ResearchPad - hematoxylin-staining https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Pathological and genetic aspects of spontaneous mammary gland tumor in <i>Tupaia belangeri</i> (tree shrew)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15738 Mammary gland cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women globally. Incidences of this cancer in Japan are on the increase. Annually, more than 70,000 new cases are recorded in Japan and about 1.7 million in the world. Many cases are still difficult to cure completely, and animal models are required for the characterization of the biology, therapeutic strategy, and preventive measures for spontaneous mammary tumor. The mouse model used currently has some limitations owing to structural differences between mouse and human mammary glands. Tupaia belangeri (tree shrew), which belongs to the Tupaiidae family, shows relatively high genetic homology and structural similarity to human mammary glands. Here, we characterized the spontaneous mammary tumors in 61 female tree shrews of different ages. The incidence rate was 24.6% (15/61), and the rate of simultaneous or metachronous multiplex tumors was 60% (9/15). From the incidence pattern, some cases seemed to be of familial mammary gland tumor, as the offspring of female tree shrews No. 3 and 9 and male tree shrew No. 11 showed a high incidence rate, of 73.3% (11/15). Average incidence age for tumor development was 2 years and 3 months, and the earliest was 10 months. Histochemical analysis indicated that spontaneous mammary gland tumors in the tree shrew show the features of intraductal papillary adenomas (22 cases), except 2 tubulopapillary carcinoma cases (No. 75 and 131). All the cases were positive for the progesterone receptor, whereas 91.3% were positive for the estrogen receptor, and 4.3% were HER-2 positive. We have also confirmed the expression of nectin-4 in some mammary tumor cells. Additionally, we subjected tree shrews to cytodiagnosis or X-ray CT. Thus, the findings of this study highlight the potential of the tree shrew as a valuable new animal model for mammary gland tumor study.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regeneration of esophagus using a scaffold-free biomimetic structure created with bio-three-dimensional printing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1978d5eed0c484b4d71e

Various strategies have been attempted to replace esophageal defects with natural or artificial substitutes using tissue engineering. However, these methods have not yet reached clinical application because of the high risks related to their immunogenicity or insufficient biocompatibility. In this study, we developed a scaffold-free structure with a mixture of cell types using bio-three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and assessed its characteristics in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rats. Normal human dermal fibroblasts, human esophageal smooth muscle cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased and used as a cell source. After the preparation of multicellular spheroids, esophageal-like tube structures were prepared by bio-3D printing. The structures were matured in a bioreactor and transplanted into 10-12-week-old F344 male rats as esophageal grafts under general anesthesia. Mechanical and histochemical assessment of the structures were performed. Among 4 types of structures evaluated, those with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells tended to show greater strength and expansion on mechanical testing and highly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor on immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the structure with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells was selected for transplantation. The scaffold-free structures had sufficient strength for transplantation between the esophagus and stomach using silicon stents. The structures were maintained in vivo for 30 days after transplantation. Smooth muscle cells were maintained, and flat epithelium extended and covered the inner surface of the lumen. Food had also passed through the structure. These results suggested that the esophagus-like scaffold-free tubular structures created using bio-3D printing could hold promise as a substitute for the repair of esophageal defects.

]]>
<![CDATA[The investigation of transcriptional repression mediated by ZEB2 in canine invasive micropapillary carcinoma in mammary gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478cacd5eed0c484bd3d4d

