ResearchPad - health-statistics https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Medications for opioid use disorder among pregnant women referred by criminal justice agencies before and after Medicaid expansion: A retrospective study of admissions to treatment centers in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15710 There has been a 4-fold increase in the number of pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD). Medications such as methadone and buprenorphine are standard of care for OUD and are recommended during pregnancy, but only 50% of pregnant women receive such medication.Pregnant women with OUD who are involved in the criminal justice system are at high risk of poor outcomes, but data regarding the use of medications for OUD in this population are limited.What did the researchers find?From 1992 to 2017, pregnant women in the US who were referred to treatment for OUD by a criminal justice agency (versus other referral sources) were half as likely to receive medication as part of their treatment plan.After implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion, medication for OUD increased significantly more among pregnant women referred to treatment by criminal justice agencies in Medicaid expansion states compared with nonexpansion states.What do these findings mean?Pregnant women referred to treatment for OUD by criminal justice agencies were consistently less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, which increases their risk of overdose and poor maternal and neonatal outcomes.Improving access to Medicaid for justice-involved individuals may increase the rate at which pregnant women receive evidence-based treatment for OUD. ]]> <![CDATA[Safety of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell recipients with severe primary immunodeficiency diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14693 Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) provide prolonged intravenous access for pediatric patients with severe primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical significance of TCVC-related morbidity in this particular patient group. We conducted the retrospective analysis of patients with severe PID who received percutaneous landmark-guided TCVC implantation prior to HSCT. We analyzed 92 consecutive TCVC implantations in 69 patients (median [interquartile range] age 3.0 [0–11] years) with severe combined immune deficiency (n = 39, 42.4%), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 17, 18.4%), and other rare PID syndromes (n = 36, 39.2%). The median length of TCVC observation was 144.1 (85.5–194.6) days with a total of 14,040 catheter days at risk (cdr). The overall rate of adverse events during catheter insertion was 17.4% (n = 16) and 25.0% during catheter dwell period (n = 23, catheter risk [CR] per 1000 cdr = 1.64). The most common complication was TCVC-related infection with an overall prevalence of 9.8% (n = 9, CR = 0.64), followed by late dislocation (n = 6, 6.5%, CR = 0.43), early dislocation (n = 4, 4.3%) and catheter dysfunction (n = 4, 4.3%, CR = 0.28). TCVCs are safe in children with severe PID undergoing HSCT with relatively low rates of TCVC-related infection.

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<![CDATA[Correlates of childhood morbidity in Nigeria: Evidence from ordinal analysis of cross-sectional data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14636 Child mortality records show that 1 in every 13 children dies before age five in sub-Saharan Africa with diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria considered to be the leading causes of such deaths. In Nigeria where 50% of all under-five deaths are attributed to morbidity, much attention has been directed to single health conditions. This study aims at examining the factors that are associated with single health conditions and comorbidity among children in Nigeria.Materials and methodsThis study was based on data from 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) which involved 27,571 under-five children who suffered from acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea or fever within two weeks of data collection exercise. Descriptive statistics and generalized ordinal logistic regression model were used for the analysis.ResultsAbout 14% of children suffered from a single health condition and 9% suffered from comorbidity. The likelihood of suffering from a single health condition and comorbidity is higher for children who are of third order birth or more (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.11–1.39 & OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12–1.55) compared to those who are of first order birth. The likelihood also increased for children whose mothers live in Northeast (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 2.86–3.55 & OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 3.30–4.57) compared to children whose mothers live in North Central. The odds of suffering from a single health condition and comorbidity reduced for children who are from richest households, aged 3 years and above and were of average size at birth. Children of women who obtained water from improved source are less likely to experience any morbidity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.87–0.99) compared to children whose mothers obtained water from non-improved source.ConclusionsThe study has demonstrated that children in Nigeria are not only exposed to the risk of single health conditions but they are also exposed to the risk of comorbidity. Efforts should be made to design appropriate health care models that would facilitate a considerable reduction in childhood morbidity in the country. ]]> <![CDATA[Assessing mental health service user and carer involvement in physical health care planning: The development and validation of a new patient-reported experience measure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9a5d5eed0c484529f71

Background

People living with serious mental health conditions experience increased morbidity due to physical health issues driven by medication side-effects and lifestyle factors. Coordinated mental and physical healthcare delivered in accordance with a care plan could help to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. Efforts to develop new models of care are hampered by a lack of validated instruments to accurately assess the extent to which mental health services users and carers are involved in care planning for physical health.

