ResearchPad - hematologic-cancers-and-related-disorders https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Low LEF1 expression is a biomarker of early T-cell precursor, an aggressive subtype of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13868 Early T-cell precursor (ETP) is the only subtype of acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. Patients with ETP tend to have worse disease outcomes. ETP is defined by a series of immune markers. The diagnosis of ETP status can be vague due to the limitation of the current measurement. In this study, we performed unsupervised clustering and supervised prediction to investigate whether a molecular biomarker can be used to identify the ETP status in order to stratify risk groups. We found that the ETP status can be predicted by the expression level of Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF1) with high accuracy (AUC of ROC = 0.957 and 0.933 in two T-ALL cohorts). The patients with ETP subtype have a lower level of LEF1 comparing to the those without ETP. We suggest that incorporating the biomarker LEF1 with traditional immune-phenotyping will improve the diagnosis of ETP.

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<![CDATA[Administration of lower doses of radium-224 to ankylosing spondylitis patients results in no evidence of significant overall detriment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11232 The use of low doses of radium-224 (224Ra) chloride for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis was stopped following the discovery that patients treated with it had a higher than control incidence of leukaemia and other cancers. This was so even though the treatment resulted in decreased pain and increased mobility–both of which are associated with decreased mortality. It was decided to re-analyze the epidemiological data looking at all causes of death. The risk of leukaemia, solid cancer, death from non-cancer causes and from all causes in a study populations of men that received either the typical dose of 5.6 to 11.1 MBq of 224Ra, any dose of 224Ra or no radium were compared using the Cox proportional hazard model. For patients that received the typical dose of 224Ra agreed with the excess cancer was similar to that reported in previous studies. In contrast, these patients were less likely to die from non-cancer diseases and from all causes of death than the control patients. No excess mortality was also found in the population of all males that received the radionuclide. It is concluded that 224Ra treatment administered at low doses to patients with ankylosing spondylitis did not impact mortality from all causes. The study demonstrates the need to consider all causes of death and longevity when assessing health impacts following irradiation.

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<![CDATA[Is there a reliable size cut-off for splenic involvement in lymphoma? A [18F]FDG-PET controlled study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1956d5eed0c484b4d428

Purpose

Aim of present study was to determine whether the currently recommended 13-cm cranio-caudal diameter cut-off on CT for assessment of splenic involvement in lymphoma offers adequate sensitivity and specificity.

Materials and Methods

Patients with histologically proven lymphoma who had undergone [18F]FDG-PET/CT before therapy were included. Cranio-caudal diameters of the spleen were measured on the CT component of PET/CT, and ROC analyses with calculation of respective areas under the curve (AUC) were used to determine cut-off values of cranio-caudal measurements with their respective sensitivities and specificities, using [18F]FDG-PET as the reference standard.

Results

In 93 patients, we found a sensitivity of 74.1% and a specificity of 47% for the 13-cm splenic diameter cut-off.

Conclusions

Our results show reasonable, though far from perfect sensitivities and specificities for the currently recommend 13-cm splenic diameter cut-off.

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<![CDATA[A new highly sensitive real-time quantitative-PCR method for detection of BCR-ABL1 to monitor minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia after discontinuation of imatinib]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823f1d5eed0c4846393bf

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome, have drastically improved the outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Although several real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) kits for the detection of BCR-ABL1 transcripts are commercially available, their accuracy and efficiency in laboratory practice require reevaluation. We have developed a new in-house RQ-PCR method to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in CML cases. MRD was analyzed in 102 patients with CML from the DOMEST study, a clinical trial to study the rationale for imatinib mesylate discontinuation in Japan. The BCR-ABL1/ABL1 ratio was evaluated using the international standard (IS) ratio, where IS < 0.1% was defined as a major molecular response. At enrollment, BCR-ABL1 transcripts were undetectable in all samples using a widely-applied RQ-PCR method performed in the commercial laboratory, BML (BML Inc., Tokyo, Japan); however, the in-house method detected the BCR-ABL1 transcripts in five samples (5%) (mean IS ratio: 0.0062 ± 0.0010%). After discontinuation of imatinib, BCR-ABL1 transcripts were detected using the in-house RQ-PCR in 21 patients (21%) that were not positive using the BML method. Nineteen samples were also tested using a commercially available RQ-PCR assay kit with a detection limit of IS ratio, 0.0032 (ODK-1201, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo, Japan). This method detected low levels of BCR-ABL1 transcripts in 14 samples (74%), but scored negative for five samples (26%) that were positive using the in-house method. From the perspective of the in-house RQ-PCR method, number of patients confirmed loss of MMR was 4. These data suggest that our new in-house RQ-PCR method is effective for monitoring MRD in CML.

