ResearchPad - head https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Breeding practices and trait preferences of smallholder farmers for indigenous sheep in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia: Inputs to design a breeding program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7865 The aim of this study was to identify breeding practices and trait preferences for indigenous sheep in three districts (Estie, Farta and Lay Gayient) located in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Questionnaire survey and choice experiment methods were used to collect data from 370 smallholder farmers. Respondents were selected randomly among smallholder farmers who own sheep in the aforementioned districts. A generalized multinomial logit model was employed to examine preferences for sheep attributes, while descriptive statistics and index values were computed to describe sheep breeding practices. Having the highest index value of 0.36, income generation was ranked as the primary reason for keeping sheep, followed by meat and manure sources. The average flock size per smallholder farmer was 10.21 sheep. The majority of the smallholder farmers (91%) have the experience of selecting breeding rams and ewes within their own flock using diverse criteria. Given the highest index value of 0.34, body size was ranked as a primary ram and ewe selection criteria, followed by coat color. Furthermore, choice modeling results revealed that tail type, body size, coat color, growth rate, horn and ear size have shown significant influences on smallholder farmers’ preference for breeding rams (P<0.01). The part-worth utility coefficients were positive for all ram attributes except ear size. For breeding ewes, mothering ability, coat color, body size, lambing interval, growth rate, tail type and litter size have shown significant effects on choice preferences of smallholder farmers (P<0.05). Moreover, significant scale heterogeneity was observed among respondents for ewe attributes (P<0.001). Overall, the results implied that sheep breeding objectives suitable for the northwest highlands of the country can be derived from traits such as linear body measurement, weight and survival at different ages, and lambing intervals. However, selection decisions at the smallholder level should not only be based on estimated breeding values of traits included in the breeding objective but instead, incorporate ways to address farmers’ preference for qualitative traits.

