ResearchPad - grammar https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Deep neural model with self-training for scientific keyphrase extraction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14707 Scientific information extraction is a crucial step for understanding scientific publications. In this paper, we focus on scientific keyphrase extraction, which aims to identify keyphrases from scientific articles and classify them into predefined categories. We present a neural network based approach for this task, which employs the bidirectional long short-memory (LSTM) to represent the sentences in the article. On top of the bidirectional LSTM layer in our neural model, conditional random field (CRF) is used to predict the label sequence for the whole sentence. Considering the expensive annotated data for supervised learning methods, we introduce self-training method into our neural model to leverage the unlabeled articles. Experimental results on the ScienceIE corpus and ACL keyphrase corpus show that our neural model achieves promising performance without any hand-designed features and external knowledge resources. Furthermore, it efficiently incorporates the unlabeled data and achieve competitive performance compared with previous state-of-the-art systems.

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<![CDATA[Robustness and parameter geography in post-translational modification systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14658 Biological organisms are often said to have robust properties but it is difficult to understand how such robustness arises from molecular interactions. Here, we use a mathematical model to study how the molecular mechanism of protein modification exhibits the property of multiple internal states, which has been suggested to underlie memory and decision making. The robustness of this property is revealed by the size and shape, or “geography,” of the parametric region in which the property holds. We use advances in reducing model complexity and in rapidly solving the underlying equations, to extensively sample parameter points in an 8-dimensional space. We find that under realistic molecular assumptions the size of the region is surprisingly small, suggesting that generating multiple internal states with such a mechanism is much harder than expected. While the shape of the region appears straightforward, we find surprising complexity in how the region grows with increasing amounts of the modified substrate. Our approach uses statistical analysis of data generated from a model, rather than from experiments, but leads to precise mathematical conjectures about parameter geography and biological robustness.

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<![CDATA[Disentangling sequential from hierarchical learning in Artificial Grammar Learning: Evidence from a modified Simon Task]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14558 In this paper we probe the interaction between sequential and hierarchical learning by investigating implicit learning in a group of school-aged children. We administered a serial reaction time task, in the form of a modified Simon Task in which the stimuli were organised following the rules of two distinct artificial grammars, specifically Lindenmayer systems: the Fibonacci grammar (Fib) and the Skip grammar (a modification of the former). The choice of grammars is determined by the goal of this study, which is to investigate how sensitivity to structure emerges in the course of exposure to an input whose surface transitional properties (by hypothesis) bootstrap structure. The studies conducted to date have been mainly designed to investigate low-level superficial regularities, learnable in purely statistical terms, whereas hierarchical learning has not been effectively investigated yet. The possibility to directly pinpoint the interplay between sequential and hierarchical learning is instead at the core of our study: we presented children with two grammars, Fib and Skip, which share the same transitional regularities, thus providing identical opportunities for sequential learning, while crucially differing in their hierarchical structure. More particularly, there are specific points in the sequence (k-points), which, despite giving rise to the same transitional regularities in the two grammars, support hierarchical reconstruction in Fib but not in Skip. In our protocol, children were simply asked to perform a traditional Simon Task, and they were completely unaware of the real purposes of the task. Results indicate that sequential learning occurred in both grammars, as shown by the decrease in reaction times throughout the task, while differences were found in the sensitivity to k-points: these, we contend, play a role in hierarchical reconstruction in Fib, whereas they are devoid of structural significance in Skip. More particularly, we found that children were faster in correspondence to k-points in sequences produced by Fib, thus providing an entirely new kind of evidence for the hypothesis that implicit learning involves an early activation of strategies of hierarchical reconstruction, based on a straightforward interplay with the statistically-based computation of transitional regularities on the sequences of symbols.

