ResearchPad - graduates https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Associations between demographic factors and the academic trajectories of medical students in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15714 Group-based trajectory modeling is a useful tool for categorizing students’ academic trajectories and their determinants. Using insights gained from the analyses, we can identify students at risk for poor academic performance and monitor them to provide support. To date, studies investigating the associations between demographic factors and academic performance trajectories among medical students are scarce. The study objective was to examine the associations between demographic factors and academic performance trajectories in medical students using group-based trajectory modeling.MethodsParticipants included all medical students admitted to Tokyo Medical and Dental University in Japan in 2013 and 2014 (n = 202). Academic performance was evaluated by biannual grade point average (GPA) scores in preclinical years. We used group-based trajectory modeling to categorize students into GPA trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between the odds of being in a certain GPA trajectory group and demographic factors such as high school type, high school geographical area, admission test type, high school graduation year, whether the student was a biology major, and sex.ResultsStudents’ GPA trajectories were classified into four trajectory groups as well as another group that consisted of students who withdrew or repeated years. We found that students whose high school geographical area was outside the National Capital Region were 7.2 times more likely to withdraw or repeat years in comparison with students whose school was inside the National Capital Region (OR: 7.21, 95% CI: 1.87, 27.76). In addition, admission test type, high school graduation year, and sex were associated with GPA trajectories.ConclusionsHigh school geographical area, admission test type, high school graduation year, and sex were associated with GPA trajectories. These findings provide important insights into identifying students at risk for poor academic performance and strategies for monitoring them to provide adequate and timely support. ]]> <![CDATA[Partition dependence in financial aid distribution to income categories]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0611b39b-d559-4542-a5d9-a69c54a62df4

When allocating resources, people often diversify across categories even when those categories are arbitrary, such that allocations differ when identical sets of options are partitioned differently (“partition dependence”). The first goal of the present work (Experiment 1) was to replicate an experiment by Fox and colleagues in which graduate students exhibited partition dependence when asked how university financial aid should be allocated across arbitrarily partitioned income brackets. Our sample consisted of community members at a liberal arts college where financial aid practices have been recent topics of debate. Because stronger intrinsic preferences can reduce partition dependence, these participants might display little partition dependence with financial aid allocations. Alternatively, a demonstration of strong partition dependence in this population would emphasize the robustness of the effect. The second goal was to extend a “high transparency” modification to the present task context (Experiment 2) in which participants were shown both possible income partitions and randomly assigned themselves to one, to determine whether partition dependence in this paradigm would be reduced by revealing the study design (and the arbitrariness of income categories). Participants demonstrated clear partition dependence in both experiments. Results demonstrate the robustness of partition dependence in this context.

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<![CDATA[Belief about the future possibility of national aging security system and its association with mortality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1530d5eed0c48467aea4

In line with well-known subjective measures of health, such as self-rated health and subjective life expectancy, an individual’s belief about future security provided by the government could also be an important factor affecting his life expectancy. The aim of this study was to use the response of the elderly Korean population in regards to the National Aging Security System (NASS), and assess its association with the risk of mortality even with SRH included in the analysis. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA) from 2006 to 2016 were assessed using longitudinal data analysis and 10,254 research subjects were included at baseline in 2006. To analyze the association between belief about future possibility of NASS and all-cause mortality, Cox proportional hazards model was used. In terms of the future possibility of NASS, people who thought more negatively displayed greater risk of mortality at the end of the follow-up. With the Positive group as reference: Moderate group showed a 18% increase (HR = 1.178, 95% CI: 1.022, 1.357), and Negative groups showed a 19% increase (HR = 1.192, 95% CI: 1.043, 1.362). The results of our study showed that people’s belief regarding future security could be associated with mortality rates. Our finding is important, because it provides additional support to the importance of considering subjective measures of health in epidemiological research. Furthermore, the findings of our research could be useful in terms of future policy making.

