ResearchPad - health-economics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Women’s empowerment as self-compassion?: Empirical observations from  India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13876 Although ICPD brought about an international consensus on the centrality of women’s empowerment and gender equity as desired national goals, the conceptualization and measurement of empowerment in demography and economics have been largely understood in a relational and in a family welfare context where women’s altruistic behaviour within the household is tied either to developmental or child health outcomes. The goals of this study were twofold: (1) to offer an empirical examination of the household level empowerment measure through the theoretical construct of self-compassion and investigate its association with antenatal health, and (2) to ensure robust psychometric quality for this new measure. Drawing data from the nationally representative, multi-topic dataset of 42, 152 households, India Human Development Survey, IHDS II (2011–2012), the study performed a confirmatory factor analysis followed by an OLS estimation to investigate the association between a self-compassionate based empowerment and antenatal care. Empowerment was shown to be positively and significantly associated with antenatal care with significant age and education gradient. A woman’s married status, her relation to the household head and joint family residence created conditions of restricted freedom in terms of her mobility, decision making and sociality. The empowerment measure showed inconsistent associations with social group affiliations and household wealth. The study provided an intellectual starting point to rethink the traditional formulations of empowerment by foregrounding its empirical measure within the relatively unexplored area of social psychology. In the process it addressed measurement gaps in the empowerment-health debate in India and beyond.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevention versus early detection for long-term control of melanoma and keratinocyte carcinomas: a cost-effectiveness modelling study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9125 To compare the long-term economic impact of melanoma prevention by sun protection, with the corresponding impact of early detection of melanoma to decrease melanoma deaths.DesignCost-effectiveness analysis using Markov cohort model. Data were primarily from two population-based randomised controlled trials, epidemiological and costing reports, and included flow-on effects for keratinocyte cancers (previously non-melanoma skin cancers) and actinic keratoses.SettingQueensland, Australia.ParticipantsMen and women with a mean age 50 years modelled for 30 years.InterventionsDaily sunscreen use (prevention) compared with annual clinical skin examinations (early detection) and comparing these in turn with the status quo.Primary and secondary outcomesCosts, counts of melanoma, melanoma deaths, keratinocyte cancers, life years and quality-adjusted life years.ResultsPer 100 000 individuals, for early detection, primary prevention and without intervention, there were 2446, 1364 and 2419 new melanomas, 556, 341 and 567 melanoma deaths, 64 452, 47 682 and 64 659 keratinocyte cancers and £493.5, £386.4 and £406.1 million in economic costs, respectively. There were small differences between prevention and early detection in life years saved (0.09%) and quality-adjusted life years gained (0.10%).ConclusionsCompared with early detection of melanoma, systematic sunscreen use at a population level will prevent substantial numbers of new skin tumours, melanoma deaths and save healthcare costs. Primary prevention through daily use of sunscreen is a priority for investment in the control of melanoma. ]]> <![CDATA[Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7832 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC.MethodsWe performed a large-scale, population-based nested case-control study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2013, derived from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, and collected data from 2000 to 2013. There were 49,095 diagnosed cases of CRC defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Each case was matched with three controls by sex, age, index date of CRC, and annual medical visits; a total of 147,285 controls were identified. Multiple risk factors of CRC in alcoholism cases were investigated using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong 49,095 cases of CRC, alcoholism was associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.631; 95% CI, 1.565–1.699) in multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting other CRC risk factors, and in stratified analysis with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, there was a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism duration and CRC risk in >1 year, > 2 years, >5 years, and > 11 years groups (adjusted ORs, 1.875, 2.050, 2.662 and 2.670; 95% CI, 1.788–1.967, 1.948–2.158, 2.498–2.835, and 2.511–2.989 respectively).ConclusionAn association between alcoholism and risk of CRC was found in this study. Furthermore, patients with longer alcoholism history showed higher likelihood of developing CRC, which indicates a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism exposure and CRC. Further research on colorectal tumorigenesis is needed. ]]> <![CDATA[Distinguishing moral hazard from access for high-cost healthcare under insurance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9aa1c21e-eb0c-47d9-9336-743c9eef5b98

Context

Health policy has long been preoccupied with the problem that health insurance stimulates spending (“moral hazard”). However, much health spending is costly healthcare that uninsured individuals could not otherwise access. Field studies comparing those with more or less insurance cannot disaggregate moral hazard versus access. Moreover, studies of patients consuming routine low-dollar healthcare are not informative for the high-dollar healthcare that drives most of aggregate healthcare spending in the United States.