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<![CDATA[miR-7977 inhibits the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823ead5eed0c4846392f6

We and others have demonstrated that various abnormalities of the bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) such as aberrant cytokine expression, abnormal hedgehog signaling, and impaired miRNA biogenesis are observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, underlying mechanisms to induce the dysfunction of BM MSCs have not yet been clarified. We previously showed that AML cells release abundant exosomal miR-7977, which, in turn, enters BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the precise function of miR-7977 is not known. In this study, we performed transduction of a miR-7977 mimic into MSCs, compared transcriptomes between control-transduced (n = 3) and miR-7977-transduced MSCs (n = 3), and conducted pathway analysis. The array data revealed that the expression of 0.05% of genes was reduced 2-fold and the expression of 0.01% of genes was increased 2-fold. Interestingly, approximately half of these genes possessed a miR-7977 target site, while the other genes did not, suggesting that miR-7977 regulates the gene expression level directly and indirectly. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that the gene sets of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) _up were significantly enriched (p<0.001, q<0.25), suggesting that miR-7977 modulates the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway. Visualization of pathway and network showed that miR-7977 significantly reduced the expression of Hippo core kinase, STK4. miR-7977 inactivated the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway as proven by GFP-tagged YAP nuclear trans localization and TEAD reporter assay. The miR-7977-transduced MSC cell line, HTS-5, showed elevated saturation density and enhanced entry into the cell cycle. These results suggest that miR-7977 is a critical factor that regulates the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway in BM-MSCs and may be involved in the upregulation of leukemia-supporting stroma growth.

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<![CDATA[Targeted next generation sequencing can serve as an alternative to conventional tests in myeloid neoplasms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897760d5eed0c4847d2b67

The 2016 World Health Organization classification introduced a number of genes with somatic mutations and a category for germline predisposition syndromes in myeloid neoplasms. We have designed a comprehensive next-generation sequencing assay to detect somatic mutations, translocations, and germline mutations in a single assay and have evaluated its clinical utility in patients with myeloid neoplasms. Extensive and specified bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to detect single nucleotide variations, FLT3 internal tandem duplication, genic copy number variations, and chromosomal copy number variations. This enabled us to maximize the clinical utility of the assay, and we concluded that, as a single assay, it can be a good supplement for many conventional tests, including Sanger sequencing, RT-PCR, and cytogenetics. Of note, we found that 8.4–11.6% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 12.9% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms had germline mutations, and most were heterozygous carriers for autosomal recessive marrow failure syndromes. These patients often did not respond to standard chemotherapy, suggesting that germline predisposition may have distinct and significant clinical implications.

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<![CDATA[Leukemia multiclass assessment and classification from Microarray and RNA-seq technologies integration at gene expression level]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7591d5eed0c4843cfeb1

In more recent years, a significant increase in the number of available biological experiments has taken place due to the widespread use of massive sequencing data. Furthermore, the continuous developments in the machine learning and in the high performance computing areas, are allowing a faster and more efficient analysis and processing of this type of data. However, biological information about a certain disease is normally widespread due to the use of different sequencing technologies and different manufacturers, in different experiments along the years around the world. Thus, nowadays it is of paramount importance to attain a correct integration of biologically-related data in order to achieve genuine benefits from them. For this purpose, this work presents an integration of multiple Microarray and RNA-seq platforms, which has led to the design of a multiclass study by collecting samples from the main four types of leukemia, quantified at gene expression. Subsequently, in order to find a set of differentially expressed genes with the highest discernment capability among different types of leukemia, an innovative parameter referred to as coverage is presented here. This parameter allows assessing the number of different pathologies that a certain gen is able to discern. It has been evaluated together with other widely known parameters under assessment of an ANOVA statistical test which corroborated its filtering power when the identified genes are subjected to a machine learning process at multiclass level. The optimal tuning of gene extraction evaluated parameters by means of this statistical test led to the selection of 42 highly relevant expressed genes. By the use of minimum-Redundancy Maximum-Relevance (mRMR) feature selection algorithm, these genes were reordered and assessed under the operation of four different classification techniques. Outstanding results were achieved by taking exclusively the first ten genes of the ranking into consideration. Finally, specific literature was consulted on this last subset of genes, revealing the occurrence of practically all of them with biological processes related to leukemia. At sight of these results, this study underlines the relevance of considering a new parameter which facilitates the identification of highly valid expressed genes for simultaneously discerning multiple types of leukemia.

