ResearchPad - granule-cells https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Distinct patterns of dentate gyrus cell activation distinguish physiologic from aberrant stimuli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14621 Under physiologic conditions, the dentate gyrus (DG) exhibits exceptionally low levels of activity compared to other brain regions. A sparse activation pattern is observed even when the DG is engaged to process new information; for example, only ~1–3% of neurons in the DG granule cell layer (GCL) are activated after placing animals in a novel, enriched environment. Moreover, such physiologic stimulation of GCL neurons recruits young granule cells more readily than older cells. This sparse pattern of cell activation has largely been attributed to intrinsic circuit properties of the DG, such as reduced threshold for activation in younger cells, and increased inhibition onto older cells. Given these intrinsic properties, we asked whether such activation of young granule cells was unique to physiologic stimulation, or could be elicited by general pharmacological activation of the hippocampus. We found that administration of kainic acid (KA) at a low dose (5 mg/kg) to wildtype C57BL/6 mice activated a similarly sparse number of cells in the GCL as physiologic DG stimulation by exposure to a novel, enriched environment. However, unlike physiologic stimulation, 5 mg/kg KA activated primarily old granule cells as well as GABAergic interneurons. This finding indicates that intrinsic circuit properties of the DG alone may not be sufficient to support the engagement of young granule cells, and suggest that other factors such as the specificity of the pattern of inputs, may be involved.

]]>
<![CDATA[Top-down inputs drive neuronal network rewiring and context-enhanced sensory processing in olfaction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c46bd5eed0c4845e873d

Much of the computational power of the mammalian brain arises from its extensive top-down projections. To enable neuron-specific information processing these projections have to be precisely targeted. How such a specific connectivity emerges and what functions it supports is still poorly understood. We addressed these questions in silico in the context of the profound structural plasticity of the olfactory system. At the core of this plasticity are the granule cells of the olfactory bulb, which integrate bottom-up sensory inputs and top-down inputs delivered by vast top-down projections from cortical and other brain areas. We developed a biophysically supported computational model for the rewiring of the top-down projections and the intra-bulbar network via adult neurogenesis. The model captures various previous physiological and behavioral observations and makes specific predictions for the cortico-bulbar network connectivity that is learned by odor exposure and environmental contexts. Specifically, it predicts that—after learning—the granule-cell receptive fields with respect to sensory and with respect to cortical inputs are highly correlated. This enables cortical cells that respond to a learned odor to enact disynaptic inhibitory control specifically of bulbar principal cells that respond to that odor. For this the reciprocal nature of the granule cell synapses with the principal cells is essential. Functionally, the model predicts context-enhanced stimulus discrimination in cluttered environments (‘olfactory cocktail parties’) and the ability of the system to adapt to its tasks by rapidly switching between different odor-processing modes. These predictions are experimentally testable. At the same time they provide guidance for future experiments aimed at unraveling the cortico-bulbar connectivity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Identification of transthyretin as a novel interacting partner for the δ subunit of GABAA receptors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d014cd5eed0c48403a038

GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs) play critical roles in brain development and synchronization of neural network activity. While synaptic GABAA-Rs can exert rapid inhibition, the extrasynaptic GABAA-Rs can tonically inhibit neuronal activity due to constant activation by ambient GABA. The δ subunit-containing GABAA-Rs are expressed abundantly in the cerebellum, hippocampus and thalamus to mediate the major tonic inhibition in the brain. While electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the δ-GABAA-Rs have been well characterized, the molecular interacting partners of the δ-GABAA-Rs are not clearly defined. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid screening assay, we identified transthyretin (TTR) as a novel regulatory molecule for the δ-GABAA-Rs. Knockdown of TTR in cultured cerebellar granule neurons significantly decreased the δ receptor expression; whereas overexpressing TTR in cortical neurons increased the δ receptor expression. Electrophysiological analysis confirmed that knockdown or overexpression of TTR in cultured neurons resulted in a corresponding decrease or increase of tonic currents. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of TTR-/- mice revealed a significant decrease of the surface expression of the δ-GABAA-Rs in cerebellar granule neurons. Together, our studies identified TTR as a novel regulator of the δ-GABAA-Rs.