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<![CDATA[The Language of Innovation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10245 Predicting innovation is a peculiar problem in data science. Following its definition, an innovation is always a never-seen-before event, leaving no room for traditional supervised learning approaches. Here we propose a strategy to address the problem in the context of innovative patents, by defining innovations as never-seen-before associations of technologies and exploiting self-supervised learning techniques. We think of technological codes present in patents as a vocabulary and the whole technological corpus as written in a specific, evolving language. We leverage such structure with techniques borrowed from Natural Language Processing by embedding technologies in a high dimensional euclidean space where relative positions are representative of learned semantics. Proximity in this space is an effective predictor of specific innovation events, that outperforms a wide range of standard link-prediction metrics. The success of patented innovations follows a complex dynamics characterized by different patterns which we analyze in details with specific examples. The methods proposed in this paper provide a completely new way of understanding and forecasting innovation, by tackling it from a revealing perspective and opening interesting scenarios for a number of applications and further analytic approaches.

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<![CDATA[Electrophysiological correlates of concept type shifts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823b9d5eed0c484638ef4

A recent semantic theory of nominal concepts by Löbner [1] posits that–due to their inherent uniqueness and relationality properties–noun concepts can be classified into four concept types (CTs): sortal, individual, relational, functional. For sortal nouns the default determination is indefinite (a stone), for individual nouns it is definite (the sun), for relational and functional nouns it is possessive (his ear, his father). Incongruent determination leads to a concept type shift: his father (functional concept: unique, relational)–a father (sortal concept: non-unique, non-relational). Behavioral studies on CT shifts have demonstrated a CT congruence effect, with congruent determiners triggering faster lexical decision times on the subsequent noun than incongruent ones [2, 3]. The present ERP study investigated electrophysiological correlates of congruent and incongruent determination in German noun phrases, and specifically, whether the CT congruence effect could be indexed by such classic ERP components as N400, LAN or P600. If incongruent determination affects the lexical retrieval or semantic integration of the noun, it should be reflected in the amplitude of the N400 component. If, however, CT congruence is processed by the same neuronal mechanisms that underlie morphosyntactic processing, incongruent determination should trigger LAN or/and P600. These predictions were tested in two ERP studies. In Experiment 1, participants just listened to noun phrases. In Experiment 2, they performed a wellformedness judgment task. The processing of (in)congruent CTs (his sun vs. the sun) was compared to the processing of morphosyntactic and semantic violations in control conditions. Whereas the control conditions elicited classic electrophysiological violation responses (N400, LAN, & P600), CT-incongruences did not. Instead they showed novel concept-type specific response patterns. The absence of the classic ERP components suggests that CT-incongruent determination is not perceived as a violation of the semantic or morphosyntactic structure of the noun phrase.

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<![CDATA[Mandarin Chinese modality exclusivity norms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe72d5eed0c484e5ba83

Modality exclusivity norms have been developed in different languages for research on the relationship between perceptual and conceptual systems. This paper sets up the first modality exclusivity norms for Chinese, a Sino-Tibetan language with semantics as its orthographically relevant level. The norms are collected through two studies based on Chinese sensory words. The experimental designs take into consideration the morpho-lexical and orthographic structures of Chinese. Study 1 provides a set of norms for Mandarin Chinese single-morpheme words in mean ratings of the extent to which a word is experienced through the five sense modalities. The degrees of modality exclusivity are also provided. The collected norms are further analyzed to examine how sub-lexical orthographic representations of sense modalities in Chinese characters affect speakers’ interpretation of the sensory words. In particular, we found higher modality exclusivity rating for the sense modality explicitly represented by a semantic radical component, as well as higher auditory dominant modality rating for characters with transparent phonetic symbol components. Study 2 presents the mean ratings and modality exclusivity of coordinate disyllabic compounds involving multiple sense modalities. These studies open new perspectives in the study of modality exclusivity. First, links between modality exclusivity and writing systems have been established which has strengthened previous accounts of the influence of orthography in the processing of visual information in reading. Second, a new set of modality exclusivity norms of compounds is proposed to show the competition of influence on modality exclusivity from different linguistic factors and potentially allow such norms to be linked to studies on synesthesia and semantic transparency.

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<![CDATA[Online comprehension across different semantic categories in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2693d5eed0c484289cd9

Background

Word comprehension across semantic categories is a key area of language development. Using online automated eye-tracking technology to reduce response demands during a word comprehension test may be advantageous in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Objectives

To measure online accuracy of word recognition across eleven semantic categories in preschool children with ASD and in typically developing (TD) children matched for gender and developmental age.