The E-cadherin loss has frequently been associated with transcriptional repression mediated by transcription factors, such as the Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox-2 (ZEB2). Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPCs) of the breast are aggressive neoplasms frequently related to lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival. In the canine mammary gland, IMPCs has just been reported and, based on its behavioral similarity with the human IMPCs, appears to be a good spontaneous model to this human entity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2 in a spontaneous canine model of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland. The correlation among gene expression (ZEB2 and CDH1) and clinicopathological findings was also explored. Nineteen cases of IMPC of the canine mammary gland were obtained, protein and mRNA expression were investigated through immunohistochemistry and RNA In Situ Hybridization, respectively. To better understand the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2, immunofluorescence was performed in canine IMPCs. Immunohistochemically, most of IMPCs showed 1+ (14/19, 73.7%) for E-cadherin; and positivity for ZEB2 was diagnosed in 47.4% of the IMPCs. Regarding the RNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH), most of IMPCs showed 4+ and 0+ for E-cadherin (CDH1) and ZEB2 respectively. Through immunofluorescence, the first and second more frequent combinatorial group were E-cadherin+ZEB2- and E-cadherin+ZEB2+; neoplastic cells showing concomitantly weak expression for E-cadherin and positivity for ZEB2 were frequently observed. A negative correlation was observed between E-cadherin and progesterone receptor expression in IMPCs. Based on these results, canine mammary IMPCs show E-cadherin lost and, at times reveals nuclear positivity for the transcription factor ZEB2 that seems to exert transcriptional repression of the CDH1.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of longitudinal canal tissue in the acorn barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813bed5eed0c484775b26

The morphology and composition of tissue located within parietal shell canals of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite are described. Longitudinal canal tissue nearly spans the length of side shell plates, terminating near the leading edge of the specimen basis in proximity to female reproductive tissue located throughout the peripheral sub-mantle region, i.e. mantle parenchyma. Microscopic examination of stained longitudinal canal sections reveal the presence of cell nuclei as well as an abundance of micron-sized spheroids staining positive for basic residues and lipids. Spheroids with the same staining profile are present extensively in ovarioles, particularly within oocytes which are readily identifiable at various developmental stages. Mass spectrometry analysis of longitudinal canal tissue compared to tissue collected from the mantle parenchyma reveals a nearly 50% overlap of the protein profile with the greatest number of sequence matches to vitellogenin, a glycolipoprotein playing a key role in vitellogenesis–yolk formation in developing oocytes. The morphological similarity and proximity to female reproductive tissue, combined with mass spectrometry of the two tissues, provides compelling evidence that one of several possible functions of longitudinal canal tissue is supporting the female reproductive system of A. amphitrite, thus expanding the understanding of the growth and development of this sessile marine organism.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prion pathogenesis is unaltered in a mouse strain with a permeable blood-brain barrier]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c24009fd5eed0c4840983f7

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by the prion, which consists essentially of PrPSc, an aggregated, conformationally modified form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). Although TSEs can be experimentally transmitted by intracerebral inoculation, most instances of infection in the field occur through extracerebral routes. The epidemics of kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease were caused by dietary exposure to prions, and parenteral administration of prion-contaminated hormones has caused hundreds of iatrogenic TSEs. In all these instances, the development of postexposure prophylaxis relies on understanding of how prions propagate from the site of entry to the brain. While much evidence points to lymphoreticular invasion followed by retrograde transfer through peripheral nerves, prions are present in the blood and may conceivably cross the blood-brain barrier directly. Here we have addressed the role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in prion disease propagation using Pdgfbret/ret mice which possess a highly permeable BBB. We found that Pdgfbret/ret mice have a similar prion disease incubation time as their littermate controls regardless of the route of prion transmission. These surprising results indicate that BBB permeability is irrelevant to the initiation of prion disease, even when prions are administered parenterally.

]]>
<![CDATA[Development of novel NEMO-binding domain mimetics for inhibiting IKK/NF-κB activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28baa0463d7e1564977080

Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor important for regulating innate and adaptive immunity, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence. Dysregulation of NF-κB and its upstream regulator IκB kinase (IKK) contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory and degenerative diseases as well as cancer. An 11–amino acid peptide containing the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)-binding domain (NBD) derived from the C-terminus of β subunit of IKK, functions as a highly selective inhibitor of the IKK complex by disrupting the association of IKKβ and the IKKγ subunit NEMO. A structure-based pharmacophore model was developed to identify NBD mimetics by in silico screening. Two optimized lead NBD mimetics, SR12343 and SR12460, inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activation by blocking the interaction between IKKβ and NEMO and suppressed LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice. Chronic treatment of a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with SR12343 and SR12460 attenuated inflammatory infiltration, necrosis and muscle degeneration, demonstrating that these small-molecule NBD mimetics are potential therapeutics for inflammatory and degenerative diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Metabolic benefits of inhibition of p38α in white adipose tissue in obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b041671463d7e0b28e418ab

p38 has long been known as a central mediator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in brown adipocytes, which positively regulate the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). However, the physiological role of p38 in adipose tissues, especially the white adipose tissue (WAT), is largely unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking p38α in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, ablation of p38α causes minimal effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult mice, as evident from undetectable changes in UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial function, body temperature (BT), and energy expenditure. In contrast, genetic ablation of p38α in adipose tissues not only markedly facilitates the browning in WAT upon cold stress but also prevents diet-induced obesity. Consistently, pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α remarkably enhances the browning of WAT and has metabolic benefits. Furthermore, our data suggest that p38α deficiency promotes white-to-beige adipocyte reprogramming in a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, inhibition of p38α stimulates the UCP-1 transcription through PKA and its downstream cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), which form a positive feedback loop that functions to reinforce the white-to-beige phenotypic switch during cold exposure. Together, our study reveals that inhibition of p38α is able to promote WAT browning and confer metabolic benefits. Our study also indicates that p38α in WAT represents an exciting pharmacological target to combat obesity and metabolic diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e3ab0ee8fa60b6a506

Background

Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics, and compared it to human NCIPH.

Methods

Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one week after last embolization), hemodynamics were investigated, hepatic fibrosis and accumulation of myofibroblasts were analysed. General characteristics, laboratory analyses and liver histology were collected in patients with NCIPH.

Results

Weekly embolization induced a hyperdynamic circulation, with increased PP. The mesenteric flow and hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly higher in weekly embolized compared to single embolized rats (mesenteric flow +54.1%, hydroxyproline +41.7%). Mesenteric blood flow and shunt volumes increased, whereas splanchnic vascular resistance was decreased in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats.

Discussion

This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Proteomic Signatures of Thymomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b7547c

Based on the histological features and outcome, the current WHO classification separates thymomas into A, AB, B1, B2 and B3 subtypes. It is hypothesized that the type A thymomas are derived from the thymic medulla while the type B thymomas are derived from the cortex. Due to occasional histological overlap between the tumor subtypes creating difficulties in their separation, the aim of this study was to provide their proteomic characterization and identify potential immunohistochemical markers aiding in tissue diagnosis. Pair-wise comparison of neoplastic and normal thymus by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue revealed 61 proteins differentially expressed in thymomas compared to normal tissue. Hierarchical clustering showed distinct segregation of subtypes AB, B1 and B2 from that of A and B3. Most notably, desmoyokin, a protein that is encoded by the AHNAK gene, was associated with type A thymomas and medulla of normal thymus, by LC-MS/MS and immunohistochemistry. In this global proteomic characterization of the thymoma, several proteins unique to different thymic compartments and thymoma subtypes were identified. Among differentially expressed proteins, desmoyokin is a marker specific for thymic medulla and is potentially promising immunohistochemical marker in separation of type A and B3 thymomas.

]]>
<![CDATA[SUSD2 promotes tumor-associated macrophage recruitment by increasing levels of MCP-1 in breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf562

