ResearchPad - guidelines https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Health profile of adult special immigrant visa holders arriving from Iraq and Afghanistan to the United States, 2009–2017: A cross-sectional analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13850 Between 2,000 and 19,000 Special Immigrant Visa holders (SIVH) from Iraq and Afghanistan have resettled in the United States annually since 2008.Per the Immigration and Nationality Act, SIVH, like other immigrants and refugees, must be examined by a physician before arriving in the US. Results of these overseas examinations are transmitted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to US state and local health departments via CDC’s Electronic Disease Notification system (EDN).Increasing provider knowledge about the health conditions most commonly encountered in SIVH as well as any differences in health conditions between SIVH from Iraq and Afghanistan may facilitate diagnostic screening, examination, and referrals to additional healthcare providers in the US.Information about the health of SIV populations is limited and would be beneficial for US clinicians who see SIVH in their clinics.What did the researchers do and find?In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed overseas medical exam data in CDC’s EDN for 19,167 SIV Iraqi and Afghan adults who resettled to the United States from April 2009 through December 2017.Among all SIVH, 56.5% were overweight or had obesity, 2.4% reported hypertension, 1.1% reported diabetes, and 19.4% reported current or previous tobacco use.In general, Iraqi SIVH were more likely to have obesity, diabetes, and be current or former smokers than Afghan SIVH.What do these findings mean?State public health agencies and clinicians screening SIVH should consider screening for diabetes among those with risk factors and prompt referral and management of obesity, hypertension, and smoking.Behavioral risk factor counseling and referral to culturally appropriate chronic disease prevention programs can be initiated at screening visits and subsequently reemphasized with primary care providers and other healthcare professionals.Limitations include the inability to obtain all SIVH records, self-reported medical history of NCDs, and underdiagnosis of NCDs such as hypertension and diabetes because formal laboratory testing for NCDs is not used during overseas medical exams. ]]> <![CDATA[The Society for Immunotherapy in Cancer statement on best practices for multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining and validation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12562 The interaction between the immune system and tumor cells is an important feature for the prognosis and treatment of cancer. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) analyses are emerging technologies that can be used to help quantify immune cell subsets, their functional state, and their spatial arrangement within the tumor microenvironment.MethodsThe Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a task force of pathologists and laboratory leaders from academic centers as well as experts from pharmaceutical and diagnostic companies to develop best practice guidelines for the optimization and validation of mIHC/mIF assays across platforms.ResultsRepresentative outputs and the advantages and disadvantages of mIHC/mIF approaches, such as multiplexed chromogenic IHC, multiplexed immunohistochemical consecutive staining on single slide, mIF (including multispectral approaches), tissue-based mass spectrometry, and digital spatial profiling are discussed.ConclusionsmIHC/mIF technologies are becoming standard tools for biomarker studies and are likely to enter routine clinical practice in the near future. Careful assay optimization and validation will help ensure outputs are robust and comparable across laboratories as well as potentially across mIHC/mIF platforms. Quantitative image analysis of mIHC/mIF output and data management considerations will be addressed in a complementary manuscript from this task force. ]]> <![CDATA[ISIDOG Recommendations Concerning COVID-19 and Pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11814 Providing guidelines to health care workers during a period of rapidly evolving viral pandemic infections is not an easy task, but it is extremely necessary in order to coordinate appropriate action so that all patients will get the best possible care given the circumstances they are in. With these International Society of Infectious Disease in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISIDOG) guidelines we aim to provide detailed information on how to diagnose and manage pregnant women living in a pandemic of COVID-19. Pregnant women need to be considered as a high-risk population for COVID-19 infection, and if suspected or proven to be infected with the virus, they require special care in order to improve their survival rate and the well-being of their babies. Both protection of healthcare workers in such specific care situations and maximal protection of mother and child are envisioned.