]]>
<![CDATA[The brain-specific RasGEF very-KIND is required for normal dendritic growth in cerebellar granule cells and proper motor coordination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbd1a

Very-KIND/Kndc1/KIAA1768 (v-KIND) is a brain-specific Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor carrying two sets of the kinase non-catalytic C-lobe domain (KIND), and is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells. Here, we report the impact of v-KIND deficiency on dendritic and synaptic growth in cerebellar granule cells in v-KIND knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, we evaluate motor function in these animals. The gross anatomy of the cerebellum, including the cerebellar lobules, layered cerebellar cortex and densely-packed granule cell layer, in KO mice appeared normal, and was similar to wild-type (WT) mice. However, KO mice displayed an overgrowth of cerebellar granule cell dendrites, compared with WT mice, resulting in an increased number of dendrites, dendritic branches and terminals. Immunoreactivity for vGluT2 (a marker for excitatory presynapses of mossy fiber terminals) was increased in the cerebellar glomeruli of KO mice, compared with WT mice. The postsynaptic density around the terminals of mossy fibers was also increased in KO mice. Although there were no significant differences in locomotor ability between KO and WT animals in their home cages or in the open field, young adult KO mice had an increased grip strength and a tendency to exhibit better motor performance in balance-related tests compared with WT animals. Taken together, our results suggest that v-KIND is required for compact dendritic growth and proper excitatory synaptic connections in cerebellar granule cells, which are necessary for normal motor coordination and balance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Downregulation of KCNMB4 expression and changes in BK channel subtype in hippocampal granule neurons following seizure activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b45cf4a463d7e54c1d63af6

A major challenge is to understand maladaptive changes in ion channels that sets neurons on a course towards epilepsy development. Voltage- and calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels contribute to early spike timing in neurons, and studies indicate that the BK channel plays a pathological role in increasing excitability early after a seizure. Here, we have investigated changes in BK channels and their accessory β4 subunit (KCNMB4) in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons of the hippocampus, key neurons that regulate excitability of the hippocampus circuit. Two days after pilocarpine-induced seizures, we found that the predominant effect is a downregulation of the β4 accessory subunit mRNA. Consistent with reduced expression, single channel recording and pharmacology indicate a switch in the subtype of channels expressed; from iberiotoxin-resistant, type II BK channels (BK α/β4) that have higher channel open probability and slow gating, to iberiotoxin-sensitive type I channels (BK α alone) with low open probability and faster gating. The switch to a majority of type I channel expression following seizure activity is correlated with a loss of BK channel function on spike threshold while maintaining the channel’s contribution to increased early spike frequency. Using heterozygous β4 knockout mice, we find reduced expression is sufficient to increase seizure sensitivity. We conclude that seizure-induced downregulation of KCNMB4 is an activity dependent mechanism that increases the excitability of DG neurons. These novel findings indicate that BK channel subtypes are not only defined by cell-specific expression, but can also be plastic depending on the recent history of neuronal excitability.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evidence for Functional Diversity between the Voltage-Gated Proton Channel Hv1 and Its Closest Related Protein HVRP1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6cdca

The Hv1 channel and voltage-sensitive phosphatases share with voltage-gated sodium, potassium, and calcium channels the ability to detect changes in membrane potential through voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). However, they lack the pore domain typical of these other channels. NaV, KV, and CaV proteins can be found in neurons and muscles, where they play important roles in electrical excitability. In contrast, VSD-containing proteins lacking a pore domain are found in non-excitable cells and are not involved in neuronal signaling. Here, we report the identification of HVRP1, a protein related to the Hv1 channel (from which the name Hv1 Related Protein 1 is derived), which we find to be expressed primarily in the central nervous system, and particularly in the cerebellum. Within the cerebellar tissue, HVRP1 is specifically expressed in granule neurons, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of subcellular distribution via electron microscopy and immunogold labeling reveals that the protein localizes on the post-synaptic side of contacts between glutamatergic mossy fibers and the granule cells. We also find that, despite the similarities in amino acid sequence and structural organization between Hv1 and HVRP1, the two proteins have distinct functional properties. The high conservation of HVRP1 in vertebrates and its cellular and subcellular localizations suggest an important function in the nervous system.