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a role in tumor angiogenesis and are recruited into the tumor microenvironment (TME) by secreted chemokines, including Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). Angiogenesis is required to sustain proliferation and enable metastasis of breast cancer (BCa) cells. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of TAM recruitment would allow for the identification of desperately needed novel drug targets. Sushi Domain Containing 2 (SUSD2), a transmembrane protein on BCa cells, was previously shown to promote tumor angiogenesis in a murine model. To identify the role of SUSD2 in angiogenesis, 175 human breast tumors were surveyed by immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of SUSD2 and macrophages. Tumors with high levels of SUSD2 staining contained 2-fold more TAMs, mainly of the M2 pro-angiogenic phenotype. An in vitro co-culture model system was developed by differentiating SC monocytes into SC M0 macrophages. A 2-fold increase in polarized M2 macrophages was observed when M0 macrophages were incubated with SUSD2-expressing BCa cells compared to cancer cells that do not contain SUSD2. Since MCP-1 is known to recruit macrophages, levels of MCP-1 were compared between SUSD2-expressing MDA-MB-231 and MBA-MB-231-vector control cell lines. MCP-1 RNA, intracellular protein and secreted MCP-1 were all significantly increased compared to the vector control. Knockdown of SUSD2 in SKBR3 resulted in significantly decreased levels of secreted MCP-1. Consistently, increased levels of MCP-1 were observed in Susd2-expressing tumors generated from an in vivo isogeneic mouse model compared to the vector control tumors. Because SUSD2 recruits macrophages into the TME and promotes M2 polarization, inhibiting the function of SUSD2 may be an effective therapy for breast cancer patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Evaluation of potential changes in liver and lung tissue of rats in an ischemia-reperfusion injury model (modified pringle maneuver)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5eab0ee8fa60be0acf

In surgical procedures involving the liver, such as transplantation, resection, and trauma, a temporary occlusion of hepatic vessels may be required. This study was designed to analyze the lesions promoted by ischemia and reperfusion injury of the hepatic pedicle, in the liver and lung, using histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques. In total, 39 Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (C n = 3) and ischemia groups subjected to 10, 20, and 30 minutes of hepatic pedicle clamping (I10, n = 12; I20, n = 12; I30, n = 12). Each ischemia group was subdivided into four subgroups of reperfusion (R15, n = 3; R30, n = 3; R60, n = 3; R120, n = 3), after 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of reperfusion, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the liver parenchyma (P < 0.05) between the values of microvesicles and hydropic degeneration at different times of ischemia and reperfusion. However, the values of vascular congestion, necrosis, and pyknotic nuclei showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). In the lung parenchyma, a significant difference was observed (P < 0.05) between the values of alveolar septal wall thickening and inflammatory infiltration at different times of ischemia and reperfusion. However, there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the values of vascular congestion, bronchial epithelial degeneration, interstitial edema, and hemorrhage. The positive immunoreactivity of caspase-3 protein in the liver parenchyma (indication of ongoing apoptosis), showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) at different times of ischemia and reperfusion. In the pulmonary parenchyma, the immunoreactivity was not specific, and was not quantified. This study demonstrated that the longer the duration of ischemia and reperfusion, the greater are the morphological lesions found in the hepatic and pulmonary parenchyma.

]]>
<![CDATA[Nuclear COMMD1 Is Associated with Cisplatin Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2aab0ee8fa60bd1123

Copper metabolism MURR1 domain 1 (COMMD1) protein is a multifunctional protein, and its expression has been correlated with patients’ survival in different types of cancer. In vitro studies revealed that COMMD1 plays a role in sensitizing cancer cell lines to cisplatin, however, the mechanism and its role in platinum sensitivity in cancer has yet to be established. We evaluated the role of COMMD1 in cisplatin sensitivity in A2780 ovarian cancer cells and the relation between COMMD1 expression and response to platinum-based therapy in advanced stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients. We found that elevation of nuclear COMMD1 expression sensitized A2780 ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-mediated cytotoxicity. This was accompanied by a more effective G2/M checkpoint, and decreased protein expression of the DNA repair gene BRCA1, and the apoptosis inhibitor BCL2. Furthermore, COMMD1 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in two tissue micro-arrays (TMAs), representing a historical cohort and a randomized clinical trial-based cohort of advanced stage HGSOC tumor specimens. Expression of COMMD1 was observed in all ovarian cancer samples, however, specifically nuclear expression of COMMD1 was only observed in a subset of ovarian cancers. In our historical cohort, nuclear COMMD1 expression was associated with an improved response to chemotherapy (OR = 0.167; P = 0.038), although this association could not be confirmed in the second cohort, likely due to sample size. Taken together, these results suggest that nuclear expression of COMMD1 sensitize ovarian cancer to cisplatin, possibly by modulating the G2/M checkpoint and through controlling expression of genes involved in DNA repair and apoptosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Structural and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Bone-Tendon Junction of the Calcaneal Tendon of Adult and Elderly Wistar Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da86ab0ee8fa60b9c2aa

