ResearchPad - health-and-well-being https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity<a href="#fn1"><sup>1</sup></a><sup>,</sup><a href="#fn2"><sup>2</sup></a>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7152b084-e01b-405c-9312-c1454e02c27d Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of –312 ± 557, –1,059 ± 441, and –975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (–2,778 ± 471 and –3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (–847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P < 0.05) protective capacity than calves that were treated twice and died (–2,264 ± 412), indicating that calves that contract BRDC and ultimately die might have reduced protective capacity against histone cytotoxicity. Results suggest that calves that require multiple treatments for BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxicity of histones. Understanding the primary mechanism responsible for protecting against histone cytotoxicity could lead to improved identification of animals susceptible to severe cases of BRDC, improved focus and use of available resources, or better treatments for severe cases of BRDC.

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<![CDATA[COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Microbes and gastrointestinal health of dogs and cats<a href="#fn1"><sup>1</sup></a>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7261aab6-5d5a-460a-ab37-cf81579168db Recent molecular studies have revealed complex bacterial, fungal, archaeal, and viral communities in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs and cats. More than 10 bacterial phyla have been identified, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria constituting more than 99% of all gut microbiota. Microbes act as a defending barrier against invading pathogens, aid in digestion, provide nutritional support for enterocytes, and play a crucial role in the development of the immune system. Of significance for gastrointestinal health is their ability to ferment dietary substrates into short-chain fatty acids, predominantly to acetate, propionate, and butyrate. However, microbes can have also a detrimental effect on host health. Specific pathogens (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni, and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens) have been implicated in acute and chronic gastrointestinal disease. Compositional changes in the small intestinal microbiota, potentially leading to changes in intestinal permeability and digestive function, have been suggested in canine small intestinal dysbiosis or antibiotic-responsive diarrhea. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine and feline inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current theories for the development of IBD favor a combination of environmental factors, the intestinal microbiota, and a genetic susceptibility of the host. Recent studies have revealed a genetic susceptibility for defective bacterial clearance in Boxer dogs with granulomatous colitis. Differential expression of pathogen recognition receptors (i.e., Toll-like receptors) were identified in dogs with chronic enteropathies. Similarly to humans, a microbial dysbiosis has been identified in feline and canine IBD. Commonly observed microbial changes are increased Proteobacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli) with concurrent decreases in Firmicutes, especially a reduced diversity in Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium spp.). This would indicate that these bacterial groups, important short-chain fatty acid producers, may play an important role in promoting intestinal health.

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<![CDATA[Assessing the effects of medium-chain fatty acids and fat sources on PEDV infectivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbf2ee2b7-687b-4f42-8412-a729b4456912

Abstract:

The overall objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to other common fat sources to minimize the risk of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) cross-contamination in a pig bioassay. Treatments were feed with mitigants inoculated with PEDV after application and were: 1) positive control with no chemical treatment; 2) 0.325% commercially available formaldehyde-based product; 3) 1% blend of 1:1:1 caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), and capric acids (C10) and applied with an aerosolizing nozzle; 4) treatment 3 applied directly into the mixer without an aerosolizing nozzle; 5) 0.66% caproic acid; 6) 0.66% caprylic acid; 7) 0.66% capric acid; 8) 0.66% lauric acid; 9) 1% blend of 1:1 capric and lauric acids; 10) 0.3% commercially available dry C12 product; 11) 1% canola oil; 12) 1% choice white grease; 13) 2% coconut oil; 14) 1% coconut oil; 15) 2% palm kernel oil; 16) 1% palm kernel oil; 17) 1% soy oil and four analysis days (0, 1, 3, and 7 post inoculation) as well as 1 treatment of PEDV-negative feed without chemical treatment. There was a treatment × day interaction (P < 0.002) for detectable PEDV RNA. The magnitude of the increase in Ct value from d 0 to 7 was dependent upon the individual treatments. Feed treated with individual MCFA, 1% MCFA blend, or commercial-based formaldehyde had fewer (P < 0.05) detectable viral particles than all other treatments. Commercial-based formaldehyde, 1% MCFA, 0.66% caproic, 0.66% caprylic, and 0.66% capric acids had no evidence of infectivity 10-d old pig bioassay, while there was no evidence the C12 commercial product or longer chain fat sources inhibited PEDV infectivity. Interestingly, pigs given the coconut oil source with the highest composition of caprylic and capric only showed signs of infectivity on the last day of bioassay. These data suggest some MCFA have potential for reducing post feed manufacture PEDV contamination.

