ResearchPad - healthcare-technology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Migration of Over-the-scope Clip Resulting in Anal Pain and Obstructed Defecation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11595 Iatrogenic perforation is a known and feared complication of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy. Specific locations in the gastrointestinal tract, such as the jejunum, have a higher risk of perforation owing to its difficult anatomical position. Over-the-scope clips have recently been used for the management of these perforations. We present the case of a 40-year-old male patient treated with over-the-scope (Ovesco®, Ovesco Endoscopy AG, Tübingen, Germany) clips for an iatrogenic postpolypectomy perforation with subsequent anal pain and inability to evacuate stool occurring as a result of the migration of the clip, followed by a review of the literature.

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<![CDATA[Social Media Data Analytics on Telehealth During the COVID-19 Pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10712 Introduction: Physical distancing during the coronavirus Covid-19 pandemic has brought telehealth to the forefront to keep up with patient care amidst an international crisis that is exhausting healthcare resources. Understanding and managing health-related concerns resulting from physical distancing measures are of utmost importance.

Objectives: To describe and analyze the volume, content, and geospatial distribution of tweets associated with telehealth during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Methods: We inquired Twitter public data to access tweets related to telehealth from March 30, 2020 to April 6, 2020. We analyzed tweets using natural language processing (NLP) and unsupervised learning methods. Clustering analysis was performed to classify tweets. Geographic tweet distribution was correlated with Covid-19 confirmed cases in the United States. All analyses were carried on the Google Cloud computing service “Google Colab” using Python libraries (Python Software Foundation).

Results: A total of 41,329 tweets containing the term “telehealth” were retrieved. The most common terms appearing alongside ‘telehealth’ were “covid”, “health”, “care”, “services”, “patients”, and “pandemic”. Mental health was the most common health-related topic that appeared in our search reflecting a high need for mental healthcare during the pandemic. Similarly, Medicare was the most common appearing health plan mirroring the accelerated access to telehealth and change in coverage policies. The geographic distribution of tweets related to telehealth and having a specific location within the United States (n=19,367) was significantly associated with the number of confirmed Covid-19 cases reported in each state (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Social media activity is an accurate reflection of disease burden during the Covid-19 pandemic. Widespread adoption of telehealth-favoring policies is necessary and mostly needed to address mental health problems that may arise in areas of high infection and death rates.

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<![CDATA[Influence of Different Types of Root Canal Irrigation Regimen on Resin-based Sealer Penetration and Pushout Bond Strength]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10528 Introduction

The main objective of root canal treatment is to eliminate the micro-organism from the root canal system and three-dimensional obturation. The proper cleaning and shaping can be accomplished only by using appropriate instruments and effective irrigants during the root canal treatment.

Aim

To evaluate the influence of three different final irrigation regimen on depth of penetration of root canal sealers and push-out bond strength of obturation material.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth with straight canals were decoronated and instrumented according to groups. Group I: Root canals were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), then irradiated with 980 nm diode laser (n = 12), Group II: Root canals were irrigated with 3% NaOCl, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (n = 12), Group III: Root canals were irrigated with 3% NaOCl, followed by 10% citric acid (n = 12). In each sample, single cone obturation was done with gutta-percha using AH plus sealer incorporated with rhodamine B dye. After seven days coronal, middle and apical thin cross sections were made for evaluation of dentinal tubule sealer penetration depth and pushout bond strength using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and universal testing machine, respectively. Statistical analysis among the three groups was done by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test.

Results

Mean tubular penetration depth between diode laser (136.57 ± 48 µm), EDTA (130.56 ± 53 µm) and citric acid (113.37 ± 34 µm; P < 0.05) showed statistically highly significant results. Pushout bond strength did not differ significantly between diode laser (1.21 ± 0.48 Mpa), EDTA (1.05 ± 0.45 Mpa) and citric acid (0.93 ± 0.44 Mpa; P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Mean tubular penetration depth of AH plus sealer was better in diode laser than in EDTA and citric acid. Average push-out bond strength of obturation material did not differ significantly between diode laser, EDTA and citric acid.