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<![CDATA[Infectious complications and NK cell depletion following daratumumab treatment of Multiple Myeloma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9d0d5eed0c48452a224

Treatment with Daratumumab (Dara), a monoclonal anti-CD38 antibody of IgG1 subtype, is effective in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, Dara also impairs the cellular immunity, which in turn may lead to higher susceptibility to infections. The exact link between immune impairment and infectious complications is unclear. In this study, we report that nine out of 23 patients (39%) with progressive MM had infectious complications after Dara treatment. Five of these patients had viral infections, two developed with bacterial infections and two with both bacterial and viral infections. Two of the viral infections were exogenous, i.e. acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), while five consisted of reactivations, i.e. one herpes simplex (HSV), 1 varicella-zoster (VZV) and three cytomegalovirus (CMV). Infections were solely seen in patients with partial response or worse. Assessment of circulating lymphocytes indicated a selective depletion of NK cells and viral reactivation after Dara treatment, however this finding does not exclude the multiple components of viral immune-surveillance that may get disabled during this monoclonal treatment in this patient cohort. These results suggest that the use of antiviral and antibacterial prophylaxis and screening of the patients should be considered.

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<![CDATA[Platelet count abnormalities and peri-operative outcomes in adults undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2682d5eed0c484289bce

Background

Anemia and transfusion of blood in the peri-operative period have been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality across a wide variety of non-cardiac surgeries. While tests of coagulation, including the platelet count, have frequently been used to identify patients with an increased risk of peri-operative bleeding, results have been equivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of platelet level on outcomes in patients undergoing elective surgery.

Materials and methods

Retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively-collected clinical data from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) between 2006–2016.

Results

We identified 3,884,400 adult patients who underwent elective, non-cardiac surgery from 2006–2016 at hospitals participating in NSQIP, a prospectively-collected, national clinical database with established reproducibility and validity. After controlling for all peri- and intraoperative factors by matching on propensity scores, patients with all levels of thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis had higher odds for perioperative transfusion. All levels of thrombocytopenia were associated with higher mortality, but there was no association with complications or other morbidity after matching. On the other hand, thrombocytosis was not associated with mortality; but odds for postoperative complications and 30-day return to the operating room remained slightly increased after matching.

Conclusions

These findings may guide surgeons in the appropriate use and appreciation of the utility of pre-operative screening of the platelet count prior to an elective, non-cardiac surgery.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular vesicles from Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphoma induce long-term endothelial cell reprogramming]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e941d5eed0c48496fae8

Extracellular signaling is a mechanism that higher eukaryotes have evolved to facilitate organismal homeostasis. Recent years have seen an emerging interest in the role of secreted microvesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EV) or exosomes in this signaling network. EV contents can be modified by the cell in response to stimuli, allowing them to relay information to neighboring cells, influencing their physiology. Here we show that the tumor virus Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) hijacks this signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation, migration, and transcriptome reprogramming in cells not infected with the virus. KSHV-EV activates the canonical MEK/ERK pathway, while not alerting innate immune regulators, allowing the virus to exert these changes without cellular pathogen recognition. Collectively, we propose that KSHV establishes a niche favorable for viral spread and cell transformation through cell-derived vesicles, all while avoiding detection.

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<![CDATA[Different operators and histologic techniques in the assessment of germinal center-like structures in primary Sjögren’s syndrome minor salivary glands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644913d5eed0c484c2f56d

Objective

A standardization of minor salivary gland (MSG) histopathology in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) has been recently proposed. Although there is strong agreement that germinal center (GC)-like structures should be routinely identified, due to their prognostic value, a consensus regarding the best protocol is still lacking. Aim of this study was to compare the performance of different histological techniques and operators to identify GC-like structures in pSS MSGs. MSG biopsies from 50 pSS patients were studied.

Methods

Three blinded operators (one pathologist and two rheumatologists with different years of experience in pSS MSG assessment) assessed 50 MSGs of which one slide was stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and consecutive slides were processed to investigate CD3/CD20, CD21 and Bcl-6 expression.

Results

By assessing 225 foci, the best agreement was between H&E-stained sections evaluated by the rheumatologist with more years of experience in pSS MSG assessment and CD3/CD20 segregation. In the foci with CD21 positivity, the agreement further increased. Bcl-6- foci could display a GC, detected with other staining, but not vice versa.