Methods

We test indemnities as an alternative theory-driven counterfactual. Such conditional cash transfers would maintain an opportunity cost for patients, unlike standard insurance, but also guarantee access to the care. Since indemnities do not exist in U.S. healthcare, we fielded two blinded vignette-based survey experiments with 3,000 respondents, randomized to eight clinical vignettes and three insurance types. Our replication uses a population that is weighted to national demographics on three dimensions.

Findings

Most or all of the spending due to insurance would occur even under an indemnity. The waste attributable to moral hazard is undetectable.

Conclusions

For high-cost care, policymakers should be more concerned about the foregone efficient spending for those lacking full insurance, rather than the wasteful spending that occurs with full insurance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Beware of vested interests: Epistemic vigilance improves reasoning about scientific evidence (for some people)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4c1a7a8-d330-434e-b120-e60e98785391

In public disputes, stakeholders sometimes misrepresent statistics or other types of scientific evidence to support their claims. One of the reasons this is problematic is that citizens often do not have the motivation nor the cognitive skills to accurately judge the meaning of statistics and thus run the risk of being misinformed. This study reports an experiment investigating the conditions under which people become vigilant towards a source’s claim and thus reason more carefully about the supporting evidence. For this, participants were presented with a claim by a vested-interest or a neutral source and with statistical evidence which was cited by the source as being in support of the claim. However, this statistical evidence actually contradicted the source’s claim but was presented as a contingency table, which are typically difficult for people to interpret correctly. When the source was a lobbyist arguing for his company’s product people were better at interpreting the evidence compared to when the same source argued against the product. This was not the case for a different vested-interests source nor for the neutral source. Further, while all sources were rated as less trustworthy when participants realized that the source had misrepresented the evidence, only for the lobbyist source was this seen as a deliberate attempt at deception. Implications for research on epistemic trust, source credibility effects and science communication are discussed.

]]>
<![CDATA[Health promotion with physiolytics: What is driving people to subscribe in a data-driven health plan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67264028-7608-43f5-811f-a7ed2c904b8b

Data-driven health promotion programs and health plans try to harness the new possibilities of ubiquitous and pervasive physiolytics devices. In this paper we seek to explore what drives people to subscribe to such a data-driven health plan. Our study reveals that the decision to subscribe to a data-driven health plan is strongly influenced by the beliefs of seeing physiolytics as enabler for positive health behavior change and of perceiving health insurances as trustworthy organizations that are capable of securely and righteously manage the data collected by physiolytics.

]]>
<![CDATA[Can mutual health organisations influence the quality and the affordability of healthcare provision? The case of the Democratic Republic of Congo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf97c5072-5c0f-45dc-b83f-09c75045dd0d

Background

In their mission to achieve better access to quality healthcare services, mutual health organisations (MHOs) are not limited to providing health insurance. As democratically controlled member organisations, MHOs aim to make people’s voices heard. At national level, they seek involvement in the design of social protection policies; at local level, they seek to improve responsiveness of healthcare services to members’ needs and expectations.

Methods

In this qualitative study, we investigated whether MHOs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) succeed in defending members’ rights by improving healthcare quality while minimising expenses. The data originate from an earlier in-depth investigation conducted in the DRC in 2016 of the performance of 13 MHOs. We re-analysed this existing dataset and more specifically investigated actions that the MHOs undertook to improve quality and affordability of healthcare provision for their members, using a framework for analysis based on Hirschman’s exit-voice theory. This framework distinguishes four mechanisms for MHO members to use in influencing providers: (1) ‘exit’ or ‘voting with the feet’; (2) ‘co-producing a long voice route’ or imposing rules through strategic purchasing; (3) ‘guarding over the long voice route of accountability’ or pressuring authorities to regulate and enforce regulations; and (4) ‘strengthening the short voice route’ by transforming the power imbalance at the provider–patient interface.