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<![CDATA[The qualitative assessment of optical coherence tomography and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7697 To analyze the relationships between qualitative and quantitative parameters of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and the central retinal sensitivity in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).Materials and methodsNinety-three eyes of 93 patients were finally enrolled, with a median age (quartile) of 58 (24.5) years. We assessed the patients using SD-OCT and the 10–2 program of a Humphry Field Analyzer (HFA). As a qualitative parameter, two graders independently classified the patients’ SD-OCT images into five severity grades (grades 1–5) based on the severity of damage to the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) layer. As quantitative parameters, we measured the IS-ellipsoid zone (IS-EZ) width, IS/OS thickness, outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, central macular thickness (CMT, 1 and 3 mm) and macular cube (6 × 6 mm) volume and thickness. The central retinal sensitivity was defined by the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logMAR), average sensitivities of the central 4 (foveal sensitivity [FS]) and 12 (macular sensitivity [MS]) points of the HFA 10–2 program and the mean deviation (MD) of the 10–2 program. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between both qualitative and quantitative parameters and variables of the central retinal sensitivity. In addition, we performed a multiple regression analysis using these parameters to identify the parameters most strongly influencing the central retinal sensitivity.ResultsThe IS/OS severity grade was significantly correlated with the BCVA (ρ = 0.741, P < 0.001), FS (ρ = −0.844, P < 0.001), MS (ρ = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (ρ = −0.681, P < 0.001) and showed stronger correlations to them than any other quantitative parameters including the IS-EZ width, IS/OS thickness, ONL thickness, CMTs and macular cube volume/thickness. Furthermore, a step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that the IS/OS severity grade was more strongly associated with the BCVA (β = 0.659, P < 0.001), FS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001), MS (β = −0.820, P < 0.001) and MD (β = −0.674, P < 0.001) than any other quantitative parameters. The intraclass correlation coefficient between two graders indicated substantial correlation (κ = 0.70).DiscussionThe qualitative grading of OCT based on the severity of the IS/OS layer was simple and strongly correlated with the central retinal sensitivity in patients with RP. It may be useful to assess the central visual function in patients with RP, although there is some variation in severity within the same severity grade. ]]> <![CDATA[Emotional facial perception development in 7, 9 and 11 year-old children: The emergence of a silent eye-tracked emotional other-race effect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7635 The present study examined emotional facial perception (happy and angry) in 7, 9 and 11-year-old children from Caucasian and multicultural environments with an offset task for two ethnic groups of faces (Asian and Caucasian). In this task, participants were required to respond to a dynamic facial expression video when they believed that the first emotion presented had disappeared. Moreover, using an eye-tracker, we evaluated the ocular behavior pattern used to process these different faces. The analyses of reaction times do not show an emotional other-race effect (i.e., a facility in discriminating own-race faces over to other-race ones) in Caucasian children for Caucasian vs. Asian faces through offset times, but an effect of emotional face appeared in the oldest children. Furthermore, an eye-tracked ocular emotion and race-effect relative to processing strategies is observed and evolves between age 7 and 11. This study strengthens the interest in advancing an eye-tracking study in developmental and emotional processing studies, showing that even a “silent” effect should be detected and shrewdly analyzed through an objective means.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Cerebral Blood Flow Pulsatility and Cerebral Arterial Compliance With 4D Flow MRI]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6790 Four‐dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow MRI) enables efficient investigation of cerebral blood flow pulsatility in the cerebral arteries. This is important for exploring hemodynamic mechanisms behind vascular diseases associated with arterial pulsations.PurposeTo investigate the feasibility of pulsatility assessments with 4D flow MRI, its agreement with reference two‐dimensional phase‐contrast MRI (2D PC‐MRI) measurements, and to demonstrate how 4D flow MRI can be used to assess cerebral arterial compliance and cerebrovascular resistance in major cerebral arteries.Study TypeProspective.SubjectsThirty‐five subjects (20 women, 79 ± 5 years, range 70–91 years).Field Strength/Sequence4D flow MRI (PC‐VIPR) and 2D PC‐MRI acquired with a 3T scanner.AssessmentTime‐resolved flow was assessed in nine cerebral arteries. From the pulsatile flow waveform in each artery, amplitude (ΔQ), volume load (ΔV), and pulsatility index (PI) were calculated. To reduce high‐frequency noise in the 4D flow MRI data, the flow waveforms were low‐pass filtered. From the total cerebral blood flow, total PI (PItot), total volume load (ΔVtot), cerebral arterial compliance (C), and cerebrovascular resistance (R) were calculated.Statistical TestsTwo‐tailed paired t‐test, intraclass correlation (ICC).ResultsThere was no difference in ΔQ between 4D flow MRI and the reference (0.00 ± 0.022 ml/s, mean ± SEM, P = 0.97, ICC = 0.95, n = 310) with a cutoff frequency of 1.9 Hz and 15 cut plane long arterial segments. For ΔV, the difference was –0.006 ± 0.003 ml (mean ± SEM, P = 0.07, ICC = 0.93, n = 310) without filtering. Total R was 11.4 ± 2.41 mmHg/(ml/s) (mean ± SD) and C was 0.021 ± 0.009 ml/mmHg (mean ± SD). ΔVtot was 1.21 ± 0.29 ml (mean ± SD) with an ICC of 0.82 compared with the reference. PItot was 1.08 ± 0.21 (mean ± SD).Data ConclusionWe successfully assessed 4D flow MRI cerebral arterial pulsatility, cerebral arterial compliance, and cerebrovascular resistance. Averaging of multiple cut planes and low‐pass filtering was necessary to assess accurate peak‐to‐peak features in the flow rate waveforms. Level of Evidence: 2 Technical Efficacy Stage: 2J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:1516–1525. ]]> <![CDATA[The vascularized fascia lata free flap: an anatomical study and clinical considerations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N996982fd-2bd2-4471-bf3f-577e2f4ce060 Fascia lata (FL) is often used as fascial component of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in head and neck reconstruction. No distinct data exist on whether the FL has its own reliable vascular supply and whether the fascia alone can be harvested as a fascia lata free flap.MethodsWe dissected 25 thighs of 15 cadavers. The lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) was identified, and the size of stained fascia and skin were measured after injection of methylene blue into the descending branch (DB). Finally, topography of fascial vessels was determined.ResultsStaining of fascia and skin paddle was found in all 25 cases. Ascending skin perforators of the DB of the LCFA gave off branches for supply of the FL enabling harvest of a fascia lata free flap. Septo- or musculocutaneous perforators pierced FL and entered skin within the proximal 38.6–60% of the thigh. The mean length and width of stained FL was 15.8 ± 4.1 cm and 8.7 ± 2.0 cm, respectively, and size of stained FL ranged from 40.0 to 336.0 cm2. In 20 cases (80%), skin paddles were 2.4 times larger on average compared to corresponding FL.ConclusionWe could demonstrate that the FL receives its own vascular supply from perforators of the DB originating from the LCFA. Hence, harvest of a fascia lata free flap is possible, reliable, and the size of the fascia is suitable for reconstruction of small and large defects of the head and neck. ]]> <![CDATA[Reference values of physiological 18F-FET uptake: Implications for brain tumor discrimination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N80bdbd58-ef10-47b0-8bc3-8bde8c3b2b52