Objective

To develop a brief and accurate patient-reported experience measure (PREM) capable of assessing involvement in physical health care planning for mental health service users and their carers.

Methods

We employed psychometric and statistical techniques to refine a bank of candidate questionnaire items, derived from qualitative interviews, into a valid and reliable measure involvement in physical health care planning. We assessed the psychometric performance of the item bank using modern psychometric analyses. We assessed unidimensionality, scalability, fit to the partial credit Rasch model, category threshold ordering, local dependency, differential item functioning, and test-retest reliability. Once purified of poorly performing and erroneous items, we simulated computerized adaptive testing (CAT) with 15, 10 and 5 items using the calibrated item bank.

Results

Issues with category threshold ordering, local dependency and differential item functioning were evident for a number of items in the nascent item bank and were resolved by removing problematic items. The final 19 item PREM had excellent fit to the Rasch model fit (x2 = 192.94, df = 1515, P = .02, RMSEA = .03 (95% CI = .01-.04). The 19-item bank had excellent reliability (marginal r = 0.87). The correlation between questionnaire scores at baseline and 2-week follow-up was high (r = .70, P < .01) and 94.9% of assessment pairs were within the Bland Altman limits of agreement. Simulated CAT demonstrated that assessments could be made using as few as 10 items (mean SE = .43).

Discussion

We developed a flexible patient reported outcome measure to quantify service user and carer involvement in physical health care planning. We demonstrate the potential to substantially reduce assessment length whilst maintaining reliability by utilizing CAT.

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<![CDATA[Multiple micronutrient supplementation using spirulina platensis and infant growth, morbidity, and motor development: Evidence from a randomized trial in Zambia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc995d5eed0c484529e73

In developing countries, micronutrient deficiency in infants is associated with growth faltering, morbidity, and delayed motor development. One of the potentially low-cost and sustainable solutions is to use locally producible food for the home fortification of complementary foods. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that locally producible spirulina platensis supplementation would achieve the following: 1) increase infant physical growth, 2) reduce morbidity, and 3) improve motor development. We randomly assigned 501 Zambian infants into the control group or the spirulina group. Children in the control group (n = 250) received a soya-maize-based porridge for 12 months; those in the spirulina group (n = 251) received the same food with the addition of spirulina. We assessed the change in infants’ anthropometric status, morbidity (probable pneumonia, cough, probable malaria, and fever), and motor development over 12 months. The baseline characteristics were not different between the two groups. The attrition rate (47/501) was low. The physical growth of infants in the two groups was similar at 12 months of intervention, as measured by height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores. Infants in the spirulina group were 11 percentage points less likely to develop a cough (CI: -0.23, -0.00; P < 0.05) and were more likely to be able to walk alone at 15 months (0.96 ± 0.19) than infants in the control group (0.92 ± 0.28). Home-fortification of complementary foods using spirulina had positive effects on upper respiratory infection morbidity prevention and motor milestone acquisition among Zambian infants.

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<![CDATA[Trends in multimorbidity and polypharmacy in the Flemish-Belgian population between 2000 and 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75d6d5eed0c4843d0292

Objectives

The aim of this paper was to describe the time trends in the prevalence of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in Flanders (Belgium) between 2000 and 2015, while controlling for age and sex.

Methods

Data were available from Intego, a Flemish-Belgian general practice-based morbidity registration network. The practice population between 2000 and 2015 was used as the denominator, representing a mean of 159,946 people per year. Age and gender-standardised prevalence rates were used for the trends of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in the total population and for subgroups. Joinpoint regression analyses were used to analyse the time trends and breaks in trends, for the entire population as well as for specific age and sex groups.

Results

Overall, in 2015, 22.7% of the population had multimorbidity, while the overall prevalence of polypharmacy was 20%. Throughout the study period the standardised prevalence rate of multimorbidity rose for both sexes and in all age groups. The largest relative increase in multimorbidity was observed in the younger age groups (up to the age of 50 years). The prevalence of polypharmacy showed a significant increase between 2000 and 2015 for all age groups except the youngest (0–25 years).

Conclusion

For all adult age groups multimorbidity and polypharmacy are frequent, dynamic over time and increasing. This asks for both epidemiological and interventional studies to improve the management of the resulting complex care.