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<![CDATA[Determining the impact of commercial feed additives as potential porcine epidemic diarrhea virus mitigation strategies as determined by polymerase chain reaction analysis and bioassay1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf6843393-9e39-4856-9bce-66d303f3d7eb

Abstract

Mitigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was assessed using two feed additives (0.5% inclusion of a benzoic acid [BA] product and 0.02% inclusion of an essential oil [EO] product; DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Parsippany, NJ), and combination of both products (0.5% BA and 0.02% EO) in spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) and a swine gestation diet (FEED) as determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and bioassay. Viral RNA quantification was performed at 7 sampling days post-laboratory inoculation (d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 42) and infectivity was assessed via bioassay with 10-d-old pigs. There was a tendency for treatment × feed matrix × day interaction (P = 0.094), in which the cycle threshold (Ct) value increased over time in FEED when treated with both feed additives, whereas there was no increase over time observed in SDPP treated with both feed additives. There was a feed matrix × day interaction (P < 0.001) in which Ct increased over time in FEED, whereas very little increase over time was observed in SDPP. A tendency for a treatment × feed matrix effect (P = 0.085) was observed where FEED treated with the combination of EO and BA had a greater (P < 0.05) PEDV Ct value than other FEED treatments, and all SDPP treatments had the lower PEDV Ct values compared to FEED treatments (P < 0.05). Overall, the combination of both feed additives was most effective at reducing the quantity of genetic material as detected by qRT-PCR (P < 0.001) compared to either additive alone or no feed additive. Virus shedding was observed in the d 7 postinoculation SDPP treatment that was treated with both feed additives, as well as d 0 untreated FEED and d 0 FEED treated with both feed additives. No other treatment bioassay room had detectible RNA shed and detected in fecal swabs or cecal contents. In summary, the combination of EO and BA enhanced the degradation of PEDV RNA in feed but had little impact on RNA degradation in SDPP. Both untreated feed and feed treated with the combination of EO and BA resulted in infection at d 0 post-laboratory inoculation; however, neither set of samples was infective at d 1 postinoculation. In addition, SDPP harbored greater levels of quantifiable RNA for a longer duration of time compared to FEED, and these viral particles remained viable for a longer duration of time indicating differences in viral stability exist between different feed matrices.

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<![CDATA[Impact of dietary spray-dried bovine plasma addition on pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncce84c27-bfa7-4670-a556-6f9651092227

Abstract

Experimental data suggest that the addition of spray-dried plasma (SDP) to pig feed may enhance antibody responses against certain pathogens and negatively impact virus survival. The benefit of SDP on Escherichia coli infection is well documented. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of bovine SDP (BovSDP) in the pig diet on acute porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. A total of 16 3-wk-old conventional crossbred pigs were used and divided into three groups. Treatments included 1) a negative control group fed a commercial diet and sham inoculated with commercial liquid porcine plasma (n = 3), 2) a positive control group fed a commercial diet and inoculated with PEDV-spiked porcine plasma (PEDV; n = 8), and 3) a third group of pigs fed the commercial diet with inclusion of 5% spray-dried bovine plasma and inoculated with PEDV-spiked porcine plasma (BovSDP; n = 5). Although clinical signs associated with PEDV infection were mild in the BovSDP group, two of eight pigs in the PEDV group developed moderate clinical disease and had to be euthanized. The PEDV IgG and IgA antibody levels and prevalence rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the PEDV–BovSDP group compared with the PEDV group at 7 d postinoculation. The average fecal PEDV RNA shedding time was 7.2 ± 1.0 d for the PEDV–BovSDP group and 9.3 ± 1.1 d for the PEDV group with an overall time to clearance of PEDV shedding of 11 d for PEDV–BovSDP pigs and at least 14 d for PEDV pigs, which was not different (P = 0.215). The results indicate that addition of BovSDP induced an earlier anti-PEDV antibody response in pigs experimentally infected with PEDV thereby reducing clinical disease and the amount and duration of viral shedding during acute PEDV infection.