Purpose

The aim of this study was to derive reference values of 18F-fluoro-ethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography (18F-FET-PET) uptake in normal brain and head structures to allow for differentiation from tumor tissue.

Materials and methods

We examined the datasets of 70 patients (median age 53 years, range 15–79), whose dynamic 18F-FET-PET was acquired between January 2016 and October 2017. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), target-to-background standardized uptake value ratio (TBR), and time activity curve (TAC) of the 18F-FET-PET were assessed in tumor tissue and in eight normal anatomic structures and compared using the t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson or Spearman coefficients, and comparisons between several variables with Pearson’s chi-squared tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests as well as the Benjamini-Hochberg correction.

Results

All analyzed structures showed an 18F-FET uptake higher than background (threshold: TBR > 1.5). The venous sinuses and cranial muscles exhibited a TBR of 2.03±0.46 (confidence interval (CI) 1.92–2.14), higher than the uptake of caudate nucleus, pineal gland, putamen, and thalamus (TBR 1.42±0.17, CI 1.38–1.47). SUVmax, TBR, and TAC showed no difference in the analyzed structures between subjects with high-grade gliomas and subjects with low-grade gliomas, except the SUVmax of the pineal gland (t-tests of the pineal gland: SUVmax: p = 0.022; TBR: p = 0.411). No significant differences were found for gender and age.

Conclusion

Normal brain tissue demonstrates increased 18F-FET uptake compared to background tissue. Two distinct clusters have been identified, comprising venous structures and gray matter with a reference uptake of up to SUVmax of 2.99 and 2.33, respectively.

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<![CDATA[Variants encoding a restricted carboxy-terminal domain of SLC12A2 cause hereditary hearing loss in humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd1837fa5-7737-42fc-aa07-ce2092d99c03

Hereditary hearing loss is challenging to diagnose because of the heterogeneity of the causative genes. Further, some genes involved in hereditary hearing loss have yet to be identified. Using whole-exome analysis of three families with congenital, severe-to-profound hearing loss, we identified a missense variant of SLC12A2 in five affected members of one family showing a dominant inheritance mode, along with de novo splice-site and missense variants of SLC12A2 in two sporadic cases, as promising candidates associated with hearing loss. Furthermore, we detected another de novo missense variant of SLC12A2 in a sporadic case. SLC12A2 encodes Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and plays critical roles in the homeostasis of K+-enriched endolymph. Slc12a2-deficient mice have congenital, profound deafness; however, no human variant of SLC12A2 has been reported as associated with hearing loss. All identified SLC12A2 variants mapped to exon 21 or its 3’-splice site. In vitro analysis indicated that the splice-site variant generates an exon 21-skipped SLC12A2 mRNA transcript expressed at much lower levels than the exon 21-included transcript in the cochlea, suggesting a tissue-specific role for the exon 21-encoded region in the carboy-terminal domain. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that Cl influx was significantly decreased in all SLC12A2 variants studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SLC12A2 is located on the plasma membrane of several types of cells in the cochlea, including the strial marginal cells, which are critical for endolymph homeostasis. Overall, this study suggests that variants affecting exon 21 of the SLC12A2 transcript are responsible for hereditary hearing loss in humans.