Methods

Using eye-tracker methodology we measured the relative number of fixations on a target image as compared to a foil of the same category shown simultaneously on screen. This online accuracy measure was considered a measure of word understanding. We tested the relationship between online accuracy and offline word recognition and the effects of clinical variables on online accuracy. Twenty-four children with ASD and 21 TD control children underwent the eye-tracking task.

Results

On average, children with ASD were significantly less accurate at fixating on the target image than the TD children. After multiple comparison correction, no significant differences were found across the eleven semantic categories of the experiment between preschool children with ASD and younger TD children matched for developmental age. The ASD group showed higher intragroup variability consistent with greater variation in vocabulary growth rates. Direct effects of non-verbal cognitive levels, vocabulary levels and gesture productions on online word recognition in both groups support a dimensional view of language abilities in ASD.

Conclusions

Online measures of word comprehension across different semantic categories show higher interindividual variability in children with ASD and may be useful for objectively monitor gains on targeted language interventions.

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<![CDATA[A low-threshold potassium current enhances sparseness and reliability in a model of avian auditory cortex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d63bd5eed0c484031922

Birdsong is a complex vocal communication signal, and like humans, birds need to discriminate between similar sequences of sound with different meanings. The caudal mesopallium (CM) is a cortical-level auditory area implicated in song discrimination. CM neurons respond sparsely to conspecific song and are tolerant of production variability. Intracellular recordings in CM have identified a diversity of intrinsic membrane dynamics, which could contribute to the emergence of these higher-order functional properties. We investigated this hypothesis using a novel linear-dynamical cascade model that incorporated detailed biophysical dynamics to simulate auditory responses to birdsong. Neuron models that included a low-threshold potassium current present in a subset of CM neurons showed increased selectivity and coding efficiency relative to models without this current. These results demonstrate the impact of intrinsic dynamics on sensory coding and the importance of including the biophysical characteristics of neural populations in simulation studies.

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<![CDATA[Physical co-presence intensity: Measuring dynamic face-to-face interaction potential in public space using social media check-in records]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26b0d5eed0c484289ea4

Urban public spaces facilitate social interactions between people, reflecting the shifting functionality of spaces. There is no commonly-held consensus on the quantification methods for the dynamic interplay between spatial geometry, urban movement, and face-to-face encounters. Using anonymized social media check-in records from Shanghai, China, this study proposes pipelines for quantifying physical face-to-face encounter potential patterns through public space networks between local and non-local residents sensed by social media over time from space to space, in which social difference, cognitive cost, and time remoteness are integrated as the physical co-presence intensity index. This illustrates the spatiotemporally different ways in which the built environment binds various groups of space users configurationally via urban streets. The variation in face-to-face interaction patterns captures the fine-resolution patterns of urban flows and a new definition of street hierarchy, illustrating how urban public space systems deliver physical meeting opportunities and shape the spatial rhythms of human behavior from the public to the private. The shifting encounter potentials through streets are recognized as reflections of urban centrality structures with social interactions that are spatiotemporally varying, projected in the configurations of urban forms and functions. The results indicate that the occurrence probability of face-to-face encounters is more geometrically scaled than predicted based on the co-location probability of two people using metric distance alone. By adding temporal and social dimensions to urban morphology studies, and the field of space syntax research in particular, we suggest a new approach of analyzing the temporal urban centrality structures of the physical interaction potentials based on trajectory data, which is sensitive to the transformation of the spatial grid. It sheds light on how to adopt urban design as a social instrument to facilitate the dynamically changing social interaction potential in the new data environment, thereby enhancing spatial functionality and the social well-being.

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<![CDATA[Abstract social categories facilitate access to socially skewed words]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e920d5eed0c48496f83a

Recent work has shown that listeners process words faster if said by a member of the group that typically uses the word. This paper further explores how the social distributions of words affect lexical access by exploring whether access is facilitated by invoking more abstract social categories. We conduct four experiments, all of which combine an Implicit Association Task with a Lexical Decision Task. Participants sorted real and nonsense words while at the same time sorting older and younger faces (exp. 1), male and female faces (exp. 2), stereotypically male and female objects (exp. 3), and framed and unframed objects, which were always stereotypically male or female (exp. 4). Across the experiments, lexical decision to socially skewed words is facilitated when the socially congruent category is sorted with the same hand. This suggests that the lexicon contains social detail from which individuals make social abstractions that can influence lexical access.