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<![CDATA[ELSA recommendations for minimally invasive surgery during a community spread pandemic: a centered approach in Asia from widespread to recovery phases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9a123012-9345-4736-905c-cfd770b3aa2d The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant changes to surgical practice across the worlds. Some countries are seeing a tailing down of cases, while others are still having persistent and sustained community spread. These evolving disease patterns call for a customized and dynamic approach to the selection, screening, planning, and for the conduct of surgery for these patients.MethodsThe current literature and various international society guidelines were reviewed and a set of recommendations were drafted. These were circulated to the Governors of the Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA) for expert comments and discussion. The results of these were compiled and are presented in this paper.ResultsThe recommendations include guidance for selection and screening of patients in times of active community spread, limited community spread, during times of sporadic cases or recovery and the transition between phases. Personal protective equipment requirements are also reviewed for each phase as minimum requirements. Capability management for the re-opening of services is also discussed. The choice between open and laparoscopic surgery is patient based, and the relative advantages of laparoscopic surgery with regard to complications, and respiratory recovery after major surgery has to be weighed against the lack of safety data for laparoscopic surgery in COVID-19 positive patients. We provide recommendations on the operating room set up and conduct of general surgery. If laparoscopic surgery is to be performed, we describe circuit modifications to assist in reducing plume generation and aerosolization.ConclusionThe COVID-19 pandemic requires every surgical unit to have clear guidelines to ensure both patient and staff safety. These guidelines may assist in providing guidance to units developing their own protocols. A judicious approach must be adopted as surgical units look to re-open services as the pandemic evolves. ]]> <![CDATA[Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock, 2012]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N203d5b27-3560-464f-8a7e-03990fec7881

Objective

To provide an update to the “Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock,” last published in 2008.

Design

A consensus committee of 68 international experts representing 30 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict of interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guidelines process was conducted independent of any industry funding. A stand-alone meeting was held for all subgroup heads, co- and vice-chairs, and selected individuals. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups and among the entire committee served as an integral part of the development.

Methods

The authors were advised to follow the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence from high (A) to very low (D) and to determine the strength of recommendations as strong (1) or weak (2). The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasized. Recommendations were classified into three groups: (1) those directly targeting severe sepsis; (2) those targeting general care of the critically ill patient and considered high priority in severe sepsis; and (3) pediatric considerations.