]]>
<![CDATA[Interglomerular Connectivity within the Canonical and GC-D/Necklace Olfactory Subsystems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f8ab0ee8fa60b71004

The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem—formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB—is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences. The formation of these socially-transmitted food preferences requires the animal to integrate information about two types of olfactory stimuli: these specialized social chemosignals and the food odors themselves. However, the neural mechanisms with which the GC-D/necklace subsystem processes this information are unclear. We used stimulus-induced increases in intrinsic fluorescence signals to map functional circuitry associated with NGs and canonical glomeruli (CGs) in the MOB. As expected, CG-associated activity spread laterally through both the glomerular and external plexiform layers associated with activated glomeruli. Activation of CGs or NGs resulted in activity spread between the two types of glomeruli; there was no evidence of preferential connectivity between individual necklace glomeruli. These results support previous anatomical findings that suggest the canonical and GC-D/necklace subsystems are functionally connected and may integrate general odor and semiochemical information in the MOB.

]]>
<![CDATA[In-Cell Intrabody Selection from a Diverse Human Library Identifies C12orf4 Protein as a New Player in Rodent Mast Cell Degranulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9edab0ee8fa60b6d330

The high specificity of antibodies for their antigen allows a fine discrimination of target conformations and post-translational modifications, making antibodies the first choice tool to interrogate the proteome. We describe here an approach based on a large-scale intracellular expression and selection of antibody fragments in eukaryotic cells, so-called intrabodies, and the subsequent identification of their natural target within living cell. Starting from a phenotypic trait, this integrated system allows the identification of new therapeutic targets together with their companion inhibitory intrabody. We applied this system in a model of allergy and inflammation. We first cloned a large and highly diverse intrabody library both in a plasmid and a retroviral eukaryotic expression vector. After transfection in the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line, we performed seven rounds of selection to isolate cells displaying a defect in FcεRI-induced degranulation. We used high throughput sequencing to identify intrabody sequences enriched during the course of selection. Only one intrabody was common to both plasmid and retroviral selections, and was used to capture and identify its target from cell extracts. Mass spectrometry analysis identified protein RGD1311164 (C12orf4), with no previously described function. Our data demonstrate that RGD1311164 is a cytoplasmic protein implicated in the early signaling events following FcεRI-induced cell activation. This work illustrates the strength of the intrabody-based in-cell selection, which allowed the identification of a new player in mast cell activation together with its specific inhibitor intrabody.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cell-Wide DNA De-Methylation and Re-Methylation of Purkinje Neurons in the Developing Cerebellum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da20ab0ee8fa60b7ea2a

Global DNA de-methylation is thought to occur only during pre-implantation and gametogenesis in mammals. Scalable, cell-wide de-methylation has not been demonstrated beyond totipotent stages. Here, we observed a large scale de-methylation and subsequent re-methylation (CDR) (including 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC)) in post-mitotic cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC) through the course of normal development. Through single cell immuno-identification and cell-specific quantitative methylation assays, we demonstrate that the CDR event is an intrinsically scheduled program, occurring in nearly every PC. Meanwhile, cerebellar granule cells and basket interneurons adopt their own DNA methylation program, independent of PCs. DNA de-methylation was further demonstrated at the gene level, on genes pertinent to PC development. The PC, being one of the largest neurons in the brain, may showcase an amplified epigenetic cycle which may mediate stage transformation including cell cycle arrest, vast axonal-dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis at the onset of neuronal specificity. This discovery is a key step toward better understanding the breadth and role of DNA methylation and de-methylation during neural ontology.

]]>
<![CDATA[Zfp423 Regulates Sonic Hedgehog Signaling via Primary Cilium Function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae4ab0ee8fa60bbca1f

Zfp423 encodes a 30-zinc finger transcription factor that intersects several canonical signaling pathways. Zfp423 mutations result in ciliopathy-related phenotypes, including agenesis of the cerebellar vermis in mice and Joubert syndrome (JBTS19) and nephronophthisis (NPHP14) in humans. Unlike most ciliopathy genes, Zfp423 encodes a nuclear protein and its developmental expression is complex, leading to alternative proposals for cellular mechanisms. Here we show that Zfp423 is expressed by cerebellar granule cell precursors, that loss of Zfp423 in these precursors leads to cell-intrinsic reduction in proliferation, loss of response to Shh, and primary cilia abnormalities that include diminished frequency of both Smoothened and IFT88 localization. Loss of Zfp423 alters expression of several genes encoding key cilium components, including increased expression of Tulp3. Tulp3 is a direct binding target of Zfp423 and reducing the overexpression of Tulp3 in Zfp423-deficient cells suppresses Smoothened translocation defects. These results define Zfp423 deficiency as a bona fide ciliopathy, acting upstream of Shh signaling, and indicate a mechanism intrinsic to granule cell precursors for the resulting cerebellar hypoplasia.