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<![CDATA[Switching between reading tasks leads to phase-transitions in reading times in L1 and L2 readers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c63394bd5eed0c484ae6445

Reading research uses different tasks to investigate different levels of the reading process, such as word recognition, syntactic parsing, or semantic integration. It seems to be tacitly assumed that the underlying cognitive process that constitute reading are stable across those tasks. However, nothing is known about what happens when readers switch from one reading task to another. The stability assumptions of the reading process suggest that the cognitive system resolves this switching between two tasks quickly. Here, we present an alternative language-game hypothesis (LGH) of reading that begins by treating reading as a softly-assembled process and that assumes, instead of stability, context-sensitive flexibility of the reading process. LGH predicts that switching between two reading tasks leads to longer lasting phase-transition like patterns in the reading process. Using the nonlinear-dynamical tool of recurrence quantification analysis, we test these predictions by examining series of individual word reading times in self-paced reading tasks where native (L1) and second language readers (L2) transition between random word and ordered text reading tasks. We find consistent evidence for phase-transitions in the reading times when readers switch from ordered text to random-word reading, but we find mixed evidence when readers transition from random-word to ordered-text reading. In the latter case, L2 readers show moderately stronger signs for phase-transitions compared to L1 readers, suggesting that familiarity with a language influences whether and how such transitions occur. The results provide evidence for LGH and suggest that the cognitive processes underlying reading are not fully stable across tasks but exhibit soft-assembly in the interaction between task and reader characteristics.

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<![CDATA[Effects of playing position, pitch location, opposition ability and team ability on the technical performance of elite soccer players in different score line states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633972d5eed0c484ae67a3

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of playing position, pitch location, team ability and opposition ability on technical performance variables (pass, cross, corner, free kick accuracy) of English Premier League Soccer players in difference score line states. A validated automatic tracking system (Venatrack) was used to code player actions in real time for passing accuracy, cross accuracy, corner accuracy and free kick accuracy. In total 376 of the 380 games played during the 2011–12 English premier League season were recorded, resulting in activity profiles of 570 players and over 35’000 rows of data. These data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Multi-level regression revealed a “u” shaped association between passing accuracy and goal difference (GD) with greater accuracy occurring at extremes of GD e.g., when the score was either positive or negative. The same pattern was seen for corner accuracy away from home e.g., corner accuracy was lowest when the score was close with the lowest accuracy at extremes of GD. Although free kicks were not associated with GD, team ability, playing position and pitch location were found to predict accuracy. No temporal variables were found to predict cross accuracy. A number of score line effects were present across the temporal factors which should be considered by coaches and managers when preparing and selecting teams in order to maximise performance. The current study highlighted the need for more sensitive score line definitions in which to consider score line effects.

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<![CDATA[The natural selection of words: Finding the features of fitness]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d625d5eed0c484031768

We introduce a dataset for studying the evolution of words, constructed from WordNet and the Google Books Ngram Corpus. The dataset tracks the evolution of 4,000 synonym sets (synsets), containing 9,000 English words, from 1800 AD to 2000 AD. We present a supervised learning algorithm that is able to predict the future leader of a synset: the word in the synset that will have the highest frequency. The algorithm uses features based on a word’s length, the characters in the word, and the historical frequencies of the word. It can predict change of leadership (including the identity of the new leader) fifty years in the future, with an F-score considerably above random guessing. Analysis of the learned models provides insight into the causes of change in the leader of a synset. The algorithm confirms observations linguists have made, such as the trend to replace the -ise suffix with -ize, the rivalry between the -ity and -ness suffixes, and the struggle between economy (shorter words are easier to remember and to write) and clarity (longer words are more distinctive and less likely to be confused with one another). The results indicate that integration of the Google Books Ngram Corpus with WordNet has significant potential for improving our understanding of how language evolves.