Results

Key recommendations and suggestions, listed by category, include: early quantitative resuscitation of the septic patient during the first 6 h after recognition (1C); blood cultures before antibiotic therapy (1C); imaging studies performed promptly to confirm a potential source of infection (UG); administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials therapy within 1 h of the recognition of septic shock (1B) and severe sepsis without septic shock (1C) as the goal of therapy; reassessment of antimicrobial therapy daily for de-escalation, when appropriate (1B); infection source control with attention to the balance of risks and benefits of the chosen method within 12 h of diagnosis (1C); initial fluid resuscitation with crystalloid (1B) and consideration of the addition of albumin in patients who continue to require substantial amounts of crystalloid to maintain adequate mean arterial pressure (2C) and the avoidance of hetastarch formulations (1B); initial fluid challenge in patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion and suspicion of hypovolemia to achieve a minimum of 30 mL/kg of crystalloids (more rapid administration and greater amounts of fluid may be needed in some patients (1C); fluid challenge technique continued as long as hemodynamic improvement is based on either dynamic or static variables (UG); norepinephrine as the first-choice vasopressor to maintain mean arterial pressure ≥65 mmHg (1B); epinephrine when an additional agent is needed to maintain adequate blood pressure (2B); vasopressin (0.03 U/min) can be added to norepinephrine to either raise mean arterial pressure to target or to decrease norepinephrine dose but should not be used as the initial vasopressor (UG); dopamine is not recommended except in highly selected circumstances (2C); dobutamine infusion administered or added to vasopressor in the presence of (a) myocardial dysfunction as suggested by elevated cardiac filling pressures and low cardiac output, or (b) ongoing signs of hypoperfusion despite achieving adequate intravascular volume and adequate mean arterial pressure (1C); avoiding use of intravenous hydrocortisone in adult septic shock patients if adequate fluid resuscitation and vasopressor therapy are able to restore hemodynamic stability (2C); hemoglobin target of 7–9 g/dL in the absence of tissue hypoperfusion, ischemic coronary artery disease, or acute hemorrhage (1B); low tidal volume (1A) and limitation of inspiratory plateau pressure (1B) for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); application of at least a minimal amount of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in ARDS (1B); higher rather than lower level of PEEP for patients with sepsis-induced moderate or severe ARDS (2C); recruitment maneuvers in sepsis patients with severe refractory hypoxemia due to ARDS (2C); prone positioning in sepsis-induced ARDS patients with a Pao 2/Fio 2 ratio of ≤100 mm Hg in facilities that have experience with such practices (2C); head-of-bed elevation in mechanically ventilated patients unless contraindicated (1B); a conservative fluid strategy for patients with established ARDS who do not have evidence of tissue hypoperfusion (1C); protocols for weaning and sedation (1A); minimizing use of either intermittent bolus sedation or continuous infusion sedation targeting specific titration endpoints (1B); avoidance of neuromuscular blockers if possible in the septic patient without ARDS (1C); a short course of neuromuscular blocker (no longer than 48 h) for patients with early ARDS and a Pao 2/Fi o 2 <150 mm Hg (2C); a protocolized approach to blood glucose management commencing insulin dosing when two consecutive blood glucose levels are >180 mg/dL, targeting an upper blood glucose ≤180 mg/dL (1A); equivalency of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration or intermittent hemodialysis (2B); prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (1B); use of stress ulcer prophylaxis to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with bleeding risk factors (1B); oral or enteral (if necessary) feedings, as tolerated, rather than either complete fasting or provision of only intravenous glucose within the first 48 h after a diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock (2C); and addressing goals of care, including treatment plans and end-of-life planning (as appropriate) (1B), as early as feasible, but within 72 h of intensive care unit admission (2C). Recommendations specific to pediatric severe sepsis include: therapy with face mask oxygen, high flow nasal cannula oxygen, or nasopharyngeal continuous PEEP in the presence of respiratory distress and hypoxemia (2C), use of physical examination therapeutic endpoints such as capillary refill (2C); for septic shock associated with hypovolemia, the use of crystalloids or albumin to deliver a bolus of 20 mL/kg of crystalloids (or albumin equivalent) over 5–10 min (2C); more common use of inotropes and vasodilators for low cardiac output septic shock associated with elevated systemic vascular resistance (2C); and use of hydrocortisone only in children with suspected or proven “absolute”’ adrenal insufficiency (2C).

Conclusions

Strong agreement existed among a large cohort of international experts regarding many level 1 recommendations for the best care of patients with severe sepsis. Although a significant number of aspects of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for this important group of critically ill patients.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2769-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Canadian Guidelines on Cannabis Use Disorder Among Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f733b2d-58b2-4855-9f9a-e9b4600f623c

Background

Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is an emerging and diverse challenge among older adults.

Methods

The Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health, with financial support from Health Canada, has produced evidence-based guidelines on the prevention, identification, assessment, and treatment of this form of substance use disorder.

Conclusions

Older adults may develop CUD in the setting of recreational and even medical use. Clinicians should remain vigilant for the detection of CUD, and they should be aware of strategies for prevention and managing its emergence and consequences The full version of these guidelines can be accessed at www.ccsmh.ca.

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<![CDATA[Expert consensus on the clinical application of enhanced external counterpulsation in elderly people (2019)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22e9424f-9727-4688-aeb1-0093b05dd126

Abstract

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non‐invasive assisted circulation technique and a rich pool of evidence has accumulated for its clinical application in the prevention and management of multiple comorbidities in the elderly population, including angina, heart failure, ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorder, diabetes and its complications, ischemic eye diseases, sudden hearing loss and erectile dysfunction, as well as various psychological and psychiatric conditions. When applying EECP to elderly patients, emphasis should be placed on issues such as safety assessment, risk management and protocol individualization, as well as the monitoring of efficacy during and after treatment.