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<![CDATA[The graduation shift of German universities of applied sciences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6e5d5eed0c484ef41e7

In research into higher education, the evaluation of completion and dropout rates has generated a steady stream of interest for decades. While most studies only calculate quotes using student and graduate numbers for both phenomena, we propose to additionally consider the budget available to universities. We transfer the idea of the excellence shift indicator [1] from the research to the teaching area, in particular to the completion rate of educational entities. The graduation shift shows the institutions’ ability to produce graduates as measured against their basic academic teaching efficiency. It is an important advantage of the graduation shift that it avoids the well-known heterogeneity problem in efficiency measurements. Our study is based on German universities of applied science. Given their politically determined focus on education, this dataset is well-suited for introducing and evaluating the graduation shift. Using a comprehensive dataset covering the years 2008 to 2013, we show that the graduation shift produces results, which correlate closely with the results of the well-known graduation rate and standard Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Compared to the graduation rate, the graduation shift is preferable because it allows to take the budget of institutions into account. Compared to the DEA, the computation of the graduation shift is easy, the results are robust, and non-economists can understand them results. Thus, we recommend the graduation shift as an alternative method of efficiency measurement in the teaching area.

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<![CDATA[Faculty perceptions and knowledge of career development of trainees in biomedical science: What do we (think we) know?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52cbd5eed0c4842bd03f

The Broadening Experiences in Scientific Training (BEST) program is an NIH-funded effort testing the impact of career development interventions (e.g. internships, workshops, classes) on biomedical trainees (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows). BEST Programs seek to increase trainees’ knowledge, skills and confidence to explore and pursue expanded career options, as well as to increase training in new skills that enable multiple career pathways. Faculty mentors are vital to a trainee’s professional development, but data about how faculty members of biomedical trainees view the value of, and the time spent on, career development are lacking. Seven BEST institutions investigated this issue by conducting faculty surveys during their BEST experiment. The survey intent was to understand faculty perceptions around professional and career development for their trainees. Two different, complementary surveys were employed, one designed by Michigan State University (MSU) and the other by Vanderbilt University. Faculty (592) across five institutions responded to the MSU survey; 225 faculty members from two institutions responded to the Vanderbilt University survey. Participating faculty were largely tenure track and male; approximately 1/3 had spent time in a professional position outside of academia. Respondents felt a sense of urgency in introducing broad career activities for trainees given a recognized shortage of tenure track positions. They reported believing career development needs are different between a graduate student and postdoctoral fellow, and they indicated that they actively mentor trainees in career development. However, faculty were uncertain as to whether they actually have the knowledge or training to do so effectively. Faculty perceived that trainees themselves lack a knowledge base of skills that are of interest to non-academic employers. Thus, there is a need for exposure and training in such skills. Faculty stated unequivocally that institutional support for career development is important and needed. BEST Programs were considered beneficial to trainees, but the awareness of local BEST Programs and the national BEST Consortium was low at the time surveys were employed at some institutions. It is our hope that the work presented here will increase the awareness of the BEST national effort and the need for further career development for biomedical trainees.

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<![CDATA[Myopia is associated with education: Results from NHANES 1999-2008]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fecad5eed0c484135472

Purpose

Myopia is increasing worldwide and possibly linked to education. In this study, we analyse the association of myopia and education in the U.S. and investigate its age-dependency.

Methods

We conducted a secondary data analysis using the public use files from the cross-sectional study National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the period from 1999 to 2008. 19,756 participants aged 20 to 85 years were included with data on education and ophthalmic parameters (distance visual acuity, objective refraction and keratometry). Spherical equivalent, astigmatism, corneal power and corneal astigmatism were evaluated for an association with education using linear regression analysis with adjustment of potential confounders.

Results

Analysis revealed an association between spherical equivalent and educational level in the univariate analysis (P < .001), and in the adjusted model (P < .001). Subjects who attend school to less than 9th grade had a mean spherical equivalent of 0.34 D, subjects with 9-11th grade -0.14 D, subjects that finished high school -0.33 D, subjects with partial college education -0.70 D, subjects that graduated from college or a higher formal education -1.22 D. Subjects that graduated from college or above were -1.47 D more myopic compared to subjects that completed less than 9th grade school in the adjusted analyses. Astigmatism and corneal curvature was not associated with education.

Conclusions

Myopia is associated with higher education in the U.S. Our analysis shows that corneal curvature does not contribute to this association, therefore axial elongation or lens power are likely to contribute to myopia.

