two antagonistic pathways each other which could inhibit growth and development of cashmere; MT, FGF5 and IGF-I could affect expression of Keratin 26 and Keratin 26, and Keratin 26 was one of the important pathways that MT induced cashmere production in advance, FGF5 regulated cashmere growth and IGF-I promoted cashmere growth and development.

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<![CDATA[Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf1ab0ee8fa60bc1441

Background

Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera.

Conclusions/Significance

Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species.

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<![CDATA[miR-182 aids in receptive endometrium development in dairy goats by down-regulating PTN expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1430

Increasing evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in endometrium development during the menstrual cycle in humans and many other animals. Our previous data indicated that miR-182 levels increase 15.55-fold and pleiotrophin (PTN) levels decrease 20.97-fold in the receptive endometrium (RE, D15) compared with the pre-receptive endometrium (PE, D5) in dairy goats. The present study shows that miR-182 is widely expressed in different tissues of dairy goats and that its expression levels are regulated by E2 and P4 in endometrial epithelium cells (EECs). We confirmed that PTN is a target of miR-182 and that miR-182 regulates the protein levels of AKT, Bcl-2, FAS, MAPK, Caspase-3 and SP1 in EECs. Furthermore, miR-182 up-regulates or maintains the expression levels of osteopontin (OPN), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) in EECs, suggesting that miR-182 is an important regulatory factor in the construction of endometrial receptivity in dairy goats. In conclusion, miR-182 participates in the development of endometrial receptivity by down-regulating PTN and affecting the expression of select apoptosis-related genes and increasing or maintaining the expression levels of OPN, COX-2 and PRLR in the EECs of dairy goats.

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<![CDATA[A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc49

Backgrounds

The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown.

Methods

Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China.

Results

CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5’-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8–51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses.

Conclusions

CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the current understanding of enteroviruses.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Domestic Goats as Models for Experimental and Natural Infection with the North American Isolate of Rickettsia slovaca]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da4eab0ee8fa60b8d4c2

Rickettsia slovaca is a tick-borne human pathogen that is associated with scalp eschars and neck lymphadenopathy known as tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) or Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL). Originally, R. slovaca was described in Eastern Europe, but since recognition of its pathogenicity, human cases have been reported throughout Europe. European vertebrate reservoirs of R. slovaca remain unknown, but feral swine and domestic goats have been found infected or seropositive for this pathogen. Recently, a rickettsial pathogen identical to R. slovaca was identified in, and isolated from, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. In previous experimental studies, this organism was found infectious to guinea pigs and transovarially transmissible in ticks. In this study, domestic goats (Capra hircus) were experimentally inoculated with the North American isolate of this R. slovaca-like agent to assess their reservoir competence–the ability to acquire the pathogens and maintain transmission between infected and uninfected ticks. Goats were susceptible to infection as demonstrated by detection of the pathogen in skin biopsies and multiple internal tissues, but the only clinical sign of illness was transient fever noted in three out of four goats, and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. On average, less than 5% of uninfected ticks acquired the pathogen while feeding upon infected goats. Although domestic goats are susceptible to the newly described North American isolate of R. slovaca, they are likely to play a minor role in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. Our results suggest that goats do not propagate the North American isolate of R. slovaca in peridomestic environments and clinical diagnosis of infection could be difficult due to the brevity and mildness of clinical signs. Further research is needed to elucidate the natural transmission cycle of R. slovaca both in Europe and North America, as well as to identify a more suitable laboratory model.

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<![CDATA[A Screen for Key Genes and Pathways Involved in High-Quality Brush Hair in the Yangtze River Delta White Goat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb9b6

The Yangtze River Delta White Goat is the only goat breed that produces high-quality brush hair, or type III hair, which is specialized for use in top-grade writing brushes. There has been little research, especially molecular research, on the traits that result in high-quality brush hair in the Yangtze River Delta White Goat. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the formation of high-quality brush hair, High-throughput RNA-Seq technology was used to compare skin samples from Yangtze River Delta White Goats that produce high-quality hair and non high-quality hair for identification of the important genes and related pathways that might influence the hair quality traits. The results showed that 295 genes were expressed differentially between the goats with higher and lower hair quality, respectively. Of those genes, 132 were up-regulated, 62 were down-regulated, and 101 were expressed exclusively in the goats with high-quality brush hair. Gene Ontology and Metabolic Pathway Significant Enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the MAP3K1, DUSP1, DUSP6 and the MAPK signaling pathway might play important roles in the traits important for high-quality brush hair.

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<![CDATA[Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa5ab0ee8fa60ba74b7

The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging.

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<![CDATA[Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da38ab0ee8fa60b86eee

The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg) and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day). The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL), another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP) and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH). After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average). No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05) fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average) than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75). Pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average). Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

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