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<![CDATA[Recommendations for influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination in elderly people in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc4ca9eee-9789-41a5-96d5-8a21739064dd

Abstract

Influenza and pneumonia can be prevented by vaccination, but they remain major causes of morbidity and mortality in age‐related diseases. In most areas of China, the rates of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are relatively low and public awareness of vaccination remains insufficient. Thus, it is essential to recommend influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination to elderly people in clinical practice. Based on recently published studies and related documents issued by several vaccination authorities, such as the World Health Organization, the National Health and Wellness Committee, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, we propose official recommendations for influenza and S pneumoniae vaccination in elderly people in China.

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<![CDATA[Canadian Guidelines on Alcohol Use Disorder Among Older Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N89aa6866-4315-4652-a8c9-66cdada705d6

Background

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an increasingly common, under-recognized, and under-treated health concern in older adults. Its prevalence is expected to reach unprecedented levels as the Canadian population ages. In response, Health Canada commissioned the Canadian Coalition of Seniors’ Mental Health to create guidelines for the prevention, screening, assessment, and treatment of AUD in older adults.

Methods

A systematic review of English language literature from 2008–2018 regarding AUD in adults was conducted. Previously published guidelines were evaluated using AGREE II, and key guidelines updated using ADAPTE method by drawing on current literature. Recommendations were created and assessed using the GRADE method.

Results

Twenty-two recommendations were created. Prevention recommendations: Best advice for older adults who choose to drink is to limit intake to well below the national Low-Risk Alcohol Drinking Guidelines. Screening recommendations: Alcohol consumption should be reviewed and discussed on an annual basis by primary care providers. This type of discussion needs to be normalized and approached in a simple, neutral, straight-forward manner. Assessment recommendations: Positive screens for AUD should be followed by a comprehensive assessment. Once more details are obtained an individualized treatment plan can be recommended, negotiated, and implemented. Treatment recommendations: AUD falls on a spectrum of mild, moderate, and severe. It can also be complicated by concurrent mental health, physical, or social issues, especially in older adults. Naltrexone and Acamprosate pharmacotherapies can be used for the treatment of AUD in older adults, as individually indicated. Psychosocial treatment and support should be offered as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

Conclusion

These guidelines provide practical and timely clinical recommendations on the prevention, assessment, and treatment of AUD in older adults within the Canadian context.

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<![CDATA[Surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8ecb9da1-b011-4d65-b8bf-5952ee0a01f5

Objectives

To develop evidence-based recommendations for clinicians caring for children (including infants, school-aged children, and adolescents) with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction.

Design

A panel of 49 international experts, representing 12 international organizations, as well as three methodologists and three public members was convened. Panel members assembled at key international meetings (for those panel members attending the conference), and a stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in November 2018. A formal conflict-of-interest policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among the chairs, co-chairs, methodologists, and group heads, as well as within subgroups, served as an integral part of the guideline development process.

Methods

The panel consisted of six subgroups: recognition and management of infection, hemodynamics and resuscitation, ventilation, endocrine and metabolic therapies, adjunctive therapies, and research priorities. We conducted a systematic review for each Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcomes question to identify the best available evidence, statistically summarized the evidence, and then assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. We used the evidence-to-decision framework to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or as a best practice statement. In addition, “in our practice” statements were included when evidence was inconclusive to issue a recommendation, but the panel felt that some guidance based on practice patterns may be appropriate.

Results

The panel provided 77 statements on the management and resuscitation of children with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction. Overall, six were strong recommendations, 49 were weak recommendations, and nine were best-practice statements. For 13 questions, no recommendations could be made; but, for 10 of these, “in our practice” statements were provided. In addition, 52 research priorities were identified.

Conclusions

A large cohort of international experts was able to achieve consensus regarding many recommendations for the best care of children with sepsis, acknowledging that most aspects of care had relatively low quality of evidence resulting in the frequent issuance of weak recommendations. Despite this challenge, these recommendations regarding the management of children with septic shock and other sepsis-associated organ dysfunction provide a foundation for consistent care to improve outcomes and inform future research.

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<![CDATA["Clicks, likes, shares and comments" a systematic review of breast cancer screening discourse in social media]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8d8d3073-6769-4a60-aed8-e2beb958c228

Background

Unsatisfactory participation rate at population based organised breast cancer screening is a long standing problem. Social media, with 3.2 billion users in 2019, is potentially an important site of breast cancer related discourse. Determining whether these platforms might be used as channels by screening providers to reach under-screened women may have considerable public health significance.