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<![CDATA[Adsorption of Pb2+ by ameliorated alum plasma in water and soil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6448d7d5eed0c484c2efe8

Four methods, including hot acid treatment, hot alkali treatment, calcination treatment and sulfhydrylation treatment, were applied to activate alum plasma in order to obtain new Pb2+ adsorbents. The corresponding adsorption isotherm satisfies the Langmuir equation, and the maximum adsorption of the alum plasma after hot acid treatment, hot alkali treatment and high-temperature calcination were 18.9, 57.3 and 10.9 mg·g−1, respectively, and in the range of 1.23–6.57 times greater than the adsorption capacity of the original alum plasma. The soil culture experiments indicated that the effective Pb content in the soils treated with hot alkali ameliorated alum plasma was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those treated with the other three types of alum plasma. For example, if the additive content is 5.0%, after a storage period of 16 weeks, the effective Pb content becomes 19.87 mg·kg−1, which corresponds to a reduction of 60.9% in comparison with the control sample. In addition, Specific surface area (BET), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FIR) were used to characterize the microstructure of alum plasma before and after amelioration. It was evident that hot alkali treatment of alum plasma resulted in smaller particles, a significantly higher specific area and lower mineral crystallinity, which improved the adsorption performance of Pb2+. In conclusion, hot alkali treatment of alum plasma indicates relatively good Pb2+ adsorption ability, and is a promising novel adsorbents that could ameliorate soils that have been polluted by heavy metal Pb.

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<![CDATA[A body mass index over 22 kg/m2 at college age is a risk factor for future diabetes in Japanese men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536ac7d5eed0c484a4793d

Background

There is a high incidence of type 2 diabetes in Asian adults, even those with a normal body mass index (BMI) (<25.0 kg/m2). For example, it has been shown that a slightly increased BMI (>23 kg/m2) at middle age is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in Asians. In this historical cohort study, we investigated whether a slightly increased BMI at college age was also a risk factor for future diabetes in Japanese men.

Methods

Six hundred and sixty-one male alumni who graduated from a physical education school between 1971 and 1991 and who responded to follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2017 were included in this study. Participants were categorized into four categories: college BMI of <21.0 kg/m2, 21.0–22.0 kg/m2, 22.0–23.0 kg/m2, and ≥23.0 kg/m2, and the incidence and risk ratio of diabetes were compared between groups.

Results

The median follow-up period was 32 years (interquartile range, IQR: 27–36), which included 20,983 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22–22) years old at college graduation, and 55 (50–59) years old at the final follow-up investigation. During the study period, 56 men developed diabetes; the prevalence rates for the lowest to highest BMI categories were 4.4%, 7.6%, 10.5%, and 11.3%, respectively, and their adjusted hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference), 1.77 (95% CI: 0.68–4.30), 2.42 (1.00–5.84), and 2.53 (1.06–6.07), respectively (p = 0.03 for trend).

Conclusion

Our data suggest that a BMI over 22.0 kg/m2 at college age is a risk factor for diabetes later in life in Japanese men.

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<![CDATA[Annotated primary scientific literature: A pedagogical tool for undergraduate courses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5f3d5eed0c484caa6ae

Annotated primary scientific literature is a teaching and learning resource that provides scaffolding for undergraduate students acculturating to the authentic scientific practice of obtaining and evaluating information through the medium of primary scientific literature. Utilizing annotated primary scientific literature as an integrated pedagogical tool could enable more widespread use of primary scientific literature in undergraduate science classrooms with minimal disruption to existing syllabi. Research is ongoing to determine an optimal implementation protocol, with these preliminary iterations presented here serving as a first look at how students respond to annotated primary scientific literature. The undergraduate biology student participants in our study did not, in general, have an abundance of experience reading primary scientific literature; however, they found the annotations useful, especially for vocabulary and graph interpretation. We present here an implementation protocol for using annotated primary literature in the classroom that minimizes the use of valuable classroom time and requires no additional pedagogical training for instructors.