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<![CDATA[Effects of feeding pregnant beef cows selenium-enriched alfalfa hay on selenium status and antibody titers in their newborn calves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb27fff25-043b-4f53-b271-8bf9e4e8fcdb

ABSTRACT

In newborn dairy calves, it has been demonstrated that supranutritional maternal and colostral Se supplementation using Se yeast or sodium selenite, respectively, improves passive transfer of IgG. In beef cattle, agronomic biofortification with Se is a more practical alternative for Se supplementation, whereby the Se concentration of hay is increased through the use of Se-containing fertilizer amendments. It has been previously demonstrated that agronomic Se biofortification is an effective strategy to improve immunity and performance in Se-replete weaned beef calves. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay during the last 8 to 12 wk of gestation on passive transfer of antibodies to calves. At 10 wk ± 16 d before calving, 45 cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups with 3 pens (5 cows/pen) per treatment: Control cows were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay plus a mineral supplement containing 120 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite, Med-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 45.0 g Se/ha as sodium selenate, and High-Se cows were fed alfalfa hay fertilized with 89.9 g Se/ha as sodium selenate; both the Med-Se and the High-Se groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Colostrum and whole blood (WB) were collected from cows at calving, and WB was collected from calves within 2 h of calving and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 h of age. Concentrations of IgG1 and J-5 Escherichia coli antibody in cow colostrum and calf serum were quantified using ELISA procedures. Selenium concentrations linearly increased in WB (P < 0.001) and colostrum (P < 0.001) of cows and in WB of newborn calves (P < 0.001) with increasing Se concentration in alfalfa hay. Colostrum concentrations of IgG1 (P = 0.03) were increased in cows fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay, but J-5 E. coli antibody (P = 0.43) concentrations were not. Calf serum IgG1 (P = 0.43) and J-5 E. coli antibody (P = 0.44) concentrations during the first 48 h of age were not affected by prior Se treatment of cows. These data suggest that feeding Se-biofortified alfalfa hay promotes the accumulation of Se and antibodies in colostrum but does not affect short-term serum antibody concentrations in calves.

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<![CDATA[Production impact of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection on fattening pigs in Norway1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N91594c50-4891-41c0-861a-a69bcd50a847

Abstract

Newly emerged influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection in Norwegian pigs, although often observed in a subclinical form, can lower the pig's growth performance by reducing feed efficiency in terms of a poorer feed conversion ratio. Infected pigs would consume more feed and require protracted production time to reach market weight. In our observational longitudinal study, growth performance data from 728 control pigs and 193 infected pigs with known viral shedding time points were analyzed using mixed linear regression models to give estimates of the marginal effects of infection. Gaussian curves describing the variability of the estimates at the individual pig level formed the fundamental inputs to our stochastic models. The models were constructed to simulate the summed negative effects of the infection at the batch level of 150 fattening pigs growing from 33 to 100 kg. Other inputs of variability and uncertainty were 1) batch transmission points, 2) pig infection points to reflect the disease transmission dynamics of the virus, and 3) final prevalence of infected pigs in the batch. Monte Carlo random sampling gave 5,000 estimates on the outputs of the marginal effects for each pig. These results were summed up to provide estimates for a batch size of 150 pigs. This figure was adjusted by our final prevalence distribution function, which was also derived from the longitudinal study with 12 cohorts of infected pigs. For a 150-fattening-pig herd randomly selected from the population, the marginal effects of the infection were 1) 835 kg (fifth percentile) to 1,350 kg (95th percentile) increased feed intake and 2) 194 (fifth percentile) to 334 (95th percentile) pig days in excess of expected figures for an uninfected batch. A batch infected during growth phase 3 (81 to 100 kg BW) gave the worst results since the longitudinal study showed that a pig infected during growth phase 3 required more feed and a greater protracted production time compared to younger infected pigs. Sensitivity analysis showed that final prevalence had the greatest impact on the conditional mean and variation of the marginal effects of infections. Batch transmission point was the next most influential factor. Lowering the final prevalence and preventing older fattening pigs from being infected will have the greatest benefit in saving feed cost and reducing delay in getting the pigs to the market.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of two-stage weaning and trace mineral injection on receiving cattle growth performance and behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3b5b3481-5447-452f-961f-f715eb5cb288