Tendons are transition tissues that transfer the contractile forces generated by the muscles to the bones, allowing movement. The region where the tendon attaches to the bone is called bone-tendon junction or enthesis and may be classified as fibrous or fibrocartilaginous. This study aims to analyze the collagen fibers and the cells present in the bone-tendon junction using light microscopy and ultrastructural techniques as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Forty male Wistar rats were used in the experiment, being 20 adult rats at 4 months-old and 20 elderly rats at 20 months-old. The hind limbs of the rats were removed, dissected and prepared to light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The aging process showed changes in the collagen fibrils, with a predominance of type III fibers in the elderly group, in addition to a decrease in the amount of the fibrocartilage cells, fewer and shorter cytoplasmic processes and a decreased synthetic capacity due to degradation of the organelles involved in synthesis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cold Exposure Induces Proliferation of Mature Brown Adipocyte in a ß3-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f9ab0ee8fa60b71432

Hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a fundamental mechanism for adaptation to survive in the cold environment in rodents. To determine which cell types comprising BAT contribute to tissue hyperplasia, immunohistochemical analysis using a proliferative marker Ki67 was performed on the BAT from 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice housed at 23°C (control) or 10°C (cold) for 5 days. Interestingly, in the control group, the cell proliferative marker Ki67 was detected in the nuclei of uncoupling protein 1-positive mature brown adipocytes (7.2% ± 0.4% of brown adipocyte), as well as in the non-adipocyte stromal-vascular (SV) cells (19.6% ± 2.3% of SV cells), which include preadiopocytes. The percentage of Ki67-positive brown adipocytes increased to 25.6% ± 1.8% at Day 1 after cold exposure and was significantly higher than the non-cold acclimated control until Day 5 (21.8% ± 1.7%). On the other hand, the percentage of Ki67-positive SV cells gradually increased by a cold exposure and peaked to 42.1% ± 8.3% at Day 5. Injection of a ß3-adrenergic receptor (ß3-AR) agonist for continuous 5 days increased the number of Ki67-positive brown adipocytes even at Day 1 but not that of SV cells. In addition, the ß3-AR antagonist, but not ß1-AR antagonist, attenuated the cold exposure-induced increase in the number of Ki67-positive brown adipocytes. These results suggest that mature brown adipocytes proliferate immediately after cold exposure in a ß3-AR-mediated pathway. Thus, proliferation of mature brown adipocytes as well as preadipocytes in SV cells may contribute to cold exposure-induced BAT hyperplasia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Inhibition of Pterygium Fibroblast Migration and Outgrowth by Bevacizumab and Cyclosporine A Involves Down-Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases-3 and -13]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2eab0ee8fa60b8385c

We examined the connection between matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression/activity and pterygium fibroblast migration, and how these were affected by bevacizumab and/or cyclosporine A (CsA). Fibroblasts were obtained from 20 pterygia and 6 normal conjunctival specimens. Expression levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were examined after bevacizumab administration. Immunofluorescence staining was used to examine expression of both MMPs in fibroblasts migrating out from explanted pterygium tissues. Rates of cell migration from explant-cultured pterygia tissues and scratch-wounded confluent pterygium fibroblasts were examined in the presence of MMP-3 or MMP-13 inhibitors, as well as bevacizumab and/or CsA. A scratch wound healing migration assay was performed to determine the effects of bevacizumab and/or CsA. Protein expression of both MMPs in pterygium tissues and in cells migrating from organ-cultured pterygium tissues was greater than that observed in normal cells. Inhibition of the activities of both MMPs decreased their expression levels; these were also significantly reduced in bevacizumab-injected pterygium tissues. Bevacizumab significantly reduced the expression of both MMPs and cell migration. Pretreatment with CsA prior to bevacizumab exposure markedly inhibited cell migration and the expression of both MMPs. CsA enhanced the inhibitory effects of bevacizumab on pterygium fibroblast migration in vitro, possibly by inhibiting expression of both MMPs. These findings suggest that combined CsA and bevacizumab treatment may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing the rate of pterygium recurrence.