Results

All studied MHOs used these four mechanisms to improve healthcare provision. Most healthcare providers, however, did not recognise their authority to do so. In the DRC, controlling quality and affordability of healthcare is firmly seen as a role for the health authorities, but the authorities only marginally take up this role. Under current circumstances, the power of MHOs in the DRC to enhance quality and affordability of healthcare is weak.

Conclusion

On their own, mutual health organisations in the DRC do not have sufficient power to influence the practices of healthcare providers. Greater responsiveness of the health services to MHO members requires cooperation of all actors involved in healthcare delivery to create an enabling environment where voices defending people’s rights are heard.

]]>
<![CDATA[Modelling the household cost of paediatric malaria treatment in a rural county in Kenya: do non-user fee payments matter? A partial cost of illness analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7f19b89f-9376-4dd2-a0ff-76dd1c1f9005

Objective

The objective of this study was to develop an econometric model for the cost of treatment of paediatric malaria from a patient perspective in a resource scarce rural setting of Homa Bay County, Kenya. We sought to investigate the main contributors as well as the contribution of non-user fee payments to the total household cost of care. Costs were measured from a patient perspective.

Design

The study was conducted as a health facility based cross sectional survey targeting paediatric patients.

Setting

The study was conducted in 13 health facilities ranging from level II to level V in Homa Bay County which is in the Eastern shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya. This is a malaria endemic area.

Participants

We enrolled 254 inpatient children (139 males and 115 females) all of whom participated up to the end of this study.

Primary outcome measure

The primary outcome measure was the cost of pediatric malaria care borne by the patient. This was measured by asking exiting caregivers to estimate the cost of various items contributing to their total expenditure on care seeking.

Results

A total of 254 respondents who consented from 13 public government health facilities were interviewed. Age, number of days spent at the health facility, being treated at a level V facility, medical officer prescribing and seeking initial treatment from a retail shop were found significant predictors of cost.

Conclusion

Higher level health facilities in Homa Bay County, where the more specialised medical workers are stationed, are more costly hence barring the poorest from obtaining quality paediatric malaria care from here. Waiving user fees alone may not be sufficient to guarantee access to care by patients due to unofficial fees and non-user fees expenditures.

]]>
<![CDATA[Indoor environmental quality and learning outcomes: protocol on large-scale sensor deployment in schools]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N95564585-5653-487c-a36f-1153203fdf60

Introduction

Exposure to poor environmental conditions has been associated with deterioration of physical and mental health, and with reduction of cognitive performance. Environmental conditions may also influence cognitive development of children, but epidemiological evidence is scant. In developed countries, children spend 930 hours per year in a classroom, second only to time spent in their bedroom. Using continuous sensing technology, we investigate the relationship between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and cognitive performance of school-aged children. The proposed study will result in a better understanding of the effects of environmental characteristics on cognitive performance, thereby paving the way for experimental studies.

Methods and analysis

A study protocol is presented to reliably measure IEQ in schools. We will monitor the IEQ of 280 classrooms for 5 years, covering approximately 10 000 children. Each classroom in the sample is permanently equipped with a sensor measuring air quality (carbon dioxide and coarse particles), temperature, relative humidity, light intensity and noise levels, all at 1 min intervals. The location of sensing equipment within and across rooms has been validated by a pilot study. Academic performance of school-aged children is measured through standardised cognitive tests. In addition, a series of health indicators is collected (eg, school absence and demand for healthcare), together with an extensive set of sociodemographic characteristics (eg, parental income, education, occupational status).