]]>
<![CDATA[MicroRNAs, miR-23a-3p and miR-151-3p, Are Regulated in Dentate Gyrus Neuropil following Induction of Long-Term Potentiation In Vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb97b

Translation of synaptic mRNA contributes to alterations in the proteome necessary to consolidate long-term potentiation (LTP), a model of memory processes. Yet, how this process is controlled is not fully resolved. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by suppressing translation or promoting mRNA degradation. As specific microRNAs are synaptically located, we hypothesized that they are ideally suited to couple synaptic activation, translational regulation, and LTP persistence. The aim of this study was to identify LTP-regulated microRNAs at or near synapses. Accordingly, LTP was induced unilaterally at perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses in awake adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Five hours later, dentate gyrus middle molecular layer neuropil, containing potentiated synapses, was laser-microdissected. MicroRNA expression profiling, using TaqMan Low Density MicroRNA Microarrays (n = 4), identified eight regulated microRNAs. Subsequent individual TaqMan assays confirmed upregulation of miR-23a-3p (1.30 ± 0.10; p = 0.015) and miR-151-3p (1.17 ± 0.19; p = 0.045) in a second cohort (n = 7). Interestingly, bioinformatic analysis indicated that miR-151-3p and miR-23a-3p regulate synaptic reorganisation and transcription, respectively. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that microRNAs are regulated in isolated neuropil following LTP induction in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that synaptic, LTP-responsive microRNAs contribute to LTP persistence via regulation of the synaptic proteome.

]]>
<![CDATA[Respiration Gates Sensory Input Responses in the Mitral Cell Layer of the Olfactory Bulb]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daddab0ee8fa60bba6a4

Respiration plays an essential role in odor processing. Even in the absence of odors, oscillating excitatory and inhibitory activity in the olfactory bulb synchronizes with respiration, commonly resulting in a burst of action potentials in mammalian mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) during the transition from inhalation to exhalation. This excitation is followed by inhibition that quiets MTC activity in both the glomerular and granule cell layers. Odor processing is hypothesized to be modulated by and may even rely on respiration-mediated activity, yet exactly how respiration influences sensory processing by MTCs is still not well understood. By using optogenetics to stimulate discrete sensory inputs in vivo, it was possible to temporally vary the stimulus to occur at unique phases of each respiration. Single unit recordings obtained from the mitral cell layer were used to map spatiotemporal patterns of glomerular evoked responses that were unique to stimulations occurring during periods of inhalation or exhalation. Sensory evoked activity in MTCs was gated to periods outside phasic respiratory mediated firing, causing net shifts in MTC activity across the cycle. In contrast, odor evoked inhibitory responses appear to be permitted throughout the respiratory cycle. Computational models were used to further explore mechanisms of inhibition that can be activated by respiratory activity and influence MTC responses. In silico results indicate that both periglomerular and granule cell inhibition can be activated by respiration to internally gate sensory responses in the olfactory bulb. Both the respiration rate and strength of lateral connectivity influenced inhibitory mechanisms that gate sensory evoked responses.

]]>
<![CDATA[MiR-338-3p regulates neuronal maturation and suppresses glioblastoma proliferation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf6f0

Neurogenesis is a highly-regulated process occurring in the dentate gyrus that has been linked to learning, memory, and antidepressant efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of neuronal development and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus via modulation of gene expression. However, this mode of regulation is both incompletely described in the literature thus far and highly multifactorial. In this study, we designed sensors and detected relative levels of expression of 10 different miRNAs and found miR-338-3p was most highly expressed in the dentate gyrus. Comparison of miR-338-3p expression with neuronal markers of maturity indicates miR-338-3p is expressed most highly in the mature neuron. We also designed a viral “sponge” to knock down in vivo expression of miR-338-3p. When miR-338-3p is knocked down, neurons sprout multiple primary dendrites that branch off of the soma in a disorganized manner, cellular proliferation is upregulated, and neoplasms form spontaneously in vivo. Additionally, miR-338-3p overexpression in glioblastoma cell lines slows their proliferation in vitro. Further, low miR-338-3p expression is associated with increased mortality and disease progression in patients with glioblastoma. These data identify miR-338-3p as a clinically relevant tumor suppressor in glioblastoma.

]]>