Objectives

By systematically reviewing original research studies on breast cancer related social media discourse, we had two aims: first, to assess the volume, participants and content of breast screening social media communication and second, to find out whether social media can be used by screening organisers as a channel of patient education.

Methods

We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). After searching PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Springer and Ebsco, 17 studies were found that met our criteria. A systematic narrative framework was used for data synthesis. Owing to the high degree of heterogeneity in social media channels, outcomes and measurement included in this study, a meta-analytic approach was not appropriate.

Results

The volume of breast cancer related social media discourse is considerable. The majority of participants are lay individuals as opposed to healthcare professionals or advocacy groups. The lay misunderstandings surrounding the harms and benefits of mammography is well mirrored in the content of social media discourse. Although there is criticism, breast cancer screening sentiment on the social media ranges from the neutral to the positive. Social media is suitable for offering peer emotional support for potential participants.

Conclusion

Dedicated breast screening websites operated by screening organisers would ensure much needed quality controlled information and also provide space for reliable question and answer forums, the sharing of personal experience and the provision of peer and professional support.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of availability, awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding preschool vision screening in Kumasi, Ghana: An exploratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N637f6c02-dcec-48f9-ae4a-5e42bca666db

Background

Regardless of the importance of preschool vision screening (PSVS), there is limited data on the current state of these programs in Africa (particularly Ghana). This study sought to investigate the level of awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding PSVS, its availability and related policies/programmes in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study included 100 systematically sampled preschools in the metropolis (using probability proportional-to-size method); 72 private schools and 28 public schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit stakeholders of preschools (teachers, head teachers, proprietors, administrators, directors, and educationists), and were interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to all eligible respondents who were present at the time of data collection.

Results

A total of 344 respondents participated in the study; 123 (35.8%) males and 221 (64.2%) females. The overall mean age of respondents was 37.63 ±12.20 years (18–71 years). Of the respondents, 215 (62.5%), 94 (27.3%), and 35 (10.2%) were enrolled from private schools, public schools, and Metropolitan Education Directorate, respectively. 73.8% of respondents reported the absence of routine PSVS in schools whereas 90.1% reported no written policies for PSVS in schools. Only 63.6% of respondents were aware of PSVS whereas more than half (59.6%) of all respondents perceived PSVS to be very important for preschoolers. Private school ownership was significantly associated with availability of PSVS whereas age, teachers, private school ownership, and preschool experience > 10 years were significantly associated with awareness of PSVS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between sociodemographic factors and perception of PSVS.

Conclusion

PSVS is largely unavailable in most Ghanaian schools. Majority of stakeholders were aware of PSVS and agreed to its implementation and incorporation into schools’ health programmes. There is the need to implement a national programme/policy on preschool vision screening in Ghana.

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<![CDATA[Can mutual health organisations influence the quality and the affordability of healthcare provision? The case of the Democratic Republic of Congo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf97c5072-5c0f-45dc-b83f-09c75045dd0d

Background

In their mission to achieve better access to quality healthcare services, mutual health organisations (MHOs) are not limited to providing health insurance. As democratically controlled member organisations, MHOs aim to make people’s voices heard. At national level, they seek involvement in the design of social protection policies; at local level, they seek to improve responsiveness of healthcare services to members’ needs and expectations.

Methods

In this qualitative study, we investigated whether MHOs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) succeed in defending members’ rights by improving healthcare quality while minimising expenses. The data originate from an earlier in-depth investigation conducted in the DRC in 2016 of the performance of 13 MHOs. We re-analysed this existing dataset and more specifically investigated actions that the MHOs undertook to improve quality and affordability of healthcare provision for their members, using a framework for analysis based on Hirschman’s exit-voice theory. This framework distinguishes four mechanisms for MHO members to use in influencing providers: (1) ‘exit’ or ‘voting with the feet’; (2) ‘co-producing a long voice route’ or imposing rules through strategic purchasing; (3) ‘guarding over the long voice route of accountability’ or pressuring authorities to regulate and enforce regulations; and (4) ‘strengthening the short voice route’ by transforming the power imbalance at the provider–patient interface.