Ethics and dissemination

Medical Ethical Approval for the current study was waived by the Medical Ethical Committee azM/UM (METC 2018-0681). In addition, data on student performance and health stems from an already existing data infrastructure that are granted with ethical approval by the Ethical Review Committee Inner City faculties (ERCIC_092_12_07_2018). Health data are obtained from the ‘The Healthy Primary School of the Future’ (HPSF) project. Medical Ethical Approval for HPSF was waived by the Medical Ethical Committee of Zuyderland, Heerlen (METC 14 N-142). The HPSF study protocol was registered in the database ClinicalTrials.gov on 14-06-2016 with reference number NCT02800616, this study is currently in the Results stage. Data collection from Gemeentelijke Gezondheidsdienst Zuid-Limburg (GGD-ZL) is executed by researchers of HPSF, this procedure has been fully approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of Zuyderland. The questionnaires on level of comfort will be filled in anonymously by students and teachers. The study will follow the EU General Data Protection Regulation (EU GDPR) and Dutch data protection law to ensure protection of personal data, as well as maintain proper data management and anonymisation.

The protocol discussed in this paper includes significant efforts focused on integrating results and making them available to both the scientific community and the wider public, including policy makers. The results will lead to multiple scientific articles that will be disseminated through peer-reviewed international journals, as well as through conference presentations. In addition, we will exploit ongoing collaboration with project stakeholders and project partners to disseminate information to the target audience. For example, the results will be presented to school boards in the Netherlands, through engagement with the Coalition for Green Schools, as well as to school boards in USA, through engagement with the Center for Green Schools.

Trial registration number

NCT02800616; Results.

]]>
<![CDATA[Do employer-sponsored health insurance schemes affect the utilisation of medically trained providers and out-of-pocket payments among ready-made garment workers? A case–control study in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neab61f95-46ee-4892-93a5-27373b10e07f

Objective

We estimated the effect of an employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) scheme on healthcare utilisation of medically trained providers and reduction of out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure among ready-made garment (RMG) workers.

Design

We used a case–control study design with cross-sectional preintervention and postintervention surveys.

Settings

The study was conducted among workers of seven purposively selected RMG factories in Shafipur, Gazipur in Bangladesh.

Participants

In total, 1924 RMG workers (480 from the insured and 482 from the uninsured, in each period) were surveyed from insured and uninsured RMG factories, respectively, in the preintervention (October 2013) and postintervention (April 2015) period.

Interventions

We tested the effect of a pilot ESHI scheme which was implemented for 1 year.

Outcome measures

The outcome measures were utilisation of medically trained providers and reduction of OOP expenditure among RMG workers. We estimated difference-in-difference (DiD) and applied two-part regression model to measure the association between healthcare utilisation, OOP payments and ESHI scheme membership while controlling for the socioeconomic characteristics of workers.

Results

The ESHI scheme increased healthcare utilisation of medically trained providers by 26.1% (DiD=26.1; p<0.01) among insured workers compared with uninsured workers. While accounting for covariates, the effect on utilisation significantly reduced to 18.4% (p<0.05). The DiD estimate showed that OOP expenditure among insured workers decreased by −3700 Bangladeshi taka and -1100 Bangladeshi taka compared with uninsured workers when using healthcare services from medically trained providers or all provider respectively, although not significant. The multiple two-part models also reported similar results.

Conclusion

The ESHI scheme significantly increased utilisation of medically trained providers among RMG workers. However, it has no significant effect on OOP expenditure. It can be recommended that an educational intervention be provided to RMG workers to improve their healthcare-seeking behaviours and increase their utilisation of ESHI-designated healthcare providers while keeping OOP payments low.

]]>
<![CDATA[Attitudes of patients and surgeons towards sham surgery trials: a protocol for a scoping review of attributes to inform a discrete choice experiment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N339fc0d2-c155-4255-96b2-df78296882d7

Introduction

In order to properly evaluate the efficacy of orthopaedic procedures, rigorous, randomised controlled sham surgery trial designs are necessary. However, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for surgery involving a placebo are ethically debated and difficult to conduct with many failing to reach their desired sample size and power. A review of the literature on barriers and enablers to recruitment, and patient and surgeon attitudes and preferences towards sham surgery trials, will help to determine the characteristics necessary for successful recruitment.