Conclusion

GC assessment on H&E-stained sections should be performed with caution, being operator-dependent. The combination of H&E with CD3/CD20 and CD21 staining should be recommended as it is reliable, feasible, able to overcome the bias of operator experience and easily transferrable into routine practice.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic significance of DAPK promoter methylation in lymphoma: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644942d5eed0c484c2f95e

We aimed to characterize the clinical significance of epigenetic loss of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) gene function through promoter methylation in the development and prognosis of lymphoma. PubMed, Web of Science and ProQuest databases were searched for relevant studies. Twelve studies involving 709 patients with lymphoma were identified. The prognostic value of DAPK methylation was expressed as risk ratio (RR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), while the associations between DAPK methylation and the clinical characteristics of patients with lymphoma were expressed as odd ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% CIs. Meta-analysis showed that the 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in lymphoma patients with hypermethylated DAPK (RR = 0.85, 95% CI (0.73, 0.98), P = 0.025). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated consistent result. However, no associations were found between DAPK methylation and clinicopathological features of lymphoma, in relation to gender (OR = 1.07, 95% CI (0.72, 1.59), P = 0.751), age (OR = 1.01, 95% CI (0.66, 1.55), P = 0.974), international prognostic index (OR = 1.20, 95% CI (0.63, 2.27), P = 0.575), B symptoms (OR = 0.76, 95% CI (0.38, 1.51), P = 0.452), serum lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.13, 95% CI (0.62, 2.05), P = 0.683), and BCL-2 expression (OR = 1.55, 95% CI (0.91, 2.66), P = 0.106). Lymphoma patients with hypermethylated DAPK are at risk for poorer 5-year survival rate. DAPK methylation may serve as a negative prognostic biomarker among lymphoma patients, although it may not be associated with the progression of lymphoma.

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<![CDATA[Colonization with multidrug resistant organisms determines the clinical course of patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52185cd5eed0c484797d9f

Introduction

The global spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) complicates treatment and isolation measures in hospitals and has shown to increase mortality. Patients with disease- or therapy-related immunodeficiency are especially at risk for fatal infections caused by MDRO. The impact of MDRO colonization on the clinical course of AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy—a potentially curative but highly toxic treatment option—has not been systematically studied.

Materials & methods

312 AML patients undergoing intensive induction chemotherapy between 2007 and 2015 were examined for MDRO colonization. Patients with evidence for MDRO before or during the hospital stay of induction chemotherapy were defined as colonized, patients who never had a positive swab for MDRO were defined as noncolonized.

Results

Of 312 AML patients 90 were colonized and 130 were noncolonized. Colonized patients suffered from significantly more days with fever, spent more days on the intensive care unit and had a higher median C-reactive protein value during the hospital stay. These findings did not result in a prolonged length of hospital stay or an increased mortality rate for colonized patients. However, in a subgroup analysis, patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) had a significantly reduced 60- and 90-day, as well as 1- and 2-year survival rates when compared to noncolonized patients.

Conclusion

Our analysis highlights the importance of intensive MDRO screening especially in patients with febrile neutropenia since persisting fever can be a sign of MDRO-colonization. CRE-colonized patients require special surveillance, since they seem to be at risk for death.

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<![CDATA[Cancer risk in children and young adults born preterm: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bcdd5eed0c48491e6b3

Introduction

Risk of developing a malignancy when born premature is unknown. We hypothesised that risk of certain cancers might be increased in youth born preterm versus term. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in the context of preterm birth, according to various cancer types.

Methods

The study was designed per MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines. Articles were identified through November 2015. Observational studies exploring the association between childhood malignancy and birth characteristics were included. Of the 1658 records identified, 109 full text articles were evaluated for eligibility. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted on 10/26 studies retained; 95% confidence intervals were computed and adjusted following sensitivity analysis. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plots, Begg’s and Egger’s tests.

Results

No differences in risk of primary central nervous system tumor [OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93–1.17, 5 studies, 580 cases] and neuroblastoma [OR 1.09; 95% CI 0.90–1.32, 5 studies, 211 cases] were observed in individuals born <37 versus ≥37 weeks’ gestation. Preterm birth was consistently associated with hepatoblastoma [ORs 3.12 (95% CI 2.32–4.20), 1.52 (95% CI 1.1–2.1), 1.82 (95% CI 1.01–3.26), and 2.65 (95% CI 1.98–3.55)], but not leukemia, astrocytoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, lymphoma, nephroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, retinoblastoma or thyroid cancer.