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<![CDATA[Community health workers trained to conduct verbal autopsies provide better mortality measures than existing surveillance: Results from a cross-sectional study in rural western Uganda]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca23d5eed0c48452a833

Background

In much of sub-Saharan Africa, health facilities serve as the primary source of routine vital statistics. These passive surveillance systems, however, are plagued by infrequent and unreliable reporting and do not capture events that occur outside of the formal health sector. Verbal autopsies (VA) have been utilized to estimate the burden and causes of mortality where civil registration and vital statistics systems are weak, but VAs have not been widely employed in national surveillance systems. In response, we trained lay community health workers (CHW) in a rural sub-county of western Uganda to conduct VA interviews in order to assess the feasibility of leveraging CHW to measure the burden of disease in resource limited settings.

Methods and findings

Trained CHWs conducted a cross-sectional survey of the 36 villages comprising the Bugoye sub-county to identify all deaths occurring in the prior year. The sub county has an estimated population of 50,249, approximately one-quarter of whom are children under 5 years of age (25.3%). When an eligible death was reported, CHWs administered a WHO 2014 VA questionnaire, the results of which were analyzed using the InterVA-4 tool. To compare the findings of the CHW survey to existing surveillance systems, study staff reviewed inpatient registers from neighboring referral health facilities in an attempt to match recorded deaths to those identified by the survey. Overall, CHWs conducted high quality VA interviews on direct observation, identifying 230 deaths that occurred within the sub-county, including 77 (33.5%) among children under five years of age. More than half of the deaths (123 of 230, 53.5%) were reported to have occurred outside a health facility and thus would not be captured by passive surveillance. More than two-thirds (73 of 107, 68.2%) of facility deaths took place in one of three nearby hospitals, yet only 35 (47.9%) were identified on our review of inpatient registers. Consistent with previous VA studies, the leading causes of death among children under five years of age were malaria (19.5%), prematurity (19.5%), and neonatal pneumonia (15.6%). while among adults, HIV/AIDS-related deaths illness (13.6%), pulmonary tuberculosis (11.4%) and malaria (8.6%) were the leading causes of death. No child deaths identified from inpatient registers listed HIV/AIDS as a cause of death despite 8 deaths (10.4%) attributed to HIV/AIDS as determined by VA.

Conclusions

Lay CHWs are able to conduct high quality VA interviews to capture critical information that can be analyzed using standard methodologies to provide a more complete estimate of the burden and causes of mortality. Similar approaches can be scaled to improve the measurement of vital statistics in order to facilitate appropriate public health interventions in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

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<![CDATA[Monitoring quality of obstetric care from hospital discharge databases: A Delphi survey to propose a new set of indicators based on maternal health outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7589d5eed0c4843cfe6b

Objectives

Most indicators proposed for assessing quality of care in obstetrics are process indicators and do not directly measure health effects, and cannot always be identified from routinely available databases. Our objective was to propose a set of indicators to assess the quality of hospital obstetric care from maternal morbidity outcomes identifiable in permanent hospital discharge databases.

Methods

Various maternal morbidity outcomes potentially reflecting quality of obstetric care were first selected from a systematic literature review. Then a three-round Delphi consensus survey was conducted online from 11/2016 through 02/2017 among a French panel of 37 expert obstetricians, anesthetists-critical-care specialists, midwives, quality-of-care researchers, and user representatives. For a given maternal outcome, several definitions could be proposed and the indicator (i.e. corresponding rate) could be applied to all women or restricted to specific subgroup(s).

Results

Of the 49 experts invited to participate, 37 agreed. The response rate was 92% in the second round and 97% in the third. Finally, a set of 13 indicators was selected to assess the quality of hospital obstetric care: rates of uterine rupture, postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion incident, severe perineal lacerations, episiotomy, cesarean, cesarean under general anesthesia, post-cesarean site infection, anesthesia-related complications, postpartum pulmonary embolism, maternal readmission and maternal mortality. Six were considered in specific subgroups, with, for example, the postpartum hemorrhage rate assessed among all women and also among women at low risk of PPH.

Implications

This Delphi process enabled us to define consensually a set of indicators to assess the quality of hospital obstetrics care from routine hospital data, based on maternal morbidity outcomes. Considering 6 of them in specific subgroups of women is especially interesting. These indicators, identifiable through codes used in international classifications, will be useful to monitor quality of care over time and across settings.