Methods and analysis

This review will scope the diverse literature surrounding sham surgery trials with the aim of informing a discrete choice experiment to empirically test patient and surgeon preferences for different sham surgery trial designs. The scoping review will be conducted in accordance with the methodological framework described in Arksey and O’Malley (2005) and reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Protocols extension for Scoping Reviews. The review will be informed by a systematic search of Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL and EconLit databases (from database inception to 21 June 2019), a Google Scholar search, and hand searching of reference lists of relevant studies or reviews. Studies or opinion pieces that involve patient, surgeon or trial characteristics, which influence the decision to participate in a trial, will be included. Study selection will be carried out independently by two authors with discrepancies resolved by consensus among three authors. Data will be charted using a standardised form, and results tabulated and narratively summarised with reference to the research questions of the review.

Ethics and dissemination

The findings from this review will inform the design of a discrete choice experiment around willingness to participate in surgical trials, the outcomes of which can inform decision and cost-effectiveness models of sham surgery RCTs. The qualitative information from this review will also inform patient-centred outcomes research. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Trial registration number

CRD42019133296.

]]>
<![CDATA[Use of the Aptima mRNA high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) assay compared to a DNA HR-HPV assay in the English cervical screening programme: a decision tree model based economic evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9c99d65f-2f5a-4c57-a99a-c58ffbad9d7b

Objective

To estimate the impact of using the Aptima messenger RNA (mRNA) high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) assay versus a DNA HR-HPV assay in a primary HPV cervical screening programme.

Design

One hypothetical cohort followed for 3 years through HPV primary cervical screening.

Setting

England.

Participants

A hypothetical cohort of women aged 25–65 years tested in the National Health Service (NHS) Cervical Screening Programme (CSP) for first call or routine recall testing.

Methods

A decision tree parameterised with data from the CSP (2017/18) and the HORIZON study. Uncertainty analyses were conducted using data from the FOCAL and GAST studies, other DNA HPV tests in addition to one-way and probabilistic sensitivity and scenarios analyses, to test the robustness of results.

Interventions

Aptima mRNA HR-HPV assay and a DNA HR-HPV assay (cobas 4800 HPV assay).

Main outcome measures

Primary: total colposcopies and total costs for the cohort. Secondary: total HPV and cytology tests, number lost to follow-up.

Results

At baseline for a population of 2.25 million women, an estimated £15.4 million (95% credibility intervals (CI) £6.5 to 24.1 million) could be saved and 28 009 (95% CI 27 499 to 28 527) unnecessary colposcopies averted if Aptima mRNA assays are used instead of a DNA assay, with 90 605 fewer unnecessary HR-HPV and 253 477 cytology tests performed. These savings are due to a lower number of HPV positive samples in the mRNA arm. When data from other primary HPV screening trials were compared, results indicated that using the Aptima mRNA assay generated cost savings and reduced testing in every scenario.

Conclusion

Using the Aptima mRNA assay versus a DNA assay would almost certainly yield cost savings and reduce unnecessary testing and procedures, benefiting the NHS and women in the CSP.

]]>
<![CDATA[Economic evaluation of the OSAC randomised controlled trial: oral corticosteroids for non-asthmatic adults with acute lower respiratory tract infection in primary care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N00f3e049-d3ec-4264-88c0-d83b107572d0

Objective

To estimate the costs and outcomes associated with treating non-asthmatic adults (nor suffering from other lung-disease) presenting to primary care with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) with oral corticosteroids compared with placebo.

Design

Cost-consequence analysis alongside a randomised controlled trial. Perspectives included the healthcare provider, patients and productivity losses associated with time off work.

Setting

Fifty-four National Health Service (NHS) general practices in England.

Participants

398 adults attending NHS primary practices with ALRTI but no asthma or other chronic lung disease, followed up for 28 days.

Interventions

2× 20 mg oral prednisolone per day for 5 days versus matching placebo tablets.

Outcome measures

Quality-adjusted life years using the 5-level EuroQol-5D version measured weekly; duration and severity of symptom. Direct and indirect resources related to the disease and its treatment were also collected. Outcomes were measured for the 28-day follow-up.