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<![CDATA[Dysregulated biodynamics in metabolic attractor systems precede the emergence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd64c8bc4-d849-4cf6-88a9-792b4ee4d346

Evolutionarily conserved mechanisms maintain homeostasis of essential elements, and are believed to be highly time-variant. However, current approaches measure elemental biomarkers at a few discrete time-points, ignoring complex higher-order dynamical features. To study dynamical properties of elemental homeostasis, we apply laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to tooth samples to generate 500 temporally sequential measurements of elemental concentrations from birth to 10 years. We applied dynamical system and Information Theory-based analyses to reveal the longest-known attractor system in mammalian biology underlying the metabolism of nutrient elements, and identify distinct and consistent transitions between stable and unstable states throughout development. Extending these dynamical features to disease prediction, we find that attractor topography of nutrient metabolism is altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as early as childhood, suggesting these pathways are involved in disease risk. Mechanistic analysis was undertaken in a transgenic mouse model of ALS, where we find similar marked disruptions in elemental attractor systems as in humans. Our results demonstrate the application of a phenomological analysis of dynamical systems underlying elemental metabolism, and emphasize the utility of these measures in characterizing risk of disease.

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<![CDATA[Tsinghua facial expression database – A database of facial expressions in Chinese young and older women and men: Development and validation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf679a1e8-67cb-47b3-95b4-f3d293b80761

Perception of facial identity and emotional expressions is fundamental to social interactions. Recently, interest in age associated changes in the processing of faces has grown rapidly. Due to the lack of older faces stimuli, most previous age-comparative studies only used young faces stimuli, which might cause own-age advantage. None of the existing Eastern face stimuli databases contain face images of different age groups (e.g. older adult faces). In this study, a database that comprises images of 110 Chinese young and older adults displaying eight facial emotional expressions (Neutral, Happiness, Anger, Disgust, Surprise, Fear, Content, and Sadness) was constructed. To validate this database, each image was rated on the basis of perceived facial expressions, perceived emotional intensity, and perceived age by two different age groups. Results have shown an overall 79.08% correct identification rate in the validation. Access to the freely available database can be requested by emailing the corresponding authors.

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<![CDATA[Towards a fully automated surveillance of well-being status in laboratory mice using deep learning: Starting with facial expression analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N201121b9-bfe0-423d-91d1-e349ea424365

Assessing the well-being of an animal is hindered by the limitations of efficient communication between humans and animals. Instead of direct communication, a variety of parameters are employed to evaluate the well-being of an animal. Especially in the field of biomedical research, scientifically sound tools to assess pain, suffering, and distress for experimental animals are highly demanded due to ethical and legal reasons. For mice, the most commonly used laboratory animals, a valuable tool is the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a coding system for facial expressions of pain in mice. We aim to develop a fully automated system for the surveillance of post-surgical and post-anesthetic effects in mice. Our work introduces a semi-automated pipeline as a first step towards this goal. A new data set of images of black-furred laboratory mice that were moving freely is used and provided. Images were obtained after anesthesia (with isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine combination) and surgery (castration). We deploy two pre-trained state of the art deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures (ResNet50 and InceptionV3) and compare to a third CNN architecture without pre-training. Depending on the particular treatment, we achieve an accuracy of up to 99% for the recognition of the absence or presence of post-surgical and/or post-anesthetic effects on the facial expression.

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<![CDATA[Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69289aa2-a5fc-4464-abf6-42bfa80ae1ee

Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and blood pressure after walking through the exhibit. Psychological assessments of mood found that most visitors felt happier, more energized, and less tense after the visit. Additionally, participants who spent more time in River’s Edge, had visited River’s Edge prior to the study, and had seen more exhibits at the Zoo prior to entering River’s Edge experienced greater psychological and/or physiological benefits. We conclude that immersive, naturalistic exhibits in zoos can elicit positive changes in physiological and psychological measures of health and well-being and argue for a greater scientific focus on the role of zoos and other green spaces in human health.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of availability, awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding preschool vision screening in Kumasi, Ghana: An exploratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N637f6c02-dcec-48f9-ae4a-5e42bca666db

Background

Regardless of the importance of preschool vision screening (PSVS), there is limited data on the current state of these programs in Africa (particularly Ghana). This study sought to investigate the level of awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding PSVS, its availability and related policies/programmes in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study included 100 systematically sampled preschools in the metropolis (using probability proportional-to-size method); 72 private schools and 28 public schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit stakeholders of preschools (teachers, head teachers, proprietors, administrators, directors, and educationists), and were interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to all eligible respondents who were present at the time of data collection.