Results

All studied MHOs used these four mechanisms to improve healthcare provision. Most healthcare providers, however, did not recognise their authority to do so. In the DRC, controlling quality and affordability of healthcare is firmly seen as a role for the health authorities, but the authorities only marginally take up this role. Under current circumstances, the power of MHOs in the DRC to enhance quality and affordability of healthcare is weak.

Conclusion

On their own, mutual health organisations in the DRC do not have sufficient power to influence the practices of healthcare providers. Greater responsiveness of the health services to MHO members requires cooperation of all actors involved in healthcare delivery to create an enabling environment where voices defending people’s rights are heard.

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<![CDATA[Chinese expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of coagulation dysfunction in COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne70c7546-c4b8-4800-b97e-1cd171bb8e7b

Since December 2019, a novel type of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan led to an outbreak throughout China and the rest of the world. To date, there have been more than 1,260,000 COVID-19 patients, with a mortality rate of approximately 5.44%. Studies have shown that coagulation dysfunction is a major cause of death in patients with severe COVID-19. Therefore, the People’s Liberation Army Professional Committee of Critical Care Medicine and Chinese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis grouped experts from the frontline of the Wuhan epidemic to come together and develop an expert consensus on diagnosis and treatment of coagulation dysfunction associated with a severe COVID-19 infection. This consensus includes an overview of COVID-19-related coagulation dysfunction, tests for coagulation, anticoagulation therapy, replacement therapy, supportive therapy and prevention. The consensus produced 18 recommendations which are being used to guide clinical work.

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<![CDATA[Conduite et complications de l’oxygénation extracorporelle veinoveineuse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb736bfff-9d27-44f7-9b3a-4beb4fa50325

Résumé

Cet article se propose de tracer, à la lumière de la littérature, les grandes lignes de la prise en charge des patients traités par oxygénation extracorporelle veinoveineuse pour une insuffisance respiratoire réfractaire aux traitements conventionnels. Nous diviserons la période d’assistance externe en trois phases successives : la phase d’initiation du traitement, une phase d’entretien et une phase de sevrage et d’arrêt de la thérapeutique. À chacune de ces périodes, nous nous attacherons à décrire les réglages et la surveillance du circuit extérieur ainsi que le traitement et la surveillance du patient lui-même. Nous nous attacherons également à décrire à chaque étape les complications le plus fréquemment rencontrées et les traitements proposés.

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<![CDATA[Particularités de l’ECMO pour le syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë en pédiatrie]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf020234c-0692-4372-b4f9-986bf0f17fd7

Résumé

Les techniques de circulation extracorporelle sont utilisées en pédiatrie dans les syndromes de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA) les plus graves depuis les années 1980. Les données du registre international de l’Extracorporeal Life Support Organization révèlent plus 5 000 enfants placés en extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) en 2012 avec une augmentation du nombre de cas annuels depuis l’épidémie de 2009. La survie, de 56 %, est stable alors que le nombre d’enfants avec des comorbidités augmente grâce aux améliorations apportées au matériel. Bien que nous ne disposions pas d’études randomisées, ces résultats encouragent à proposer l’ECMO dans l’arsenal thérapeutique du SDRA de l’enfant. Si les techniques veinoveineuses doivent être privilégiées dans les affections respiratoires, l’ECMO veinoartérielle peut être nécessaire et reste d’une utilisation fréquente chez l’enfant (50 % des cas). En pédiatrie, les particularités techniques sont liées d’une part aux particularités physiologiques de l’enfant et d’autre part aux contraintes dues au matériel proposé selon les différentes catégories d’âge. L’ECMO est une technique de recours lourde qui nécessite une expertise à la fois technique et pédiatrique spécialisée en raison de ce terrain particulier.