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<![CDATA[Gender differences in self-view and desired salaries: A study on online recruitment website users in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e3d5eed0c484386b87

One explanation for the gender pay differences in labor markets is that women propose lower desired salaries. By using an actual job seeking resume database and applying text mining techniques, we are able to observe both the extent of gender differences in desired salaries and job-related self-view. We find gender differences in global self-view favoring females, and in some domain-specific self-view favoring males. Previous findings of disadvantaged groups having levels of self-view at least as high as those of advantaged groups lend credibility to our findings. Moreover, we argue that the differences in global self-view favoring females may be related to the theories of “belief flipping”, since women in our sample of online-recruitment markets are distinct from the general population, with on average 15.2 years of education and 8.99 years of work experience, due to self-selection. In addition, we find that women do propose lower desired salary than men, after controlling for various factors such as human capital, marital status, industries. We further investigate the role of self-view and find it contributes to explain desired salaries, with modest mediator effect but little moderator effect on gender differences in desired salaries.

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<![CDATA[Structure and belonging: Pathways to success for underrepresented minority and women PhD students in STEM fields]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5ccd5eed0c484ca8b7b

The advancement of underrepresented minority and women PhD students to elite postdoctoral and faculty positions in the STEM fields continues to lag that of majority males, despite decades of efforts to mitigate bias and increase opportunities for students from diverse backgrounds. In 2015, the National Science Foundation Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (NSF AGEP) California Alliance (Berkeley, Caltech, Stanford, UCLA) conducted a wide-ranging survey of graduate students across the mathematical, physical, engineering, and computer sciences in order to identify levers to improve the success of PhD students, and, in time, improve diversity in STEM leadership positions, especially the professoriate. The survey data were interpreted via path analysis, a method that identifies significant relationships, both direct and indirect, among various factors and outcomes of interest. We investigated two important outcomes: publication rates, which largely determine a new PhD student’s competitiveness in the academic marketplace, and subjective well-being. Women and minority students who perceived that they were well-prepared for their graduate courses and accepted by their colleagues (faculty and fellow students), and who experienced well-articulated and structured PhD programs, were most likely to publish at rates comparable to their male majority peers. Women PhD students experienced significantly higher levels of distress than their male peers, both majority and minority, while both women and minority student distress levels were mitigated by clearly-articulated expectations, perceiving that they were well-prepared for graduate level courses, and feeling accepted by their colleagues. It is unclear whether higher levels of distress in women students is related directly to their experiences in their STEM PhD programs. The findings suggest that mitigating factors that negatively affect diversity should not, in principle, require the investment of large resources, but rather requires attention to the local culture and structure of individual STEM PhD programs.

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<![CDATA[One thousand simple rules]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c254554d5eed0c48442c516 ]]> <![CDATA[Students from single-sex schools are more gender-salient and more anxious in mixed-gender situations: Results from high school and college samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ef2d5eed0c484d28f24

Gender segregation exists in all walks of life. One of the most common forms of institutionalized gender segregation is perhaps single-sex schooling. Because schooling experience has important influence on students’ psychosocial development, interest in gender-segregated education has been reviving over the globe. Skeptics of single-sex schooling have suggested that such schooling may increase students’ gender salience (awareness of gender in categorizations), reduce opportunities for mixed-gender interactions, and increase mixed-gender anxiety, but little evidence has been found. It is critical to explore how single-sex schooling is associated with these psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults because they are in the developmental stage when the desire and need to establish mixed-gender relationships increase. We report two systematic studies on gender salience, mixed-gender friendships, and mixed-gender anxiety on 2059 high school students and 456 college students from single-sex or coeducational schools. Even with demographic background controlled, results suggested higher gender salience in single-sex school students in the high school sample, and greater mixed-gender anxiety and fewer mixed-gender friendships in these students in both samples. These differences were not moderated by student gender and were similar in first-year versus senior college students. Moreover, mixed-gender friendships, though not gender salience, appeared to engage in a possibly bi-directional mediation relationship with mixed-gender anxiety that is consistent with a vicious cycle of escalating anxiety and lack of mixed-gender interaction among single-sex school students. These findings help fill the knowledge gap about the correlates of gender-segregated schooling and shed light on the precursors of later social and achievement differences between single-sex and coeducational school students.