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<![CDATA[Development and evaluation of a 3-D virtual pronunciation tutor for children with autism spectrum disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d624d5eed0c484031712

The deficit in speech sound production in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) adds to their communication barriers. The 3-D virtual environments have been implemented to improve their communication abilities. However, there were no previous studies on the use of a 3-D virtual pronunciation tutor designed specifically to train pronunciation for children with ASD. To fill this research gap, the current study developed and evaluated a 3-D virtual tutor which served as a multimodal and real-data-driven speech production tutor to present both places and manners of Mandarin articulation. Using an eye-tracking technique (RED 5 Eye Tracker), Experiment 1 objectively investigated children’s gauged attention distribution online while learning with our computer-assisted 3-D virtual tutor in comparison to a real human face (HF) tutor. Eye-tracking results indicated most participants showed more interests in the visual speech cues of the 3-D tutor, and paid some degree of absolute attention to the additional visual speech information of both articulatory movements and airflow changes. To further compare treatment outcomes, training performance was evaluated in Experiment 2 with the ASD learners divided into two groups, with one group learning from the HF tutor and the other from the 3-D tutor (HF group vs. 3-D group). Both groups showed improvement with the help of computer-based training in the post-intervention test based on the calculation of a 5-point Likert scale. However, the 3-D group showed much higher gains in producing Mandarin stop and affricate consonants, and apical vowels. We conclude that our 3-D virtual imitation intervention system provides an effective approach of audiovisual pronunciation training for children with ASD.

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<![CDATA[Song variation of the South Eastern Indian Ocean pygmy blue whale population in the Perth Canyon, Western Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c450d5eed0c4845e850b

Sea noise collected over 2003 to 2017 from the Perth Canyon, Western Australia was analysed for variation in the South Eastern Indian Ocean pygmy blue whale song structure. The primary song-types were: P3, a three unit phrase (I, II and III) repeated with an inter-song interval (ISI) of 170–194 s; P2, a phrase consisting of only units II & III repeated every 84–96 s; and P1 with a phrase consisting of only unit II repeated every 45–49 s. The different ISI values were approximate multiples of each other within a season. When comparing data from each season, across seasons, the ISI value for each song increased significantly through time (all fits had p << 0.001), at 0.30 s/Year (95%CI 0.217–0.383), 0.8 s/Year (95%CI 0.655–1.025) and 1.73 s/Year (95%CI 1.264–2.196) for the P1, P2 and P3 songs respectively. The proportions of each song-type averaged at 21.5, 24.2 and 56% for P1, P2 and P3 occurrence respectively and these ratios could vary by up to ± 8% (95% CI) amongst years. On some occasions animals changed the P3 ISI to be significantly shorter (120–160 s) or longer (220–280 s). Hybrid song patterns occurred where animals combined multiple phrase types into a repeated song. In recent years whales introduced further complexity by splitting song units. This variability of song-type and proportions implies abundance measure for this whale sub population based on song detection needs to factor in trends in song variability to make data comparable between seasons. Further, such variability in song production by a sub population of pygmy blue whales raises questions as to the stability of the song types that are used to delineate populations. The high level of song variability may be driven by an increasing number of background whale callers creating ‘noise’ and so forcing animals to alter song in order to ‘stand out’ amongst the crowd.

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<![CDATA[Attentional modulation of orthographic neighborhood effects during reading: Evidence from event-related brain potentials in a psychological refractory period paradigm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644944d5eed0c484c2f97c

It is often assumed that word reading proceeds automatically. Here, we tested this assumption by recording event-related potentials during a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, requiring lexical decisions about written words. Specifically, we selected words differing in their orthographic neighborhood size–the number of words that can be obtained from a target by exchanging a single letter–and investigated how influences of this variable depend on the availability of central attention. As expected, when attentional resources for lexical decisions were unconstrained, words with many orthographic neighbors elicited larger N400 amplitudes than those with few neighbors. However, under conditions of high temporal overlap with a high priority primary task, the N400 effect was not statistically different from zero. This finding indicates strong attentional influences on processes sensitive to orthographic neighbors during word reading, providing novel evidence against the full automaticity of processes involved in word reading. Furthermore, in conjunction with the observation of an underadditive interaction between stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and orthographic neighborhood size in lexical decision performance, commonly taken to indicate automaticity, our results raise issues concerning the standard logic of cognitive slack in the PRP paradigm.