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<![CDATA[Clinical indicators of adrenal insufficiency following discontinuation of oral glucocorticoid therapy: A Danish population-based self-controlled case series analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abded5eed0c484d07dd2

Background

Biochemical adrenal insufficiency induced by glucocorticoid treatment is prevalent, but data on the clinical implications are sparse. We investigated clinical consequences of glucocorticoid-induced adrenal insufficiency after oral glucocorticoid cessation.

Methods

We conducted a Danish population-based self-controlled case series utilizing medical registries. In this design each individual serves as their own control allowing event rates to be compared as a function of time and treatment. Clinical indicators of adrenal insufficiency were defined as diagnoses of gastrointestinal symptoms, hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, syncope, hyponatremia, and hypoglycaemia. We included 286,680 persons who discontinued long-term (≥ 3 months) oral glucocorticoid treatment. We defined five risk periods and a reference period (before treatment): period 0 (on treatment), withdrawal period (1 month before and after cessation), followed by three consecutive 2 month-risk periods after withdrawal (periods 2–4).

Results

Median age at cessation was 69 years and 57% were female. Median treatment duration was 297 days and median cumulative dose was 3000 mg prednisolone equivalents. The incidence rates of hypotension, gastrointestinal symptoms, hypoglycemia and hyponatremia were increased in the withdrawal period compared to before treatment started (reference period). Incidence rate ratios comparing the withdrawal period with the reference period were 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4–4.3] for hypotension, 1.7 (95% CI: 1.6–1.9) for gastrointestinal symptoms, 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7–7.3) for hypoglycemia, and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1–2.0) for hyponatremia. During 7 months of follow up, the rates of hypotension and gastrointestinal symptoms remained elevated compared to the reference period. Risk factors included use of antibiotics, increasing average daily dose of glucocorticoids, cumulative dose, and age.

Conclusion

Oral glucocorticoid withdrawal was associated with adverse outcomes attributable to adrenal insufficiency. Our study underscores the need for future research to establish evidence-based clinical guidance on management of patients who discontinue oral glucocorticoids.

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<![CDATA[Natural evolution of ductus arteriosus with noninterventional conservative management in extremely preterm infants born at 23-28 weeks of gestation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9e3d5eed0c48452a424

This study aimed to determine the natural course of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with noninterventional conservative management and whether the presence and/or prolonged duration of hemodynamically significant (HS) PDA increased the risk of mortality and morbidities in extremely preterm (EPT) infants. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of EPT infants born at 23–28 weeks of gestation (n = 195) from January 2011 to June 2014, when PDA was managed with noninterventional conservative treatment. We stratified infants into three subgroups of 23–24, 25–26, and 27–28 weeks and analyzed the prevalence and natural evolution of HS PDA, defined as ventilator dependency and PDA size ≥2 mm. Multivariate regression analyses determined if the presence and/or prolonged duration of HS PDA increased the risk for mortality and/or morbidities. The overall incidence of HS PDA was 57% (111/195) at the end of the first postnatal week. In subgroup analyses, infants with 23–24 weeks of gestation had the highest incidence (93%, 50/54), with 64% (47/74) for 25–26 weeks and 21% (14/67) for 27–28 weeks. Six (5%) of 111 infants with HS PDA were discharged without ductus closure, 4 had spontaneous PDA closure on follow up, and device closure was performed for 2 infants. In the multivariate analyses, the presence or prolonged duration (per week) of HS PDA was not associated with the risk of mortality and/or morbidities. Spontaneous closure of HS PDA was mostly achieved, even in EPT infants, with a noninterventional conservative approach. In conclusion, our data showed the incidence and natural course of HS PDA in EPT infants and suggested that the presence or prolonged duration of HS PDA might not increase the rate of mortality or morbidities.

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<![CDATA[Mortality and morbidity in wild Taiwanese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d1ad5eed0c484c81ffa

Globally, pangolins are threatened by poaching and illegal trade. Taiwan presents a contrary situation, where the wild pangolin population has stabilized and even begun to increase in the last two decades. This paper illustrates the factors responsible for causing mortality and morbidity in the wild Taiwanese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) based on radio-tracking data of wild pangolins and records of sick or injured pangolins admitted to a Taiwanese wildlife rehabilitation center. Despite being proficient burrowers, results from radio-tracking show that Taiwanese pangolins are highly susceptible to getting trapped in tree hollows or ground burrows. Data from Pingtung Rescue Center for Endangered Wild Animals showed that trauma (73.0%) was the major reason for morbidity in the Taiwanese pangolin with trauma from gin traps being the leading cause (77.8%), especially during the dry season, followed by tail injuries caused by dog attacks (20.4%). Despite these threats, Taiwan has had substantial success in rehabilitating and releasing injured pangolins, primarily due to the close collaboration of Taiwanese wildlife rehabilitation centers over the last twenty years.