Results

198 (50%) patients received the intervention (prednisolone) and 200 (50%) received placebo. NHS costs were dominated by primary care contacts, higher with placebo than with prednisolone (£13.11 vs £10.38) but without evidence of a difference (95% CI £3.05 to £8.52). The trial medication cost of £1.96 per patient would have been recouped in prescription charges of £4.30 per patient overall (55% participants would have paid £7.85), giving an overall mean ‘profit’ to the NHS of £7.00 (95% CI £0.50 to £17.08) per patient. There was a quality adjusted life years gain of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.05) equating to half a day of perfect health favouring the prednisolone patients; there was no difference in duration of cough or severity of symptoms.

Conclusions

The use of prednisolone for non-asthmatic adults with ALRTI, provided small gains in quality of life and cost savings driven by prescription charges. Considering the results of the economic evaluation and possible side effects of corticosteroids, the short-term benefits may not outweigh the long-term harms.

Trial registration numbers

EudraCT 2012-000851-15 and ISRCTN57309858; Pre-results.

]]>
<![CDATA[Economic evaluation of an active search system to monitor the outcomes of health-related claims]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7727bcb6-a551-45a3-b676-26883b2e25f3

ABSTRACT

Objective:

Economic evaluation of a scientific advisory program with the Public Defenders Office to mitigate the impacts of the judicialization on health in the municipality, as well as the implementation of an active follow-up program to monitor health outcomes arising from court demands.

Methods:

A two-step study, the first documental, retrospective, with data collection of lawsuits in the region of Barbalha (CE), Brazil, from 2013 to 2018, and the second stage, prospective and intervention, through mediation between the citizen and the Public Defenders Office, aiming to reduce the occurrence of the judicialization, and the monitoring of the health outcomes of the processes. The study adopted the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards protocol for economic health assessments. The data obtained from the processes were grouped and treated for characterization of the scenario. A comparison of the profile of the lawsuits in the period of 12 months before and after the installation of the program to delimit a complete fiscal cycle was carried out.

Results:

The advisory service promoted a decrease of 40% (p=0.01) in lawsuits. There was a 31% reduction in court costs (p=0.003), with medicines accounting for 33% of this amount. There was a decrease in inputs outside the Sistema Único de Saúde lists (27%; p=0.003), however there was no statistical difference among several demanding groups, suggesting an equanimous approach.

Conclusion:

Data from the initial survey were comparable to those reported in Brazil regarding the profile of judicial demands. In view of the scenario, the proposal proved feasible as a means to mitigate the costs of the judicialization through mediation. Finally, the initiative can serve as a model for adoption by municipalities that have characteristics similar to those presented in this study.

]]>
<![CDATA[Economic evaluation of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for improving health outcomes in adult population: a systematic review protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3ce140db-1944-4062-b284-07a4fb358c38

Introduction

Insomnia is associated with a number of adverse consequences that place a substantial economic burden on individuals and society. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is a promising intervention that can improve outcomes in people who suffer from insomnia. However, evidence of its cost-effectiveness remains unclear. In this study, we will systematically review studies that report on economic evaluations of CBT-I and investigate the potential economic benefit of CBT-I as a treatment for insomnia.

Methods and analysis

The search will include studies that use full economic evaluation methods (ie, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, cost-benefit, cost-consequences and cost-minimisation analysis) and those that apply partial economic evaluation approaches (ie, cost description, cost-outcome description and cost analysis). We will conduct a preliminary search in MEDLINE, Google Scholar, MedNar and ProQuest dissertation and theses to build the searching terms. A full search strategy using all identified keywords and index terms will then be undertaken in several databases including MEDLINE, Psychinfo, Proquest, Cochrane, Scopus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science and EMBASE. We will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for protocol guidelines in this review. Only articles in the English language and those reporting on adult populations will be included. We will use standardised data extraction tools for economic evaluations to retrieve and synthesise information from selected studies into themes and summarised in a Joanna Briggs Institute dominance ranking matrix.