Abstract

The objective was to evaluate the effects of two-stage weaning and injectable trace mineral (ITM) on receiving cattle growth performance and behavior. Angus and Simmental × Angus steers (n = 136; body weight [BW] = 200 ± 26 kg) were utilized in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Calves were blocked by source, and assigned to one of four treatments: 1) two-stage weaning and ITM (2MM), 2) two-stage weaning and saline injection (2SAL), 3) abrupt weaning and ITM (AbtMM), or 4) abrupt weaning and saline injection (AbtSAL). On d−6, calves were weighed, plastic calf weaner devices (used to prevent calf from nursing) were inserted in two-stage weaned calves, and ITM or saline injections (1 mL/45.4 kg BW) were administered. On day 0, plastic calf weaner devices were removed, and calves were weighed and shipped 272 km to Urbana, IL. Steer behavior was observed the 2 d following separation from dam. Receiving period was day 0 to 42 and growing period was day 42 to 124. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and pen (six per treatment) was the experimental unit. Abruptly weaned calves had greater (P < 0.01) preweaning average daily gain (ADG) than two-stage weaned calves. Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.16) ADG during the receiving or growing period; however, calves that received ITM tended (P 0.06) to have greater ADG from day 0 to 124. During the receiving period, abruptly weaned calves tended (P = 0.08) to eat more than two-stage calves and ITM calves ate more (P = 0.03) than calves that received saline. There was a weaning strategy × ITM interaction (P < 0.01) for dry matter intake (DMI) from day 0 to 124; 2MM calves ate more (P < 0.01) than 2SAL, but DMI was not different (P = 0.58) between AbtMM and AbtSAL calves. There was a weaning strategy × ITM interaction (P < 0.01) for gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) from day 0 to 124; 2SAL calves had greater (P = 0.05) G:F than AbtSAL, with 2MM and AbtMM calves being intermediate and not different (P = 0.38) than each other. Two-stage weaning decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the percentage of calves walking, standing, and vocalizing, and increased (P ≤ 0.02) the percentage of calves lying and eating following separation from dam. Two-stage weaning decreased preweaning ADG and behavioral signs of stress at feedlot arrival, but had no effect on overall growth. In addition, ITM had no effect on calf BW or behavior, but increased overall DMI in two-stage weaned calves compared to abruptly weaned calves and tended to increase overall ADG regardless of weaning strategy.

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<![CDATA[Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: Effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers, and peripheral blood leukocytes1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1a842814-4173-477d-ad11-2c967cf7e142

ABSTRACT

Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation of cohorts that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare health and performance of PC or AM management systems with (PI) or without (CON) presence of a PI-BVDV pen mate using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four shipment blocks of crossbred PC steers (n = 236) from 3 ranch-origins were weaned, dewormed, vaccinated, tested for PI-BVDV, and kept on the ranch for ≥42 d. Subsequently, PC steers were transported to a stocker receiving unit (RU), weighed (251 ± 2 kg), blood sampled, stratified by d −1 BW, and assigned randomly to treatment (PCPI or PCCON) with no additional processing. Simultaneously, 4 blocks of crossbred AM calves (n = 292) were assembled from regional auction markets and transported to the RU ± 36 h from PC arrival. The AM calves were weighed (245 ± 1.3 kg), stratified by gender and d −1 BW, processed under the same regimen used for PC steers at their origin ranch except bull calves were castrated, and then assigned randomly to treatment (AMPI or AMCON). Treatment pens (0.45 ha) were arranged spatially such that PI did not have fence-line or water source contact with CON. Calves were fed identically and followed the same antibiotic treatment protocol. Daily BW gain for the entire 42-d receiving trial was greater (P < 0.001) for PC (1.2 kg) compared with AM (0.85 kg). There was an exposure effect (P = 0.002) on ADG from d 28 to 42; CON gained 1.12 kg vs. 0.90 kg BW for PI cohort. Morbidity was markedly greater (P < 0.001) in AM (70%) vs. PC (7%), resulting in (P < 0.001) an antibiotic treatment cost of $20.52 and $2.48/animal, respectively. Treatment with a third antibiotic occurred more often (P = 0.04) for PI cohort, and the percentage of chronically ill cattle was greatest (P = 0.06) for AMPI. Upon arrival, BVDV type 1a, 1b, and 2a titers were greater for PC (treatment × day, P < 0.001), and the percentage seropositive to BVDV type 1a on d 0 was 100% for PC vs. 23% in AM. Platelets increased transiently (P < 0.001) with greater platelets observed in AM (P < 0.001). Results indicate that PC calves gain faster and require fewer antibiotic treatments during the receiving period. Exposure to PI reduced BW gain from d 28 to 42, increased the number of calves treated thrice, and increased chronically ill cattle for AM.