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<![CDATA[Hospital admission on weekends for patients who have surgery and 30-day mortality in Ontario, Canada: A matched cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff11d5eed0c484135a9a

Background

Healthcare interventions on weekends have been associated with increased mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, but these findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that patients admitted to hospital on weekends who have surgery have an increased risk of death compared with patients who are admitted and have surgery on weekdays.

Methods and findings

This matched cohort study included 318,202 adult patients from Ontario health administrative and demographic databases, admitted to acute care hospitals from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. A total of 159,101 patients who were admitted on weekends and underwent noncardiac surgery were classified by day of surgery (weekend versus weekday) and matched 1:1 to patients who both were admitted and had surgery on a weekday (Tuesday to Thursday); matching was based on age (in years), anesthesia basic unit value for the surgical procedure, median neighborhood household income quintile, resource utilization band (a ranking system of overall morbidity), rurality of home location, year of admission, and urgency of admission. Of weekend admissions, 16.2% (25,872) were elective and 53.9% (85,744) had surgery on the weekend of admission. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days of the date of hospital admission. The 30-day all-cause mortality for patients admitted on weekends who had noncardiac surgery was 2.6% (4,211/159,101) versus 2.5% (3,901/159,101) for those who were admitted and had surgery on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.11; P = 0.03). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the increased odds of death according to the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed (weekend versus weekday). For urgent admissions on weekends (n = 133,229), there was no significant increase in odds of mortality when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; P = 0.7) or on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12; P = 0.2) compared to urgent admissions on weekdays. Elective admissions on weekends (n = 25,782) had increased risk of death both when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.98 to 5.49; P < 0.001) and when surgery was performed on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.81 to 4.03; P < 0.001). The main limitations of this study were the lack of data regarding reason for admission and cause of increased time interval from admission to surgery for some cases, the small number of deaths in some subgroups (i.e., elective surgery), and the possibility of residual unmeasured confounding from increased illness severity for weekend admissions.

Conclusions

When patients have surgery during their hospitalization, admission on weekends in Ontario, Canada, was associated with a small but significant proportional increase in 30-day all-cause mortality, but there was significant heterogeneity in outcomes depending on the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed. An increased risk of death was found only for elective admissions on weekends; whether this is a function of patient-level factors or represents a true weekend effect needs to be further elucidated. These findings have potential implications for resource allocation in hospitals and the redistribution of elective surgery to weekends.

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<![CDATA[Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale for Southeast Asian immigrant women who divorced in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8d2d5eed0c48496f1e5

Background

Only a few studies exist on the resilience of divorced women. Furthermore, relevant instruments for assessing the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women are rare. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop and examine a new Resilience Scale-Chinese version (RS-C) that is specific to divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women in Taiwan.

Methods

The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1, 20 items were used to evaluate face and content validities. In phase 2, a cross-sectional study was conducted. In total, 118 immigrant women participated in this study and were recruited from three nongovernmental organizations providing services for immigrants in Taipei City and Miaoli and Chiayi Counties. Psychometric properties of the instrument (i.e., internal consistency, test–retest reliability, item-to-total correlation, construct validity, and convergent validity) were examined. Significance was set at p < 0.05 for all statistical tests.

Results

The final 16-item RS-C resulted in a three-factor model. The three factors, namely personal competence, family identity, and social connections, were an acceptable fit for the data and explained 54.60% of the variance. Cronbach’s α of the RS-C was 0.85, and those of its subscales ranged from 0.77 to 0.82. The correlation value of the test–retest reliability was 0.87. The RS-C was significantly associated with the General Self-Efficacy scale and the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12.

Conclusion

The RS-C is a brief and specific self-report tool for evaluating the resilience of divorced immigrant Southeast Asian women and demonstrated adequate reliability and validity in this study. This RS-C instrument has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions. However, additional research on the RS-C is required to further establish its reliability and validity.

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<![CDATA[Health effects of micronutrient fortified dairy products and cereal food for children and adolescents: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52185fd5eed0c484797e44

Introduction

Micronutrient (MN) deficiencies cause a considerable burden of disease for children in many countries. Dairy products or cereals are an important food component during adolescence. Fortification of dairy products or cereals with MN may be an effective strategy to overcome MN deficiencies, but their specific impact on health in this age group is poorly documented.