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<![CDATA[Computer simulations of coupled idiosyncrasies in speech perception and speech production with COSMO, a perceptuo-motor Bayesian model of speech communication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c424389d5eed0c4845e050f

The existence of a functional relationship between speech perception and production systems is now widely accepted, but the exact nature and role of this relationship remains quite unclear. The existence of idiosyncrasies in production and in perception sheds interesting light on the nature of the link. Indeed, a number of studies explore inter-individual variability in auditory and motor prototypes within a given language, and provide evidence for a link between both sets. In this paper, we attempt to simulate one study on coupled idiosyncrasies in the perception and production of French oral vowels, within COSMO, a Bayesian computational model of speech communication. First, we show that if the learning process in COSMO includes a communicative mechanism between a Learning Agent and a Master Agent, vowel production does display idiosyncrasies. Second, we implement within COSMO three models for speech perception that are, respectively, auditory, motor and perceptuo-motor. We show that no idiosyncrasy in perception can be obtained in the auditory model, since it is optimally tuned to the learning environment, which does not include the motor variability of the Learning Agent. On the contrary, motor and perceptuo-motor models provide perception idiosyncrasies correlated with idiosyncrasies in production. We draw conclusions about the role and importance of motor processes in speech perception, and propose a perceptuo-motor model in which auditory processing would enable optimal processing of learned sounds and motor processing would be helpful in unlearned adverse conditions.

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<![CDATA[No evidence for effects of Turkish immigrant children‘s bilingualism on executive functions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61b7ccd5eed0c484937fd6

Recent research has increasingly questioned the bilingual advantage for executive functions (EF). We used structural equation modeling in a large sample of Turkish immigrant and German monolingual children (N = 337; aged 5–15 years) to test associations between bilingualism and EF. Our data showed no significant group differences between Turkish immigrant and German children’s EF skills while taking into account maternal education, child gender, age, and working memory (i.e., digit span backwards). Moreover, neither Turkish immigrant children’s proficiency in either language nor their home language environment predicted EF. Our findings offer important new evidence in light of the ongoing debate about the existence of a bilingual advantage for EF.

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<![CDATA[Effect of F0 contour on perception of Mandarin Chinese speech against masking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7a9d5eed0c48449083a

Intonation has many perceptually significant functions in language that contribute to speech recognition. This study aims to investigate whether intonation cues affect the unmasking of Mandarin Chinese speech in the presence of interfering sounds. Specifically, intelligibility of multi-tone Mandarin Chinese sentences with maskers consisting of either two-talker speech or steady-state noise was measured in three (flattened, typical, and exaggerated) intonation conditions. Different from most of the previous studies, the present study only manipulate and modify the intonation information but preserve tone information. The results showed that recognition of the final keywords in multi-tone Mandarin Chinese sentences was much better under the original F0 contour condition than the decreased F0 contour or exaggerated F0 contour conditions whenever there was a noise or speech masker, and an exaggerated F0 contour reduced the intelligibility of Mandarin Chinese more under the speech masker condition than that under the noise masker condition. These results suggested that speech in a tone language (Mandarin Chinese) is harder to understand when the intonation is unnatural, even if the tone information is preserved, and an unnatural intonation contour decreases releasing Mandarin Chinese speech from masking, especially in a multi-person talking environment.

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<![CDATA[Evaluating probabilistic programming languages for simulating quantum correlations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bbad5eed0c48491e06f

This article explores how probabilistic programming can be used to simulate quantum correlations in an EPR experimental setting. Probabilistic programs are based on standard probability which cannot produce quantum correlations. In order to address this limitation, a hypergraph formalism was programmed which both expresses the measurement contexts of the EPR experimental design as well as associated constraints. Four contemporary open source probabilistic programming frameworks were used to simulate an EPR experiment in order to shed light on their relative effectiveness from both qualitative and quantitative dimensions. We found that all four probabilistic languages successfully simulated quantum correlations. Detailed analysis revealed that no language was clearly superior across all dimensions, however, the comparison does highlight aspects that can be considered when using probabilistic programs to simulate experiments in quantum physics.

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