Conclusions

Children born premature may be at increased risk for hepatoblastoma but there is no strong evidence of an increased risk of primary central nervous system tumours or neuroblastoma. There is insufficient evidence to conclude whether prematurity modulates the risk of other childhood cancers.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of baseline metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis in patients with lymphoma: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa583d5eed0c484ca53ef

Whether baseline metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured by FDG-PET/CT affected prognosis of patients with lymphoma was controversial. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane to identify studies assessing the effect of baseline TMTV and TLG on the survival of lymphoma patients. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-seven eligible studies including 2,729 patients were analysed. Patients with high baseline TMTV showed a worse prognosis with an HR of 3.05 (95% CI 2.55–3.64, p<0.00001) for PFS and an HR of 3.07 (95% CI 2.47–3.82, p<0.00001) for OS. Patients with high baseline TLG also showed a worse prognosis with an HR of 3.44 (95% CI 2.37–5.01, p<0.00001) for PFS and an HR of 3.08 (95% CI 1.84–5.16, p<0.00001) for OS. A high baseline TMTV was significantly associated with worse survival in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (OS, pooled HR = 3.52; PFS, pooled HR = 2.93). A high baseline TLG was significantly associated with worse survival in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (OS, pooled HR = 3.06; PFS, pooled HR = 2.93). The negative effect of high baseline TMTV on PFS was demonstrated in HL (pooled HR = 3.89). A high baseline TMTV was significantly associated with worse survival in ENKL patients (OS, pooled HR = 2.24; PFS, pooled HR = 3.25). A high baseline TLG was significantly associated with worse survival in ENKL patients (OS, pooled HR = 2.58; PFS, pooled HR = 2.99). High baseline TMTV or TLG predict significantly worse PFS and OS in patients with lymphoma. Future studies are warranted to explore whether TMTV or TLG could be integrated into various prognostic models for clinical decision making.

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<![CDATA[A C5a-Immunoglobulin complex in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients is associated with decreased complement activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667ced5eed0c4841a64d1

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the Western world. The therapeutic approach to CLL includes chemotherapeutic regimens and immunotherapy. Complement-mediated cytotoxicity, which is one of the mechanisms activated by the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, depends on the availability and activity of the complement (C) system. The aim was to study the structure of circulating C components and evaluate the importance of C5 structural integrity for C activity in CLL patients. Blood samples were collected from 40 naïve CLL patients and 15 normal controls (NC). The Western blot analysis showed abnormal C5 pattern in some CLL patients, while patterns of C3 and C4 were similar in all subjects. Levels of the C activation markers sC5b-9 and C5a were quantified before and after activation via the classical (CP) and alternative (AP) pathways. In patients with abnormal C5, basal levels of sC5b-9 and C5a were increased while activities of the CP and of the CP C5-convertase, the immediate C5-upstream complex, were decreased compared to NC and to patients with normal C5. The data indicate a link between CP activation and apparent C5 alterations in CLL. This provides a potential prognostic tool that may personalize therapy by identifying a sub-group of CLL patients who display an abnormal C5 pattern, high basal levels of sC5b-9 and C5a, and impaired CP activity, and are likely to be less responsive to immunotherapy due to compromised CP activity.

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<![CDATA[Expression of CD25 fluctuates in the leukemia-initiating cell population of CD25-positive AML]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b81d5eed0c4846ebd04

CD25 is expressed on leukemic cells in 10–20% cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. We reevaluated the relationship between CD25 expression and the leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) properties of AML using a patient-derived xenograft model. We divided lineage marker-negative (Lin) CD34+CD38 or LinCD34+ cells from CD25-positive AML into CD25-positive and -negative populations, and then transplanted each population into NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/Sz mice. Leukemic engraftment was observed with both CD25-positive and -negative populations from three of nine CD25-positive AML patients. In two of those three patients, CD25-positive and -negative LinCD34+ cells engrafted at the primary transplantation led to leukemic engraftment at the secondary transplantation, in which engrafted cells contained both CD25-positive and -negative LinCD34+ AML cells. In an in vitro culture system, expression of CD25 was considerably induced in the CD25-negative population of LinCD34+ cells from two cases of CD25-positive AML. In one case, CD25-positive LinCD34+ cells gave rise to CD25-negative as well as -positive CD34+ cells. These observations suggest that there exist CD25-positive and -negative populations that can reconstitute CD25-positive AML in a patient-derived xenograft model, and that CD25 expression fluctuates in the LICs of AML.