Methods

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (registration number CRD42016039554) to assess the impact of MN fortified dairy products and cereal food on the health of children and adolescents (aged 5–15 years) compared with non-fortified food. We reviewed randomised controlled trials (RCT) using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library; latest search: January 2018), reference list screening and citation searches. Three pairs of reviewers assessed 2048 studies for eligibility and extracted data. We assessed the risk of bias and applied GRADE to rate quality of evidence.

Results

We included 24 RCT (often multi MN fortification) with 30 pair-wise comparisons mainly from low- and middle income countries. A very small and non-significant increase of haemoglobin values emerged (0.09 g/dl [95%-CI: -0.01 to 0.18]; 13 RCT with iron fortification; very low quality of evidence). No significant difference was found on anaemia risk (risk ratio 0.87 [95%-CI: 0.76 to 1.01]; 12 RCT; very low quality), but a significant difference in iron deficiency anaemia favouring fortified food was found (risk ratio 0.38 [95%-CI: 0.18 to 0.81]; 5 RCT; very low quality). Similar effects were seen for fortified dairy products and cereals and different fortification strategies (mono- vs. dual- vs. multi-MN). Follow-up periods were often short and the impact on anthropometric measures was weak (low quality of evidence) Very low quality of evidence emerged for the improvement of cognitive performance, functional measures and morbidity.

Conclusions

Fortification of dairy products and cereal food had only marginal health effects in our sample population from 5–15 years. Further evidence is needed to better understand the health impact of fortified dairy products and cereals in this age group.

Systematic review registration

The study protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 26 May 2016 (registration number CRD42016039554).

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified rice consumption on anaemia and zinc status among vulnerable women in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f790d5eed0c4843863b9

Micronutrient deficiency is one of the biggest public health concerns in Bangladesh. As per World Health Organisation (WHO) in the 2016 report, 40% women of reproductive age suffer from anaemia. According to the National Micronutrient Survey 2011–2012, 57% women suffer from zinc deficiency. The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of fortified rice (FFR in addressing anaemia and zinc deficiency among vulnerable women. Baseline and endline surveys were conducted among female Vulnerable Group Development (VDG) beneficiaries in five districts in Bangladesh before and after 12 months of FFR distribution. The intervention group received 30 kg FFR; the control group received 30 kg non-FFR for every month from January 2013 to December 2013. The sample sizes were 870 women (435/group) at baseline and 800 (400/group) at endline. Difference-in-difference (DID) was estimated to measure the effect of FFR on anaemia and serum zinc. In the baseline survey, 39% of the FFR group and 34% of the non-FFR group had anaemia. At endline, 34% of women in the FFR group were anaemic compared to 40.7% in the non-FFR group. At endline, prevalence of anaemia was reduced in the FFR group by 4.8% but increased in the non-FFR group by 6.7%. The DID estimation showed the reduction in anaemia after 12 months of FFR consumption was significant (p = 0.035). The DID in mean haemoglobin level after 12 months of FFR consumption was also statistically significant (p = 0.002). Zinc deficiency decreased by 6% in the FFR group at endline, though the DID was not significant. Most of the respondents of the FFR group reported that they received their entitled rice on a regular basis however only half of the non-FFR respondents received every month in 12 months. Anaemia was significantly associated with not consuming fortified rice, geographical region, older age and heavy menstrual bleeding (P<0.05). FFR reduced anaemia and zinc deficiency prevalence. Replacement of regular rice with FFR in the VGD programme is recommended to reduce anaemia among vulnerable groups.

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<![CDATA[Low use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria prevention in south-central Ethiopia: A community-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7a4d5eed0c4843864fc

Introduction

A decline in malaria morbidity and mortality has been documented in Ethiopia since 2005 following a scale-up of the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, universal access to LLINs ownership and use has not yet been achieved. This study aimed to determine ownership and use of LLINs over time in south-central Ethiopia.

Methods

A cohort of 17,142 individuals residing in 3,006 households was followed-up from October 2014 to January 2017 (121 weeks). New PermaNet2.0 LLINs were given to households in October 2014. Once per week, the LLIN use status was documented for each individual. A survey was conducted after 110 weeks of LLIN distribution to determine LLIN ownership. A multilevel negative binomial regression model was fitted to identify significant predictors of LLIN use.