Results

A total of 344 respondents participated in the study; 123 (35.8%) males and 221 (64.2%) females. The overall mean age of respondents was 37.63 ±12.20 years (18–71 years). Of the respondents, 215 (62.5%), 94 (27.3%), and 35 (10.2%) were enrolled from private schools, public schools, and Metropolitan Education Directorate, respectively. 73.8% of respondents reported the absence of routine PSVS in schools whereas 90.1% reported no written policies for PSVS in schools. Only 63.6% of respondents were aware of PSVS whereas more than half (59.6%) of all respondents perceived PSVS to be very important for preschoolers. Private school ownership was significantly associated with availability of PSVS whereas age, teachers, private school ownership, and preschool experience > 10 years were significantly associated with awareness of PSVS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between sociodemographic factors and perception of PSVS.

Conclusion

PSVS is largely unavailable in most Ghanaian schools. Majority of stakeholders were aware of PSVS and agreed to its implementation and incorporation into schools’ health programmes. There is the need to implement a national programme/policy on preschool vision screening in Ghana.

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<![CDATA[Trifurcation of the right common carotid artery—Case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N02de5d46-a184-4e76-85a8-b08d16c8445f

Trifurcation is rare anatomical variant of the common carotid artery (CCA) termination. Knowledge of such alteration may prevent from the unintentional complications and influence on the course of various invasive medical procedures carried in the neck region. The best way to assess anatomy of neck arteries is computed tomography angiography (CTA). In this article we present a case of 64-year old male patient, who was admitted to the department with a chronic headaches and dizziness. CTA revealed a trifurcation of the right common carotid artery into: internal carotid artery and two branches of external carotid artery. The aneurysm of the proximal part of Vertebral Artery was also observed and it was considered as a cause of the symptoms which should not be related to the anatomical variety of the CCA.

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<![CDATA[Multiple parathyroid adenomas with variable ultrasonography and computed tomography findings in a patient with chronic kidney disease: A case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndd329603-f272-43e7-86ee-e0a644885c3b

Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is defined as a state of excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone after long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, which typically occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is typically characterized by marked parathyroid hyperplasia or parathyroid adenomas. Here we present a case of multiple parathyroid adenomas in a 23-year-old woman with tertiary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease and describe the ultrasonography and computed tomography findings. To our knowledge, this is the first case of four parathyroid adenomas showing variable radiological features in a patient with tertiary hyperparathyroidism.

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<![CDATA[Optimized Image-Based Surrogate Endpoints in Targeted Therapies for Glioblastoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Phase III Randomized Controlled Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na145fcbe-ec2c-4fd5-bd37-4dd8ec36899b

Objective

We aimed to determine the optimized image-based surrogate endpoints (IBSEs) in targeted therapies for glioblastoma through a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Materials and Methods

A systematic search of OVID-MEDLINE and EMBASE for phase III RCTs on glioblastoma was performed in December 2017. Data on overall survival (OS) and IBSEs, including progression-free survival (PFS), 6-month PFS (6moPFS), 12-month PFS (12moPFS), median PFS, and objective response rate (ORR) were extracted. Weighted linear regression analysis for the hazard ratio for OS and the hazard ratios or odds ratios for IBSEs was performed. The associations between IBSEs and OS were evaluated. Subgroup analyses according to disease stage (newly diagnosed glioblastoma versus recurrent glioblastoma), types of test treatment, and types of response assessment criteria were performed.