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<![CDATA[Constructing a Multidisciplinary Network That Relies on Disruptive Technologies to Design, Test, and Implement Simulation Training]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N45a2bbaf-94a5-45b5-adef-7e00fbb80c44 MaxSIMhealth is a multidisciplinary network of manufacturing, design, and simulation labs at Ontario Tech University combining expertise in health sciences, business and information technology (IT), and engineering while building community partnerships to advance simulation training. It discovers existing simulation gaps, provides innovative solutions that change systems, and leads to improved healthcare outcomes. Specifically, it utilizes disruptive technologies, including 3D printing, gaming, and extended reality, as innovative solutions that deliver cost-effective, portable, and realistic simulation, which is currently lacking. MaxSIMhealth is a novel collaborative innovation with aims to develop future cohorts of scholars with strong competencies ranging from technology application, to collaborating in new environments, communicating professionally, and problem-solving. Its work will transform current health professional education landscapes by providing novel, flexible, and inexpensive simulation environments. This editorial aims to showcase maxSIMhealth's innovative strategy focusing on collaborations of expertise in order to develop new simulation solutions that advance the health industry.

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<![CDATA[Artificial Intelligence: A New Paradigm in Obstetrics and Gynecology Research and Clinical Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7ef2c76f-3dbf-4e4a-85f0-fabf2997b208

Artificial intelligence (AI) is growing exponentially in various fields, including medicine. This paper reviews the pertinent aspects of AI in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) and how these can be applied to improve patient outcomes and reduce the healthcare costs and workload for clinicians.

Herein, we will address current AI uses in OB/GYN, and the use of AI as a tool to interpret fetal heart rate (FHR) and cardiotocography (CTG) to aid in the detection of preterm labor, pregnancy complications, and review discrepancies in its interpretation between clinicians to reduce maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. AI systems can be used as tools to create algorithms identifying asymptomatic women with short cervical length who are at risk of preterm birth. Additionally, the benefits of using the vast data capacity of AI storage can assist in determining the risk factors for preterm labor using multiomics and extensive genomic data. In the field of gynecological surgery, the use of augmented reality helps surgeons detect vital structures, thus decreasing complications, reducing operative time, and helping surgeons in training to practice in a realistic setting. Using three-dimensional (3D) printers can provide materials that mimic real tissues and also helps trainees to practice on a realistic model. Furthermore, 3D imaging allows better depth perception than its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart, allowing the surgeon to create preoperative plans according to tissue depth and dimensions. Although AI has some limitations, this new technology can improve the prognosis and management of patients, reduce healthcare costs, and help OB/GYN practitioners to reduce their workload and increase their efficiency and accuracy by incorporating AI systems into their daily practice.

AI has the potential to guide practitioners in decision-making, reaching a diagnosis, and improving case management. It can reduce healthcare costs by decreasing medical errors and providing more dependable predictions. AI systems can accurately provide information on the large array of patients in clinical settings, although more robust data is required.

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<![CDATA[The Predictive Performance of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening of Obese Population at Sleep Clinical Setting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2022f8f1-3110-469b-9a57-9321987a79c4

Background

The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high in the obese population. In this study, it was aimed to fulfill the STOP-Bang questionnaire which is a concise and easy-to-use questionnaire for OSA screening in obese patients.

Materials & methods

This is a retrospective study where the patients, who planned polysomnography, were referred to sleep clinic. Patients were screened for OSA by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Laboratory polysomnography was performed in 275 patients. Patients with BMI ≥ 30 were taken into study. The screening test was evaluated by three different risk analysis such as, a STOP score, a STOP-Bang score and a modified STOP-Bang score. The predictive parameters (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) for alternative scoring models in obese patients were analyzed.

Results

In 217 obese patients, a STOP score cutoff of 3 and a STOP-Bang score cutoff of 4 provides a better balance of sensitivity and specificity for all OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 5). The STOP questionnaire revealed a sensitivity of 87.9% and a positive predictive value of 99.5% for patients with all OSA (p: 0.005). The STOP-Bang scoring model revealed a sensitivity of 95.3% and a positive predictive value of 99.5% for patients with all OSA (p < 0.001). The modified STOP-Bang scoring revealed a sensitivity of 95.8% and a positive predictive value of 99.5% for patients with all OSA (p < 0.001). The area under the curve of the STOP-Bang for identifying mild, moderate and severe OSA was 0.581, 0.652 and 0.675, respectively. Whereas according to the STOP-Bang, all morbid obese patients (obesity class III, n: 47) were at high risk of OSA.

Conclusion

This study suggests that the STOP-Bang questionnaire for obstructive sleep apnea screening in obese patients is a high sensitivity and appropriate screening test.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygenation Versus Normobaric Oxygenation Therapy in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4ee96831-2371-4f69-98ab-93c0e83be7de

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas product of combustion, considered highly poisonous. Prolonged CO exposure is responsible for more than half of fatal poisonings and is also one of the leading causes of poisoning in Western countries.