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<![CDATA[Religious service attendance, divorce, and remarriage among U.S. nurses in mid and late life]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed792d5eed0c484f143f1

Prior research has suggested religious participation can promote marital satisfaction and stability. However, current literature has mainly focused on early life divorce, and used cross-sectional data, leaving open the question of the directionality of effects. We evaluated the prospective associations between service attendance and marital stability in mid and late life considering either 1) divorce or separation; or 2) remarriage, as separate outcomes. Data were drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study, a large prospective cohort study that consisted of US female nurses in their 50s at study enrollment, with repeated measures of service attendance and marital status over 14 years of follow-up from 1996–2010. During follow up, among 66,444 initially married nurses who were mainly Christians, frequent service attendance was associated with 50% lower risk of divorce (95% CI: 32%, 63%), and 52% lower risk of either divorce or separation (95%CI: 37%, 63%). Among initially divorced or separated women, frequent service attendance was not associated with subsequent likelihood of remarriage; however, among widowed women, women who attended services frequently had 49% increased likelihood of remarriage (95% CI: 13%, 97%) compared to those women who did not. The study provides evidence that in this cohort of US nurses, frequent service attendance is associated with lower risk of becoming divorced in mid- and late- life, and increased likelihood of remarriage among widowed nurses, but not among divorced or separated nurses.

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<![CDATA[Sulfated archaeol glycolipids: Comparison with other immunological adjuvants in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102894d5eed0c4842478b2

Archaeosomes are liposomes traditionally comprised of total polar lipids (TPL) or semi-synthetic glycerolipids of ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied glyco- and amino-head groups. As adjuvants, they induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and enhance protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Traditional total polar lipid (TPL) archaeosome formulations are relatively complex and first generation semi-synthetic archaeosomes involve many synthetic steps to arrive at the final desired glycolipid composition. We have developed a novel archaeosome formulation comprising a sulfated disaccharide group covalently linked to the free sn-1 hydroxyl backbone of an archaeal core lipid (sulfated S-lactosylarchaeol, SLA) that can be more readily synthesized yet retains strong immunostimulatory activity for induction of cell-mediated immunity following systemic immunization. Herein, we have evaluated the immunostimulatory effects of SLA archaeosomes when used as adjuvant with ovalbumin (OVA) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and compared this to various other adjuvants including TLR3/4/9 agonists, oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions and aluminum hydroxide. Overall, we found that semi-synthetic sulfated glycolipid archaeosomes induce strong Ag-specific IgG titers and CD8 T cells to both antigens. In addition, they induce the expression of a number of cytokines/chemokines including IL-6, G-CSF, KC & MIP-2. SLA archaeosome formulations demonstrated strong adjuvant activity, superior to many of the other tested adjuvants.

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<![CDATA[Would government compensation of living kidney donors exploit the poor? An empirical analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084190d5eed0c484fca0e9

Government compensation of kidney donors would likely increase the supply of kidneys and prevent the premature deaths of tens of thousands of patients with kidney failure each year. The major argument against it is that it would exploit the poor who would be more likely to accept the offers of compensation. This overlooks the fact that many poor patients desperately need a kidney transplant and would greatly benefit from an increased supply of kidneys. The objective of this study is to empirically test the hypothesis that government compensation of kidney donors would exploit the poor. Exploitation is defined by economists and several noted ethicists as paying donors less than the fair market value of their kidney. Exploitation is expressed in monetary terms and compared with the economic benefit recipients receive from a transplant. Data are from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the United States Renal Data System annual data reports. Educational attainment is used as a proxy for income. We estimate that if the government rewards living donors with a package of non-cash benefits worth $75,000 per kidney, donors would not be exploited. Much more important, this compensation would likely end the kidney shortage, enabling many more patients with kidney failure to obtain transplants and live longer and healthier lives. The value of kidney transplantation to a U.S. recipient is about $1,330,000, which is an order of magnitude greater than any purported exploitation of a living donor (zero to $75,000). Consequently, the aggregate net benefit to the poor alone from kidney transplantation would increase to about $12 billion per year from $1 billion per year currently. Most of the benefit would accrue to poor kidney recipients. But poor donors would receive the fair market value of their kidney, and hence would not be exploited. If the government wanted to ensure that donors also received a net benefit, it could easily do so by increasing the compensation above $75,000 per donor.