Ethics and dissemination

No formal ethics approval will be required as we will not be collecting primary data. Review findings will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, workshops, conference presentations and a media release.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019133554.

]]>
<![CDATA[Variation in quality of acute stroke care by day and time of admission: prospective cohort study of weekday and weekend centralised hyperacute stroke unit care and non-centralised services]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7aeb5182-adf1-4963-8cb7-17aba30d93fb

Objective

To investigate variations in quality of acute stroke care and outcomes by day and time of admission in London hyperacute stroke units compared with the rest of England.

Design

Prospective cohort study using anonymised patient-level data from the Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme.

Setting

Acute stroke services in London hyperacute stroke units and the rest of England.

Participants

68 239 patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke admitted between January and December 2014.

Interventions

Hub-and-spoke model for care of suspected acute stroke patients in London with performance standards designed to deliver uniform access to high-quality hyperacute stroke unit care across the week.

Main outcome measures

16 indicators of quality of acute stroke care, mortality at 3 days after admission to the hospital, disability at the end of the inpatient spell, length of stay.

Results

There was no variation in quality of care by day and time of admission to the hospital across the week in terms of stroke nursing assessment, brain scanning and thrombolysis in London hyperacute stroke units, nor was there variation in 3-day mortality or disability at hospital discharge (all p values>0.05). Other quality of care measures significantly varied by day and time of admission across the week in London (all p values<0.01). In the rest of England there was variation in all measures by day and time of admission across the week (all p values<0.01), except for mortality at 3 days (p value>0.05).

Conclusions

The London hyperacute stroke unit model achieved performance standards for ‘front door’ stroke care across the week. The same benefits were not achieved by other models of care in the rest of England. There was no weekend effect for mortality in London or the rest of the England. Other aspects of care were not constant across the week in London hyperacute stroke units, indicating some performance standards were perceived to be more important than others.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness of point-of-care viscoelastic haemostatic assays in the management of bleeding during cardiac surgery: protocol for a prospective multicentre pragmatic study with stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled design and 1-year follow-up (the IMOTEC study)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69a7cc65-f306-4da9-bd81-ed299f385dbf

Introduction

During cardiac surgery-associated bleeding, the early detection of coagulopathy is crucial. However, owing to time constraints or lack of suitable laboratory tests, transfusion of haemostatic products is often inappropriately triggered, either too late (exposing to prolonged bleeding and thus to avoidable administration of blood products) or blindly to the coagulation status (exposing to unnecessary haemostatic products administration in patients with no coagulopathy). Undue exposition to transfusion risks and additional healthcare costs may arise. With the perspective of secondary care-related costs, the IMOTEC study (Intérêt MédicO-économique de la Thrombo-Elastographie, dans le management transfusionnel des hémorragies péri-opératoires de chirurgies Cardiaques sous circulation extracorporelle) aims at assessing the cost-effectiveness of a point-of-care viscoelastic haemostatic assay (VHA: RoTem or TEG)-guided management of bleeding. Among several outcome measures, particular emphasis will be put on quality of life with a 1-year follow-up.

Methods and analysis

This is a multicentre, prospective, pragmatic study with stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled design. Over a 36-month period (24 months of enrolment and 12 months of follow-up), 1000 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass will be included if a periprocedural significant bleeding occurs. The primary outcome is the cost-effectiveness of a VHA-guided algorithm over a 1-year follow-up, including patients’ quality of life. Secondary outcomes are the cost-effectiveness of the VHA-guided algorithm with regard to the rate of surgical reexploration and 1-year mortality, its cost per-patient, its effectiveness with regard to haemorrhagic, infectious, renal, neurological, cardiac, circulatory, thrombotic, embolic complications, transfusion requirements, mechanical ventilation free-days, duration of intensive care unit and in-hospital stay and mortality.

Ethics and dissemination

The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov and was approved by the Committee for the Protection of Persons of Nantes University Hospital, The French Advisory Board on Medical Research Data Processing and the French Personal Data Protection Authority. A publication of the results in a peer-reviewed journal is planned.

Trial registration number

NCT02972684; Pre-results.