We aimed to compare the effectiveness of therapy with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) versus normobaric oxygen (NBO) in the setting of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP). We independently searched the National Library of Medicine’s Medline (PubMed™), ScienceDirect™, and Scielo™ for any relevant studies published from 1989 to 2017, using the following keywords: hyperbaric therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, normobaric therapy, carbon monoxide poisoning, carboxyhemoglobin, Haldane effect. We analyzed the studies that suggested the effectiveness of HBO or NBO. Also, we searched for studies related to COP; including history, epidemiology (risk factors, incidence, demographics), pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

Sixty-eight articles were found, sixteen of which dealt with either HBO or NBO or both. Twelve suggested HBO as the treatment of choice in COP; four studies indicated that NBO was an adequate treatment due to its cost-effectiveness and availability in the emergency department (ED).

HBO has been shown in several studies to be effective in moderate to high-risk COP situations, being the therapy of choice to avoid sequelae, especially neurologically. NBO can be considered as a reasonable alternative due to its cost-effectiveness. The availability and understanding of different therapeutic interventions are critical in the management of patients with COP in ED and the Critical Care unit.

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<![CDATA[Stimulated Raman Histology for Intraoperative Guidance in the Resection of a Recurrent Atypical Spheno-orbital Meningioma: A Case Report and Review of Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N223d86a7-7e00-4815-bc98-1d726ae4af58

Meningiomas are the most common intracranial, extra-axial neoplasms and account for a significant proportion of all central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Regardless of the grade, treatment typically involves upfront surgical resection. However, in many instances, especially in meningiomas arising from the skull base, complete removal is often difficult given the close proximity to important anatomic structures. In this report, we discuss the use of stimulated Raman histology as a means to identify tissue boundaries during the resection of an extensive, recurrent, atypical spheno-orbital meningioma.

We report a 75-year-old male with a history of a prior left frontotemporal craniotomy for a grade II meningioma three years prior, who presented with worsening left-sided visual loss and pronounced temporal bossing. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a recurrent left spheno-orbital tumor suggestive of a meningioma extending into the middle cranial fossa, the lateral orbit, and the temporalis muscle. He underwent an extended orbito-pterional craniotomy, and intraoperative stimulated Raman histology aided in the identification of tumor margins within the orbit and the temporalis muscle in order to better preserve the normal orbital contents and muscle bulk of the infratemporal fossa.

This case demonstrates the utility of stimulated Raman histology during the resection of invasive skull base tumors. The immediate intraoperative Raman histologic sections can clearly identify tissue boundaries and thus help preserve important anatomic structures. Continued development of this method can potentially improve the accuracy of intraoperative diagnoses and guide surgeons during tumor resections near eloquent anatomical regions or important normal structures.

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<![CDATA[Role of Cardio-Specific Micro-Ribonucleic Acids and Correlation with Cardiac Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Comprehensive Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N022fcc84-8122-4ab6-b332-ff2bf372b013

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is an acute and severe manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD); thus, timely diagnosis can save a life. Commonly, cardiac troponin T (CTnT), cardiac troponin I (CTnI) or creatine kinase muscle/brain subtype (CK-MB) have been used as cardiac biomarkers to assess ACS with certain limitations, such as increased time to rise for diagnosis and increased levels in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) have become potential candidates as biomarkers for cardiac ischemia due to their remarkable stability and reproducibility. Certain miRNAs, for instance, miR-1, miR-133a/b, miR-208a/b, and miR-499a, strongly increase in the serum or plasma of patients with acute cardiac ischemia, making them as cardio-specific miRNAs and prospective biomarkers in ACS. This literature review gives enlightenment about the regulation of cardio-specific miRNA in acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) and correlation with common cardiac biomarkers and time at which they increase in the blood.

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<![CDATA[Is Intraoperative Ultrasound a Valuable Tool for Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Diagnosis and Treatment? A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbf887d86-95d9-4fea-984d-76cc2b91e832

The localization of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) intraoperatively in the setting of an acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is crucial to avoid damage of delicate vascular structures that may even further exacerbate the bleed. Currently, surgical mapping using preoperative angiographic is the standard of practice. We report the use of intraoperative ultrasound for the diagnosis and localization of an AVM in the case of a 61-year-old female with reported iodine contrast allergy and previous severe reaction, in a setting with limited resources, without other imaging options or timely transfer to another facility readily available. Immediate surgical care was warranted to avoid further deterioration of the patient; intraoperative diagnosis and localization of the suspected underlying lesion were done using ultrasound. The ultrasound display showed tubular anechoic intertwined structures that demonstrated bidirectional flow, which is suggestive of an AVM. The intraoperative diagnosis allowed the surgeon to avoid an inadvertent approach to the vascular malformation nidus or vessels, which could have further complicated the case. We believe that intraoperative ultrasound may be valuable for the neurosurgeons today in many settings. Despite the fact that this case occurred in a scenario with limited resources and no other imaging method (such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)) available, we advise readers not to rely solely on intraoperative ultrasound.