Results

Twenty-three phase III RCTs published between 2000 and 2017, including 8387 patients, met the inclusion criteria. OS showed strong correlations with PFS (standardized β coefficient [R] = 0.719), 6moPFS (R = 0.647), and 12moPFS (R = 0.638). OS showed no correlations with median PFS and ORR. In subgroup analysis according to types of therapies, PFS showed the highest correlations with OS in targeted therapies for cell cycle pathways (R = 0.913) and growth factor receptors and their downstream pathways (R = 0.962). 12moPFS showed the highest correlation with OS in antiangiogenic therapy (R = 0.821). The response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria provided higher correlation coefficients between OS and IBSEs than the Macdonald criteria.

Conclusion

Overall, PFS is an optimized IBSE in targeted therapies for glioblastoma; however, 12moPFS is optimal in antiangiogenic therapy.

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<![CDATA[Use of Magnetic Resonance Neurography for Evaluating the Distribution and Patterns of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7355bb75-63b9-4bb0-b70a-ae37f0e7e359

Objective

To evaluate the distribution and characteristics of peripheral nerve abnormalities in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) using magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and to examine the diagnostic efficiency.

Materials and Methods

Thirty-one CIDP patients and 21 controls underwent MR scans. Three-dimensional sampling perfections with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions and T1-/T2- weighted turbo spin-echo sequences were performed for neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral (LS) plexus and cauda equina, respectively. Clinical data and scores of the inflammatory Rasch-built overall disability scale (I-RODS) in CIDP were obtained.

Results

The bilateral extracranial vagus (n = 11), trigeminal (n = 12), and intercostal nerves (n = 10) were hypertrophic. Plexus hypertrophies were observed in the brachial plexus of 19 patients (61.3%) and in the LS plexus of 25 patients (80.6%). Patterns of hypertrophy included uniform hypertrophy (17 [54.8%] brachial plexuses and 21 [67.7%] LS plexuses), and multifocal fusiform hypertrophy (2 [6.5%] brachial plexuses and 4 [12.9%] LS plexuses) was present. Enlarged and/or contrast-enhanced cauda equina was found in 3 (9.7%) and 13 (41.9%) patients, respectively. Diameters of the brachial and LS nerve roots were significantly larger in CIDP than in controls (p < 0.001). The largest AUC was obtained for the L5 nerve. There were no significant differences in the course duration, I-RODS score, or diameter between patients with and without hypertrophy.

Conclusion

MRN is useful for the assessment of distribution and characteristics of the peripheral nerves in CIDP. Compared to other regions, LS plexus neurography is more sensitive for CIDP.

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<![CDATA[Plasma Circulating Tumor HPV DNA for the Surveillance of Cancer Recurrence in HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N13fb250b-0dd1-4dce-b226-7fb5f6e526ba

PURPOSE

Plasma circulating tumor human papillomavirus DNA (ctHPVDNA) is a sensitive and specific biomarker of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). We investigated whether longitudinal monitoring of ctHPVDNA during post-treatment surveillance could accurately detect clinical disease recurrence.

METHODS AND MATERIALS

A prospective biomarker clinical trial was conducted among patients with nonmetastatic HPV-associated (p16-positive) OPSCC. All patients were treated with curative-intent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients underwent a 3-month post-CRT positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan and were thereafter clinically evaluated every 2-4 months (years 1-2), then every 6 months (years 3-5). Chest imaging was performed every 6 months. Blood specimens were collected every 6-9 months for analysis of plasma ctHPVDNA using a multianalyte digital polymerase chain reaction assay. The primary endpoint was to estimate the negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) of ctHPVDNA surveillance.

RESULTS

One hundred fifteen patients were enrolled, and 1,006 blood samples were analyzed. After a median follow-up time of 23 months (range, 6.1-54.7 months), 15 patients (13%) developed disease recurrence. Eighty-seven patients had undetectable ctHPVDNA at all post-treatment time points, and none developed recurrence (NPV, 100%; 95% CI, 96% to 100%). Twenty-eight patients developed a positive ctHPVDNA during post-treatment surveillance, 15 of whom were diagnosed with biopsy-proven recurrence. Sixteen patients had 2 consecutively positive ctHPVDNA blood tests, 15 of whom developed biopsy-proven recurrence. Two consecutively positive ctHPVDNA blood tests had a PPV of 94% (95% CI, 70% to 99%). Median lead time between ctHPVDNA positivity and biopsy-proven recurrence was 3.9 months (range, 0.37-12.9 months).