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<![CDATA[Medical student preferences for the internal medicine residency interview day: A cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a28a1463d7e4513b89810

Background

Applicant recruitment is an essential part of a residency program’s activities with valuable resources dedicated to ensuring its success. Most programs design interview days based on a mix of tradition, budget availability and perception of applicant preferences. There is a paucity of available data on preferences of applicants for interview days.

Objective

We sought to investigate Internal Medicine applicant preferences for a residency recruitment day in aggregate and stratified by medical school background: United States vs. International Medical School Graduate.

Methods

A survey was developed and used in a cross-sectional study of Internal Medicine categorical and preliminary medicine candidates. Applicants ranked different facets of the interview day using a Likert scale. Variables included interview type, start time, length of interview day, number of interviews, length of each interview, background of interviewers, types of questions, interaction time with residents, month of interview, and components of interview day.

Results

265 applicants received the surveys and 215 completed them correctly (81%). Overall, applicants tended to favor an 8–9 am start time (81.9%) and an optimal duration of four hours (82.8%). The interview was the most preferred component of the day (80.0%) with one-on-one (98.1%) and 15–30 min (95.3%) interviews preferred. Several statistically significant differences were found between the United States and International students as well as Categorical and Preliminary applicants.

Conclusion

Our findings offer insights into various factors of the interview day that may appeal to Internal Medicine candidates. This information will be useful to graduate medical education departments engaged in recruitment.

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<![CDATA[Alcohol abstinence and risk assessment for second esophageal cancer in Japanese men after mucosectomy for early esophageal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc209

Background

Alcohol consumption combined with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and the presence of multiple esophageal Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs; dysplasia) are strong predictors for multiple development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Asians. We invented a health risk appraisal (HRA) model for predicting the risk of ESCC based on drinking, smoking, dietary habits, and alcohol flushing, i.e., past or present facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer, a surrogate marker for inactive ALDH2.

Methods

Prospective follow-up examinations (median follow-up time, 50.3 months) were performed in 278 Japanese men after endoscopic mucosectomy for early ESCC (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: UMIN000001676).

Results

Sixty-four subjects developed metachronous ESCC. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed that HRA scores ≥12 best predicted the development of metachronous ESCC. The ESCC detection rate per 100 person-years was 9.8 in the high-HRA-score group (n = 104) and 4.5 in the low-HRA-score group (n = 174), and the risk of development of metachronous ESCC was higher in the high-HRA-score group than in the low-HRA-score group (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.00 [95% CI: 1.12–3.30]). Multiple LVLs was a very strong predictor of the development of metachronous SCC, but high HRA scores predicted it independently. The cumulative incidences of metachronous ESCC decreased after drinking cessation in the high-HRA-score drinker group (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.37 [0.14–0.97]).

Conclusions

Both the HRA model that included alcohol flushing and the multiple LVL grade predicted the development of metachronous ESCC in Japanese men after endoscopic mucosectomy for ESCC. Drinking cessation in the high-HRA-score drinker group reduced the rate of metachronous ESCC.

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<![CDATA[Deep Reads: Favorites from a Few Different Shelves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc44a4 ]]> <![CDATA[The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3fab0ee8fa60bd649b

Background

In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types of antigen-specific immune responses.

Methodology/ Principal Findings

Immunizing mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing and host protection. The immune response was biased towards Th2 with all three of the adjuvants, with IgG1 the dominant antibody. Improved larval killing and host protection was observed in mice immunized with co-administered Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with each of the three adjuvants as compared to single immunizations. Antigen–specific antibody titers were significantly increased in mice immunized concurrently with the two antigens. Based on chemokine levels, it appears that neutrophils and eosinophils participate in the protective immune response induced by Ov-103, and macrophages and neutrophils participate in immunity induced by Ov-RAL-2.

Conclusions/Significance

The mechanism of protective immunity induced by Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59, appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells. The vaccines developed in this study have the potential of reducing the morbidity associated with onchocerciasis in humans.

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