Results

At baseline, the LLIN ownership was 100%. After 110 weeks only 233 (8%) of the households owned at least one LLIN. The median proportion of LLIN use per individuals during the study period was only 14%. During the first year (week 1–52) the average LLIN use per individuals was 36% and during the second year (week 53–104) it was 4.6%. More frequent LLIN use was reported among age group [5–14 years (adjusted IRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22), 15–24 years (adjusted IRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.23–1.45), ≥25 years (adjusted IRR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.83–2.17)] compared to <5 years, and household head educational status [read and write (adjusted IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.09–1.26), primary (adjusted IRR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.27), secondary or above (adjusted IRR = 1.20, 95% CI (1.11–1.30)] compared to illiterate. Having a family size of over five persons (adjusted IRR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.73–0.84) was associated with less frequent use of LLINs compared to a family size of ≤5 persons.

Conclusions

The study showed a low LLIN ownership after 110 weeks and a low LLIN use during 121 weeks of follow-up, despite 100% LLIN coverage at baseline. The study highlights the need to design strategies to increase LLIN ownership and use for setting similar to those studied here.

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<![CDATA[Do perceived working conditions and patient safety culture correlate with objective workload and patient outcomes: A cross-sectional explorative study from a German university hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390c01d5eed0c48491f5bb

Background

Workload and demands on hospital staff have been growing over recent years. To ensure patient and occupational safety, hospitals increasingly survey staff about perceived working conditions and safety culture. At the same time, routine data are used to manage resources and performance. This study aims to understand the relation between survey-derived measures of how staff perceive their work-related stress and strain and patient safety on the one hand, and routine data measures of workload and quality of care (patient safety) on the other.

Methods

We administered a written questionnaire to all physicians and nurses in the inpatient units at a German university hospital. The questionnaire was an amalgam of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) scale to assess patient-related burnout of and portions of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC). Indicators from administrative data used to assess workload and patient-related work-strain were: amount of overtime worked, work intensity recording of nurses, cost weight, occupancy rate and DRG-related length of stay. Quality of care was assessed using readmission rates and disease-related length of stay. Univariate associations were tested with Pearson correlations.

Results

Response rate were 37% (224) for physicians and 39% (351) for nurses. Physicians’ overtime correlated strongly with perceived quantitative demands (.706, 95% CI: 0.634 to 0.766), emotional demands (.765; 95% CI: 0.705 to 0.814), and perceived role conflicts (.655, 95% CI: 0.573 to 0.724). Nurses’ work-intensity measures were associated with decreasing physician job satisfaction and with less favorable perceptions of the appropriateness of staffing (-.527, 95% CI:-0.856 to 0.107). Both professional groups showed medium to strong associations between the morbidity measure (cost weight) and role conflicts; between occupancy rates and role clarity (-.482, 95% CI: -0.782 to -0.02) and predictability of work (-.62, 95% CI: -0.848 to -0.199); and between length of stay and internal team functioning (-.555, 95% CI: -0.818 to -0.101). Higher readmission rates were associated with lower perceived patient safety (-.476, 95% CI: -0.779 to 0.006), inadequate staffing (-.702, 95% CI: -0.884 to -0.334), and worse team functioning (-.520, 95% CI: -0.801 to -0.052). Shorter disease-related length of stay was associated with better teamwork within units (-.555, 95% CI: -0.818 to -0.101) and a lower risk of physician burnout (-.588, 95% CI: -0.846 to -0.108).

Conclusion

Perceptions of hospital personnel regarding sub-optimal workplace safety and teamwork issues correlated with worse patient outcome measures. Furthermore, objective measures of overtime work as well as objective measures of workload correlated clearly with subjective work-related stress and strain. This suggests that objective workload measures (such as overtime worked) could be used to indirectly monitor job-related psychosocial strain on employees and, thus, improve not only staff wellbeing but also patient outcomes. On the other hand, listening to their personnel could help hospitals to improve patient (and employee) safety.

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<![CDATA[Comparing the delay with different anticoagulants before elective electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation/flutter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7a2d5eed0c484490753

Aims

To assess the impact of the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants upon the outcomes from elective electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation.