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<![CDATA[Organization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory distress syndrome in the United Kingdom]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67770aac-1c03-4829-acfb-804792a3970b

This article reviews the evolution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the United Kingdom to treat patients with refractory acute respiratory distress. The UK centralized commissioning of public health care has delivered a coherent high-quality national adult ECMO service and defined the key factors in the designation as adult ECMO centre. This strategy seems adequate to provide for the needs of the population and avoid the danger of occasional practice by teams who do not undertake ECMO regularly.

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<![CDATA[Assistance par circulation extracorporelle veinoveineuse dans le traitement du syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë : rationnel et objectifs cliniques]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N95943695-daaf-4079-809f-bc70a8c8965c

Résumé

Les techniques de circulation extracorporelle (CEC) peuvent être utilisées dans les défaillances respiratoires graves des syndromes de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA) avec trois objectifs : 1) assurer une oxygénation satisfaisante en court-circuitant le poumon malade grâce à une circulation veinoveineuse à haut débit ; cette technique assure sans difficulté l’épuration de CO2 ; 2) assurer avant tout une élimination partielle de CO2 dans le but de protéger le poumon d’une ventilation mécanique dangereuse. Des débits sanguins quatre à cinq fois plus faibles sont suffisants avec une circulation veinoveineuse ou artérioveineuse sans pompe ; 3) exceptionnellement, la prise en charge d’une défaillance cardiaque associée peut nécessiter une circulation veinoartérielle à haut débit. Des études physiologiques détaillées et des essais cliniques sont indispensables pour mieux connaître les indications de ces techniques.

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<![CDATA[Diagnosis and Management of Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis: A Practice Guideline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na0688bd1-6bec-4b21-8630-71f39943226f

Abstract

This is the second in a series of practice guidelines commissioned by the Infectious Diseases Society of America through its Practice Guidelines Committee. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide assistance to clinicians when making decisions on treating the conditions specified in each guideline. The targeted providers are pediatricians, family practitioners, and internists. The targeted patients and setting for the acute pharyngitis guideline are pediatric, adolescent, and adult outpatients with a complaint of sore throat. Funding was provided by the IDSA. Panel members represented experts in adult and pediatric infectious diseases. The guidelines are evidence-based. A standard ranking system was used for the strength of the recommendations and the quality of the evidence cited in the literature reviewed. The document has been subjected to external review by peer reviewers as well as by the Practice Guidelines Committee and was approved by the IDSA Council. An executive summary, algorithms, and tables highlight the major recommendations. Indicators of quality will assist in guideline implementation. The guideline will be listed on the IDSA home page at http://www.idsociety.org.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of New Anti-Infective Drugs for the Treatment of Respiratory Tract Infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32c549df-c69d-44a5-bdae-aed98972634c

Abstract

These guidelines deal with the evaluation of anti-infective drugs for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Five clinical entities are described: streptococcal pharyngitis and tonsillitis, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. A wide variety of microorganisms are potentially pathogenetic in these diseases; these guidelines focus on the bacterial infections. Inclusion of a patient in a trial of a new drug is based on the clinical entity, with the requirement that a reasonable attempt will be made to establish a specific microbial etiology. Microbiologic evaluation of efficacy requires isolation of the pathogen and testing for in vitro susceptibility. Alternatively, surrogate markers may be used to identify the etiologic agent. The efficacy of new drugs is evaluated with reference to anticipated response rates. Establishment of the microbial etiology of respiratory tract infections is hampered by the presence of “normal flora” of the nose, mouth, and pharynx, which may include asymptomatic carriage of potential pathogens. This issue is addressed for each category of infection described. For example, it is suggested that for initial phase 2 trials of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis tympanocentesis or direct sinus puncture be used to collect exudate for culture. Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis also present difficulties in the establishment of microbial etiology. These guidelines suggest that clinical trials employ an active control drug but leave open the possibility of a placebo-controlled trial. For pneumonia, the guidelines suggest the identification and enrollment of patients by the clinical type of pneumonia, e.g., atypical pneumonia or acute bacterial pneumonia, rather than by etiologic organism or according to whether it was community or hospital acquired. For each respiratory infection, the clinical response is judged as cure, failure, or indeterminate. Clinical improvement is not acceptable unless quantitative response measures can be applied.

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