]]>
<![CDATA[Classification of breast cancer histology images using Convolutional Neural Networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0248

Breast cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death worldwide. The diagnosis of biopsy tissue with hematoxylin and eosin stained images is non-trivial and specialists often disagree on the final diagnosis. Computer-aided Diagnosis systems contribute to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of this process. Conventional classification approaches rely on feature extraction methods designed for a specific problem based on field-knowledge. To overcome the many difficulties of the feature-based approaches, deep learning methods are becoming important alternatives. A method for the classification of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast biopsy images using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) is proposed. Images are classified in four classes, normal tissue, benign lesion, in situ carcinoma and invasive carcinoma, and in two classes, carcinoma and non-carcinoma. The architecture of the network is designed to retrieve information at different scales, including both nuclei and overall tissue organization. This design allows the extension of the proposed system to whole-slide histology images. The features extracted by the CNN are also used for training a Support Vector Machine classifier. Accuracies of 77.8% for four class and 83.3% for carcinoma/non-carcinoma are achieved. The sensitivity of our method for cancer cases is 95.6%.

]]>
<![CDATA[In vivo and ex vivo cetuximab sensitivity assay using three-dimensional primary culture system to stratify KRAS mutant colorectal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf77

In clinic, cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, improves treatment outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC). KRAS-mutant CRC is generally resistant to cetuximab, although difference of the sensitivity among KRAS-mutants has not been studied in detail. We previously developed the cancer tissue-originated spheroid (CTOS) method, a primary culture method for cancer cells. We applied CTOS method to investigate whether ex vivo cetuximab sensitivity assays reflect the difference in sensitivity in the xenografts. Firstly, in vivo cetuximab treatment was performed with xenografts derived from 10 CTOS lines (3 KRAS-wildtype and 7 KRAS mutants). All two CTOS lines which exhibited tumor regression were KRAS-wildtype, meanwhile all KRAS-mutant CTOS lines grew more than the initial size: were resistant to cetuximab according to the clinical evaluation criteria, although the sensitivity was quite diverse. We divided KRAS-mutants into two groups; partially responsive group in which cetuximab had a substantial growth inhibitory effect, and resistant group which exhibited no effect. The ex vivo signaling assay with EGF stimulation revealed that the partially responsive group, but not the resistant group, exhibited suppressed ERK phosphorylation ex vivo. Furthermore, two lines from the partially responsive group, but none of the lines in the resistant group, exhibited a combinatory effect of cetuximab and trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, ex vivo and in vivo. Taken together, the results indicate that ex vivo signaling assay reflects the difference in sensitivity in vivo and stratifies KRAS mutant CTOS lines by sensitivity. Therefore, coupling the in vivo and ex vivo assays with CTOS can be a useful platform for understanding the mechanism of diversity in drug sensitivity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Loss of N-Cadherin Expression in Tumor Transplants Produced From As+3- and Cd+2-Transformed Human Urothelial (UROtsa) Cell Lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da89ab0ee8fa60b9d5ae

Background

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a process in which a cell experiences a loss of epithelial cell characteristics and acquires a more mesenchymal cell phenotype. In cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been proposed to play an important role during specific stages of tumor progression. The role epithelial to mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal to epithelial transition might play in toxicant-induced urothelial cancer is unknown.

Methods

Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-fluorescence were used to determine the expression of E- and N-cadherin in the UROtsa parent, the As+3- and Cd+2-transformed cell lines, the spheroids isolated from these cell lines as well as the tumor heterotransplants that were produced by the injection of the transformed cells into immune compromised mice.