Methods

This is a retrospective comparison of delay to elective cardioversion with different anticoagulants. The data was gathered from a large regional hospital from January 2013 to September 2017. There were 3 measured outcomes: 1) the time in weeks from referral to the date of attempted electrical cardioversion; 2) the proportion of patients who were successfully cardioverted; and 3) the proportion of patients who remained in sinus rhythm by the 12 week follow-up. Time-to-cardioversion was non-parametrically distributed so was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis testing and Mann-Whitney-U testing. Maintenance of sinus rhythm was analysed using z-testing.

Results

1,374 patients were submitted to cardioversion. The referrals for cardioversion were either from primary care or from cardiologists. At the time of cardioversion, 789 cases were anticoagulated on warfarin (W), 215 on apixaban (A) and 370 on rivaroxaban (R). All 3 cohorts were initially compared independently using Kruskal-Wallis testing. This demonstrated a significant difference in the delay (measured in weeks) between the A and W group (A = 7, W = 9, P<0.00001); the R and W group (R = 7, W = 9, P<0.00001) and no difference between R and A (A = 7, R = 7, P = 0.92). As there was no difference between the A and R groups, they were combined to form the AR group. The AR group was compared to the W group using Mann-Whitney-U testing which demonstrated a significant delay between the groups (AR = 7, W = 9, P<0.00001). Excluding patients with prior or unknown attempts of cardioversion (n = 791), the W patients (n = 152) were less successful in achieving sinus rhythm at cardioversion than the AR (n = 431) group (W = 95% vs AR = 99% P = 0.04). However at 12 weeks, incidence of sinus rhythm was significantly different (W = 40% vs AR = 49% P = 0.049). These groups were compared by z testing. At 12 weeks' follow-up there was no statistical difference in rate of adverse consequences between the AR group and the W group, but the rate of adverse consequences was too low to draw further conclusions.

Conclusion

DOACs appear to significantly shorten the latency between the decision to cardiovert and the cardioversion procedure by at least 2 weeks compared to warfarin in a real-world setting. In this study, patients who had not previously been cardioverted who were anticoagulated with warfarin had a significantly lower probability of conversion to sinus rhythm and a significantly lower probability to remain in sinus rhythm at the 12 week follow-up compared to the combined apixaban and rivaroxaban group.

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<![CDATA[Construct validity of acute morbidity as a novel outcome for emergency patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667c4d5eed0c4841a637e

Objectives

Validation of acute morbidity as a novel outcome in emergency medicine.

Methods

Construct validity of acute morbidity was established by comparison to other outcomes using linear and logistic regression models.

Results

Data of 4608 patients were analysed. 1869 patients (40.6%) fulfilled the criteria for acute morbidity. Using multivariate analyses, acute morbidity was associated with outcomes such as hospitalisation (OR: 11, 95%-CI 9–13), mortality (OR 15, 95%-CI 6–49), and ICU admission (OR: 46, 95%-CI 25–96). Reliability of the construct “acute morbidity” was estimated using Cohens Kappa, which was 0.96 for intra-rater and 0.94 for inter-rater reliability.

Conclusion

Reliability of the framework for acute morbidity was high. Construct validity was shown by associations with hospitalisation, mortality, and ICU admission.

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<![CDATA[Developing key performance indicators for guaranteeing right to health and access to medical service for persons with disabilities in Korea: Using a modified Delphi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ed3d5eed0c484d286ad

Recently, the Act on Guarantee of Right to Health and Access to Medical Service for Persons with Disabilities was implemented to legally define the health care system for persons with disabilities (PWDs) and the guarantee of access to medical care in Korea. This study aimed to develop specific goals and performance indicators to establish a system to guarantee right to health and access to medical service for PWDs. The first procedure was the establishment of the performance indicators, and the second was the content validity verification of the established performance indicators. To establish the performance indicators, we used the policy indicators of the government to improve the health of the Korean people. The indicators that needed to be newly developed were established based on literature review and expert consultation. Three Delphi surveys were conducted to verify the content validity of the established performance indicators. The content validity index (CVI) was obtained for the importance and possibility of the performance indicators. The indicators using the existing policy indicators are “proportion of public health centers” and “rate of health checkup of PWDs,” and newly developed indicators are “establishment of facilities for PWDs in health care facilities (buildings and personnel)” and “diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in early childhood (average age and awareness).” The final performance indicators consist of a total of six areas, 22 sub-areas, and 40 individual indicators. The final performance indicators in this study can be used as basic data for continuously identifying the health status of PWDs in Korea and establishing the national policy for their health promotion. This study is also expected to serve as a framework to guarantee the right to health and access to medical service for PWDs rather than simply containing declarative content.

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