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<![CDATA[Mannan oligosaccharide increases serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus1,2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N379a7326-8388-476d-9a8b-51247012fa2a

ABSTRACT

Mannan-containing products are capable of modulating immune responses in animals. However, different products may have diverse immunomodulation. The experiment was conducted to examine effects of mannan oligosaccharide (Actigen; ACT) on growth performance and serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 32 PRRSV-negative pigs (3 wk old) were randomly assigned from within blocks to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and ACT addition (0.04%); and with and without PRRSV] in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW within sex. Ancestry was equalized across treatments. Pigs (8/treatment) were kept individually in each pen. After 2 wk of an 8-wk period of feeding the treatments, pigs received an intranasal inoculation of PRRSV or sham medium at 5 wk of age. Infection by PRRSV decreased ADG, ADFI, and G:F throughout the experiment (P < 0.01). Actigen did not affect ADG (P = 0.450), but decreased (P = 0.047) ADFI from 28 to 42 days postinoculation (DPI). During that time, ACT improved G:F in infected pigs but not in sham controls (interaction, P = 0.009). Dietary ACT did not affect viremia in infected pigs (P > 0.05), but increased PRRSV-specific antibody titer at 35 DPI (P = 0.042). Infection with PRRSV induced the febrile responses of pigs from 3 to 10 DPI (P < 0.001) with return to normal at 14 DPI. During the experimental period, the rectal temperature of pigs was found slightly elevated by ACT (P = 0.045). Infected pigs had greater serum concentrations of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10, and haptoglobin (Hp) than sham controls (P < 0.001). These results indicate that PRRSV stimulated secretion of cytokines involved in innate, T-helper 1, and T-regulatory immune responses. Actigen tended to decrease the serum TNF-α concentration regardless of PRRSV (P = 0.058). The ACT × PRRSV interaction was significant for IL-1β (P = 0.016), IL-12 (P = 0.026), and Hp (P = 0.047), suggesting that infected pigs fed ACT had greater serum concentrations of these mediators than those fed the control. The increases in IL-1β and IL-12 may favorably promote innate and T-cell immune functions in infected pigs fed ACT. Feeding ACT may be useful as ACT is related to increased PRRSV antibody titers and G:F in infected pigs at certain times during infection.

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<![CDATA[Hydrolysable tannin-based diet rich in gallotannins has a minimal impact on pig performance but significantly reduces salivary and bulbourethral gland size]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b423b97463d7e14a67876e9

Tannins have long been considered ‘anti-nutritional’ factors in monogastric nutrition, shown to reduce feed intake and palatability. However, recent studies revealed that compared with condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins (HT) appear to have far less impact on growth performance, but may be inhibitory to the total activity of caecal bacteria. This in turn could reduce microbial synthesis of skatole and indole in the hindgut of entire male pigs (EM). Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of a group of dietary HT on growth performance, carcass traits and boar taint compounds of group housed EM. For the study, 36 Swiss Large White boars were assigned within litter to three treatment groups. Boars were offered ad libitum one of three finisher diets supplemented with 0 (C), 15 (T15) or 30 g/kg (T30) of HT from day 105 to 165 of age. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, boar taint compounds in the adipose tissue and cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP2A19 gene expression in the liver was assessed. Compared with C, feed efficiency but not daily gain and daily feed intake was lower (P<0.05) in T15 and T30 boars. Except for the percentage carcass weight loss during cooling, which tended (P<0.10) to be greater in T30 than C and T15, carcass characteristics were not affected by the diets. In line with the numerically lower androstenone level, bulbourethral and salivary glands of T30 boars were lighter (P<0.05) than of T15 with intermediate values for C. Indole level was lower (P<0.05) in the adipose tissue of T30 than C pigs with intermediate levels in T15. Skatole levels tended (P<0.10) to be lower in T30 and C than T15 pigs. Hepatic gene expression of CYP isoenzymes did not differ between-treatment groups, but was negatively correlated (P<0.05) with androstenone (CYP2E1 and CYP1A2), skatole (CYP2E1, CYP2A) and indole (CYP2A) level. In line with the numerically highest androstenone and skatole concentrations, boar taint odour but not flavour was detected by the panellists in loins from T15 compared with loins from C and T30 boars. These results provide evidence that HT affected metabolism of indolic compounds and androstenone and that they affected the development of accessory sex glands. However, the effects were too small to be detected by sensory evaluation.

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