Results

This study showed that N-cadherin expression was increased in 6 As+3- and 7 Cd+2- transformed cell lines generated from human urothelial cells (UROtsa). The expression varied within each cell line, with 10% to 95% of the cells expressing N-cadherin. Tumors produced from these cell lines showed no expression of the N-cadherin protein. Spheroids which are made up of putative cancer initiating cells produced from these cell lines showed only background expression of N-cadherin mRNA, increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 mRNA and produced tumors which did not express N-cadherin. There was no change in the expression of E-cadherin in the tumors, and the tumors formed by all the As+3 and Cd+2-transformed cell lines and cancer initiating cells stained intensely and uniformly for E-cadherin.

Conclusions

The finding that the cells expressing N-cadherin gave rise to tumors with no expression of N-cadherin is in agreement with the classical view of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and N-cadherin are associated with dissemination and not with the ability to establish new tumor growth. Mesenchymal to epithelial transition and E-cadherin are viewed as necessary for a cell to establish a new metastatic site. The lack of N-cadherin expression in tumor transplants is consistent with E-cadherin expressing cells “seeding” a site for tumor growth. The study shows that a minority population of cultured cells can be the initiators of tumor growth.

]]>
<![CDATA[SPARC and the N-propeptide of collagen I influence fibroblast proliferation and collagen assembly in the periodontal ligament]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcb71

The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a fibrous connective tissue that anchors tooth cementum into alveolar bone. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a collagen-binding matricellular protein known to influence collagen fiber assembly in the PDL. In contrast, functional properties of the N-propeptide of collagen I, encoded in exon 2 of the COL1A1 gene, are poorly understood. In this study, the PDL of collagen I exon 2-deleted (wt/ko), SPARC-null (ko/wt), and double transgenic (ko/ko) mice were evaluated in terms of cellularity, collagen area, fiber morphology, and extraction force and compared to WT (wt/wt) mice. Picro sirius red staining indicated a decrease in total PDL collagen content in each of the transgenic mice compared to WT at 1 and 3 month age points. At 12 months, only SPARC-null (ko/wt) and double-null PDL demonstrated less total collagen versus WT. Likewise, an increase in thin PDL collagen fibers was observed at 1 and 3 months in each transgenic, with increases only in SPARC-null and double-null mice at 12 months. The force required for tooth extraction was significantly reduced in SPARC-null versus exon 2-deleted and WT mice, whereas double-null mice demonstrated further decreases in force required for tooth extraction. The number of proliferating fibroblasts and number and size of epithelial rests of Malassez were increased in each transgenic versus WT with double-null PDL exhibiting highest levels of proliferation and rests of Malassez at 1 month of age. Consistent with increases in PDL collagen in exon-2 deleted mice, with age, numbers of rests decreased at 12 months in this genotype. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of the N-propeptide in regulating collagen fiber assembly and cell behavior and suggest that SPARC and the N-propeptide of collagen I have distinct activities in regulating collagen fiber assembly and fibroblast function.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tgm1-like transglutaminases in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf5b9

Among the adaptations of aquatic species during evolution of terrestrial tetrapods was the development of an epidermis preventing desiccation. In present day mammals, keratinocytes of the epidermis, using a membrane-bound transglutaminase (Tgm1), accomplish this function by synthesizing a scaffold of cross-linked protein to which a lipid envelope is attached. This study characterizes the abilities of two homologous transglutaminase isozymes in the teleost fish tilapia to form cross-linked protein structures and their expression in certain tissues. Results indicate they are capable of membrane localization and of generating cellular structures resistant to detergent solubilization. They are both expressed in epithelial cells of the lip, buccal cavity and tips of gill filaments. Adaptation of transglutaminase use in evolution of terrestrial keratinocytes evidently involved refinements in tissue expression, access to suitable substrate proteins and activation of cross-linking during terminal differentiation.

]]>