]]>
<![CDATA[Economic evaluation of a novel genetic screening test for risk of venous thromboembolism compared with standard of care in women considering combined hormonal contraception in Switzerland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbfbbb0ea-583c-4e2a-8aab-49224a99ae72

Aim

The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of the Pill Protect (PP) genetic screening test for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk compared with standard of care (SoC), for women considering combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in Switzerland.

Methods

A two-part microsimulation model was developed to estimate VTE events, costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with the PP and SoC strategies. In the first portion of the model, a cohort of 1 million Swiss first-time seekers of a CHC were simulated. It was determined whether each women would receive a CHC or non-CHC by using prescribing patterns elicited from a modified Delphi study. These results formed the basis of the SoC strategy. For the PP strategy, a PP test was included and the results considered in addition to SoC practice. Each woman then entered a Markov model that captured morbidity and mortality over a lifetime. The risk of having a VTE was derived from the risk algorithm that underpins the PP test. The remaining model inputs relating to population characteristics, costs, health resource use, mortality and utilities were derived from published studies or national sources. The model was validated and calibrated to align with population-based studies. Extensive uncertainty analyses were conducted.

Results

From a Swiss health system perspective, the PP strategy in comparison with the SoC strategy generated an additional CHF 231, and gained 0.003 QALYs per woman, leading to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CHF 76 610 per QALY gained. Assuming a threshold of CHF 100 000 per QALY gained, the PP strategy is likely to be cost effective. Our results were generally robust to variations in the parameter values.

Conclusions

The PP test may be cost effective in Switzerland for screening women seeking CHCs for their risk of VTE based on the current evidence.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness of conditional cash transfers to retain women in the continuum of care during pregnancy, birth and the postnatal period: protocol for an economic evaluation of the Afya trial in Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne10e6d98-37c5-45f1-b7f8-64d158031dca

Introduction

A wealth of evidence from a range of country settings indicates that antenatal care, facility delivery and postnatal care can reduce maternal and child mortality and morbidity in high-burden settings. However, the utilisation of these services by pregnant women, particularly in low/middle-income country settings, is well below that recommended by the WHO. The Afya trial aims to assess the impact, cost-effectiveness and scalability of conditional cash transfers to promote increased utilisation of these services in rural Kenya and thus retain women in the continuum of care during pregnancy, birth and the postnatal period. This protocol describes the planned economic evaluation of the Afya trial.

Methods and analysis

The economic evaluation will be conducted from the provider perspective as a within-trial analysis to evaluate the incremental costs and health outcomes of the cash transfer programme compared with the status quo. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be presented along with a cost-consequence analysis where the incremental costs and all statistically significant outcomes will be listed separately. Sensitivity analyses will be undertaken to explore uncertainty and to ensure that results are robust. A fiscal space assessment will explore the affordability of the intervention. In addition, an analysis of equity impact of the intervention will be conducted.

Ethics and dissemination

The study has received ethics approval from the Maseno University Ethics Review Committee, REF MSU/DRPI/MUERC/00294/16. The results of the economic evaluation will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at a relevant international conference.

Trial registration number

NCT03021070

]]>
<![CDATA[Cost-effectiveness analysis of an innovative model of care for chronic wounds patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977add5eed0c4847d32fb

Current provision of services for the care of chronic wounds in Australia is disjointed and costly. There is large variability in the way that services are provided, and little evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of a specialist model of care for treatment and management. A decision-analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a specialist wound care clinic as compared to usual care for chronic wounds is presented. We use retrospective and prospective data from a cohort of patients as well as information from administrative databases and published literature. Our results show specialist wound clinics are cost-effective for the management of chronic wounds. On average, specialist clinics were $3,947 cheaper than usual clinics and resulted in a quality adjusted life year gain of 0.04 per patient, per year. Specialist clinics were the best option under multiple scenarios including a different cost perspective and when the cost of a hospital admission was reduced. Current models of care are inefficient and represent low value care, and specialist wound clinics represent a good investment compared to current approaches for the management of chronic wounds in Australia.

]]>