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<![CDATA[Association of HLA class I type with prevalence and outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and mutated nucleophosmin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c215145d5eed0c4843f96fa

Acute myeloid leukemia with mutated nucleophosmin (NPMc+ AML) forms a distinct AML subgroup with better prognosis which can potentially be associated with immune response against the mutated nucleophosmin (NPM). As the T-cell-mediated immunity involves antigen presentation on HLA class I molecules, we hypothesized that individuals with suitable HLA type could be less prone to develop NPMc+ AML. We compared HLA class I distribution in NPMc+ AML patient cohort (398 patients from 5 centers) with the HLA allele frequencies of the healthy population and found HLA-A*02, B*07, B*40 and C*07 underrepresented in the NPMc+ AML group. Presence of B*07 or C*07:01 antigen was associated with better survival in patients without concomitant FLT3 internal tandem duplication. Candidate NPM-derived immunopeptides were found for B*40 and B*07 using prediction software tools. Our findings suggest that a T-cell-mediated immune response could actually explain better prognosis of NPMc+ patients and provide a rationale for attempts to explore the importance of immunosuppressive mechanisms in this AML subgroup.

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<![CDATA[Real-world treatment outcomes in multiple myeloma: Multicenter registry results from Finland 2009-2013]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117be2d5eed0c48469ac69

Outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have improved with the advent of novel therapies, however, real-world evidence of outcomes in clinical practice is scarce. We conducted a multi-center registry study to build a reliable picture of treatment and patient outcomes in Finland. The aim of this study was also to understand any methodological challenges in assessing treatment outcomes using disease registry data. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, observational study using data from the national Finnish Hematology Registry (FHR) to provide real-world evidence of outcomes for all adult patients diagnosed with and treated for MM between 2009–2013 at one of the six regional hospitals, with at least six months of recorded follow-up. Patients were identified within the FHR by applying eligibility criteria of a diagnosis of MM and verifiable records of medical treatment and lines of treatment during the study period. Patients receiving allogenic stem cell transplantation were excluded from the cohort, as were individuals who only had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance diagnosis and patients who had not initiated treatment during this period. Kaplan Meier curves were used to calculate overall survival and time to next treatment. Stratification was carried out by drug status (conventional/novel) and by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) status. Results: A total of 321 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. Overall survival (OS) was longest in patients who received first-line novel therapy and ASCT (median not reached during 60-month follow-up) versus 46.2 months for novel first-line therapy without ASCT and 25.6 months for first-line conventional therapy without ASCT. Similarly, median time to next treatment were 33.9 months, 12.6 months and 7.8 months, respectively. Conclusions: The adoption of novel treatments in MM in Finland has had substantial impact on patient outcomes. Given the reality of complex treatment combinations for MM and relatively low patient numbers, assessing individual treatment effectiveness will require substantial cohort sizes and advanced, collaborative analytics on an international scale.

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<![CDATA[Impact of IFN lambda 3/4 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the cytomegalovirus reactivation in autologous stem cell transplant patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b603633463d7e4090b7ce22

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represents one of the main cause mortality after Stem Cell Transplantation. Recently, a protective effect of the T allele of rs12979860 IL28B Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) against CMV infection in the allogenic stem cell transplantation was suggested. We investigate whether the rs12979860 IL28B SNP and the relative rs368234815 (IFNλ4) genotype may affect the incidence of active CMV infection in Autologous stem cell transplantation (Auto-SCT) setting. The study included 99 patients who underwent to Auto-SCT. IL28 and IFNΔ4 SNPs were correlated with CMV reactivation along with other clinical and treatment parameters. CMV reactivation by CMV DNAemia was evaluated once a week until day 100 from Auto-SCT. CMV reactivation was documented in 50% (TT-ΔG/ΔG), 35% (CC-TT/TT) and 29.2% (CT-TT/ΔG) of the patients respectively. No differences in CMV copies number were recorded at reactivation between different IL28/IFNλ4 genotypes. The analysis of patients older than 60 years showed a significantly higher incidence of active CMV infection in the TT-ΔG/ΔG (83%) population with respect to CC-TT/TT (21%) and CT-TT/ΔG (40%) patients. Our data suggest a negative role of TT-ΔG/ΔG genotype in the CMV reactivation in Auto-SCT. The exposure to rituximab and the pre-infusion presence of anti CMV IgG also significantly influenced CMV reactivation.

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