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<![CDATA[Public’s Attitudes Toward Health Information on Twitter: A Cross-sectional Survey Based on the Saudi Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb215c342-47cc-405b-87ca-4a75cd7b68a1

Health information dissemination through social media networks has transformed the process of communication between health practitioners, patients, and the public. Twitter is one of the most commonly used social media networks in Saudi Arabia for sharing health information. However, the reliability of health information on Twitter has been questioned by some skeptics, thereby placing the public at a significant health risk. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes of the general population of Saudi Arabia towards health information sought from Twitter. Of the 384 total respondents, 199 (51.8%) considered using Twitter as a source of health information as a positive experience due to its ease of use and the accessibility of information (131, 66.0%). The study found that respondents have great concern about nutrition/weight loss (229, 59.6%), healthy lifestyle (225, 58.6%), and getting a better understanding of health care misconceptions (168, 43%). Most of the respondents (167, 43.5%) were satisfied using Twitter as a source of health information. However, a few respondents experienced harm to their health as a result of false medical advice (2, 0.5%) and false health information (2, 0.5%) they found on Twitter. This study concludes that Twitter is mainly useful in obtaining health knowledge for maintaining good health, preventing illness, and curing illnesses or diseases. However, the public must take extra caution when obtaining health information from Twitter. It is essential for Twitter users seeking medical information to also seek professional medical advice or consultation, as necessary, to prevent a significant health risk.

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<![CDATA[A Wireless Neuroprosthesis for Patients with Drug-refractory Epilepsy: A Proof-of-Concept Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7aa19a90-0c8f-4e18-91e0-b77e75f1b5bb

Objective

Acute or protracted cortical recording may be necessary for patients with drug-refractory epilepsy to identify the ictogenic regions before undergoing resection. Currently, these invasive recording techniques present certain limitations, one of which is the need for cables connecting the recording electrodes placed in the intracranial space with external devices displaying the recorded electrocorticographic signals. This equates to a direct connection between the sterile intracranial space with the non-sterile environment. Due to the increasing likelihood of infections with time, subdural grids are typically removed a few days after implantation, a limiting factor in localizing the epileptogenic zone if seizures are not frequent enough to be captured within this time-frame. Furthermore, patients are bound to stay in the hospital, connected by the wires to the recording device, thus increasing substantially the treatment costs. To address some of the current shortcomings of invasive monitoring, we developed a neuroprosthesis made of a subdural silicone grid connected to a wireless transmitter allowing prolonged electrocorticografic recording and direct cortical stimulation. This device consists of a silicone grid with 128-platinum/iridium contacts, connected to an implantable case providing wireless recording and stimulation. The case also houses a wirelessly rechargeable battery for chronic long-term implants. We report the results of the first human proof-of-concept trial for wireless transmission of electrocorticographic recordings using a device suited for long-term implantation in three patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. 

Methods

Three patients with medically refractory epilepsy underwent the temporary intraoperative placement of the subdural grid connected to the wireless device for recording and transmission of electrocorticographic signals for a duration of five minutes before the conventional recording electrodes were placed or the ictal foci were resected.

Results

Wireless transmission of brain signals was successfully achieved. The wireless electrocorticographic signal was judged of excellent quality by a blinded neurophysiologist.

Conclusions

This preliminary experience reports the first successful placement of a wireless electrocorticographic recording device in humans. Long-term placement for prolonged wireless electrocorticographic recording in epilepsy patients will be the next step.

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<![CDATA[Barriers to Utilizing Social Media Platforms in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb8fde75c-768c-46d6-bb3f-aa213c3b7917

Background

Residency programs seek to incorporate various social media (SoMe) platforms into their educational curricula, yet little is known regarding the potential roadblocks towards implementation. Our objective was to assess the current utilization of SoMe platforms and identify common barriers to implementation by emergency medicine (EM) residency programs.

Methods

Members of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) Information Technology (IT) Committee developed an anonymous survey distributed to representatives from EM residency programs using the “CORD Community” internet forum. Descriptive statistics including percentages for numerical data as well as Fisher’s exact test for categorical data were used to report results.

Results

We received 116 individual responses from faculty, fellows, and residents of EM residency programs. The most common institutional, departmental, technological and knowledge barriers identified were restricted access to blogs (12.9%), insufficient protected time (17.2%), insufficient IT support to host the platform (16.4%), and a lack of knowledge among faculty of how to utilize blogs (23.3%) respectively.