CONCLUSION

Detection of ctHPVDNA in two consecutive plasma samples during post-treatment surveillance has high PPV and NPV for identifying disease recurrence in patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer and may facilitate earlier initiation of salvage therapy.

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<![CDATA[The impact of body posture on intrinsic brain activity: The role of beta power at rest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65f7a4e6-ac5f-46ef-91d2-3d4de84bb5d0

Tying the hands behind the back has detrimental effects on sensorimotor perceptual tasks. Here we provide evidence that beta band oscillatory activity in a resting state condition might play a crucial role in such detrimental effects. EEG activity at rest was measured from thirty young participants (mean age = 24.03) in two different body posture conditions. In one condition participants were required to keep their hands freely resting on the table. In the other condition, participants’ hands were tied behind their back. Increased beta power was observed in the left inferior frontal gyrus during the tied hands condition compared to the free hands condition. A control experiment ruled out alternative explanations for observed change in beta power, including muscle tension. Our findings provide new insights on how body postural manipulations impact on perceptual tasks and brain activity.

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<![CDATA[Blocking long noncoding RNA MALAT1 restrained the development of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9c72b41e-5fd2-4796-a8ad-401d10048a60

Purpose

The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 is a predictive marker in several solid tumors with highly conserved sequences. However, the role of non-coding RNA in development of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer remains unclear.

Methods

Tumor tissues and adjacent non-cancer tissues of 24 patients were collected. We detected the expression of MALAT1 in laryngeal cancer tissues and hypopharyngeal cancer tissues. Moreover, we developed a MALAT1 silencing model in human laryngeal tumor cells by transfecting MALAT1 small interfering RNA into human laryngeal carcinoma cell line Hep-2 and pharyngeal carcinoma cell line FaDu with Lipofectamine 2000 system. Cell cycle analysis, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, Transwell assay, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and wound-healing assays were performed to evaluate the impact of MALAT1 depletion on laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer cell’s growth, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration.

Results

MALAT1 was significantly up-regulated in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. MALAT1 down-regulation induced the increased apoptosis of both cell lines and suppressed cells’ proliferation. Cells were arrested in G1/G2 phase and cells of S phase were significantly decreased. Down-regulation of MALAT1 expression can also inhibit the migration and invasion of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell (Hep-2) and hypopharyngeal cancer cell (FaDu).

Conclusion

In summary, our deactivation model of MALAT1 disentangled the active function of it as a regulator of gene expression governing the hallmarks of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Blocking this long non-coding RNA may restrain the development of laryngeal cancer.

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<![CDATA[Why does radial head arthroplasty fail today? A systematic review of recent literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne0babf35-a698-4b18-9457-7a400e814025

  • Since the introduction of the radial head prosthesis (RHP) in 1941, many designs have been introduced. It is not clear whether prosthesis design parameters are related to early failure. The aim of this systematic review is to report on failure modes and to explore the association between implant design and early failure.

  • A search was conducted to identify studies reporting on failed primary RHP. The results are clustered per type of RHP based on: material, fixation technique, modularity, and polarity. Chi-square tests are used to compare reasons for failure between the groups.

  • Thirty-four articles are included involving 152 failed radial head arthroplasties (RHAs) in 152 patients. Eighteen different types of RHPs have been used.

  • The most frequent reasons for revision surgery after RHA are (aseptic) loosening (30%), elbow stiffness (20%) and/or persisting pain (17%). Failure occurs after an average of 34 months (range, 0–348 months; median, 14 months).

  • Press-fit prostheses fail at a higher ratio because of symptomatic loosening than intentionally loose-fit prostheses and prostheses that are fixed with an expandable stem (p < 0.01).

  • Because of the many different types of RHP used to date and the limited numbers and evidence on early failure of RHA, the current data provide no evidence for a specific RHP design.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:659-667. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180099

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