Ten respondents (8.6%) reported that their programs had not attempted to utilize any SoMe platforms. Community-based programs and smaller programs (<24 residents) were significantly more likely to identify barriers to SoMo use among this cohort.

Conclusion

Utilization of SoMe platforms for resident education by EM residency programs is increasingly common, but significant obstacles exist on many levels that prevent programs from leveraging these innovations for knowledge translation. This is particularly common for community-based and small residency programs. Awareness of these common barriers will allow institutions and programs to better anticipate and design solutions to overcome these obstacles.

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<![CDATA[Should Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy be a Must in Neonatal Intensive Care Units? Pilot Report of Initial Cases in Dubai]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c47a8b6d5eed0c484c84dc6

Minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) in neonates without intubation has in recent times become an accepted standard in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) especially in Europe. We have adapted this novel technique in our clinical practice in the neonatal intensive care units in Dubai since 2018. Herein we report the successful outcome of implementation of this technique in three of our neonates of gestation/weight, 28/1.03 kg, 34/2.0 kg and 28/1.18 kg respectively in our NICU in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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<![CDATA[The Impact of Automated Electronic Surveillance of Electronic Medical Records on Pediatric Inpatient Care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c16d509d5eed0c484546522

Purpose

To assess the impact of the automated surveillance of the electronic medical record process on clinical interventions among hospitalized children at a tertiary care pediatric center.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of the alerts triggered for central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), neonatal sepsis, or clinical deterioration through elevated pediatric early warning scores (PEWS) by automated electronic surveillance of the hospital electronic medical record (EMR) over a five-month period among hospitalized children. Interventions instituted in response to the alerts were reviewed from the hospital EMR. Fisher’s exact test was performed to detect any significant difference in the proportion of interventions performed for alerts triggered between groups.

Results

A total of 244 alerts were collected (27 CAUTI, 55 CLABSI, 10 neonatal sepsis, and 152 PEWS alerts). A significant difference in the proportion of interventions instituted after neonatal sepsis and PEWS alerts (9/162, 5.6%) as compared to CLABSI and CAUTI alerts (20/82, 24.4%) was observed (p<0.001; Odds ratio (95% CI): 0.182 (0.079-0.422)). Neonatal sepsis triggered the least number of alerts (10/244, 4.1%) and proportionately fewer interventions than the other clinical alerts.

Conclusions

Alerts for potential device-associated infections resulted in more clinical intervention than less-specific alerts. Neonatal sepsis alerts resulted in minimal interventions undertaken in response to the alert. Identifying and focusing on alerts benefitting the patient can serve as a better allocation of time and resources. Future studies should explore which newer alerts and their accompanying interventions improve patient outcomes.

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<![CDATA[An Analysis of Foot and Ankle Device Recalls by the Food and Drug Administration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0fec43d5eed0c48418d585

Introduction

Orthopaedic devices represent 12% of all medical device recalls. Products are approved through pre-market approval (PMA) or the 510(k) premarket notification process. No previous evaluation was found in the literature evaluating foot and ankle device recalls. The field of foot and ankle subspecialty has seen a rapid growth in innovation related to implants in recent years.

Methods

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Device Recall database was evaluated for all foot and ankle devices from 2007 through 2017 for the manufacturer, process of approval, type of implant, recall class, dates of initiation and termination of the recall, manufacturer determined reason, quantity affected, and distribution within the United States or internationally.

Results

A total of 161 products from 33 companies were identified with 158 (98.1%) approved through the 510(k) process. The most common reason for device recall was due to the device breaking intraoperatively or postoperatively. The average length of the recall was 487.5 days. 

Conclusions

Device recall is not an uncommon event with the majority of products approved through the less demanding 510(k) process. 

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<![CDATA[Use of Indirect Target Gating in Magnetic Resonance-guided Liver Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: Case Report of an Oligometastatic Patient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b595ecb463d7e5c4d0d54d5

The case of a 73-year-old woman affected by anal canal cancer with concomitant liver metastases is presented here. The patient was addressed to stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on two hepatic secondary lesions after the first radiochemotherapy treatment of the primary tumor. A Tri-60-Co magnetic resonance hybrid radiotherapy unit was used for SBRT treatment delivery. Both liver lesions were not clearly visible on the setup magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to their limited dimensions (maximum diameter 13 mm); however, the presence of two cysts adjacent to the metastases allowed the use of an indirect target gating approach. Treatment was delivered in deep inspiration breath-hold conditions using the visual feedback technique for breathing control optimization. Post radiotherapy imaging assessed the complete response.

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