ResearchPad - hemoglobin https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990–2017: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14688 In the UK, ethnic minority populations, particularly of South Asian and black African/Caribbean descent, have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related adverse outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, than the white population.Timely and appropriate diabetes treatment can substantially reduce risk of adverse outcomes associated with T2DM.We sought to quantify ethnic differences in time to initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment among individuals newly diagnosed with T2DM to assess whether these clinically modifiable factors may contribute to ethnic differences in outcomes.What did the researchers do and find?We used routinely recorded data from general practices across the UK to identify people newly diagnosed with T2DM and compared how long it took to initiate and intensify diabetes treatment, comparing people of white, South Asian, and black ethnicity.We found that South Asian and black groups initiated diabetes treatment more quickly than white groups but were slower to intensify to second- and third-line treatment regimes.What do these findings mean?Although time to initial treatment of type 2 diabetes was appropriate, ethnic disparities in subsequent longer-term treatment may contribute to the worse outcomes seen in ethnic minority populations in the UK.Interventions to improve timely and appropriate intensification of diabetes treatment are key to reducing disparities in the downstream adverse outcomes of T2DM. ]]> <![CDATA[Dialysis timing may be deferred toward very late initiation: An observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14499 The optimal timing to initiate dialysis among patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <5 mL/min/1.73 m2 is unknown. We hypothesized that dialysis initiation time can be deferred in this population even with high uremic burden. A case-crossover study with case (0–30 days before dialysis initiation [DI]) and control (90–120 days before DI) periods was conducted in 1,079 hemodialysis patients aged 18–90 years at China Medical University Hospital between 2006 and 2015. The uremic burden was quantified based on 7 uremic indicators that reached the predefined threshold in case period, namely hemoglobin, serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, potassium, phosphorus, and bicarbonate. Dialysis timing was classified as standard (met 0–2 uremic indicators), late (3–5 indicators), and very late (6–7 indicators). Median eGFR-DI of the 1,079 patients was 3.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 and was 2.7 mL/min/1.73 m2 in patients with very late initiation. The median follow-up duration was 2.42 years. Antibiotics, diuretics, antihypertensive medications, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were more prevalently used during the case period. The fully adjusted hazards ratios of all-cause mortality for the late and very late groups were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.76–1.24) and 0.83 (0.61–1.15) compared with the standard group. It is safe to defer dialysis initiation among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) having an eGFR of <5 mL/min/1.73 m2 even when patients having multiple biochemical uremic burdens. Coordinated efforts in acute infection prevention, optimal fluid management, and prevention of accidental exposure to NSAIDs are crucial to prolong the dialysis-free survival.

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<![CDATA[Collagen methionine sulfoxide and glucuronidine/LW-1 are markers of coronary artery disease in long-term survivors with type 1 diabetes. The Dialong study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13877 Type 1 diabetes is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The underlying mechanism behind the accelerated atherosclerosis formation is not fully understood but may be related to the formation of oxidation products and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). We aimed to examine the associations between the collagen oxidation product methionine sulfoxide; the collagen AGEs methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone (MG-H1), glucosepane, pentosidine, glucuronidine/LW-1; and serum receptors for AGE (RAGE) with measures of coronary artery disease in patients with long-term type 1 diabetes.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, 99 participants with type 1 diabetes of ≥ 45-year duration and 63 controls without diabetes had either established coronary heart disease (CHD) or underwent Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography (CTCA) measuring total, calcified and soft/mixed plaque volume. Skin collagen methionine sulfoxide and AGEs were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum sRAGE/esRAGE by ELISA.ResultsIn the diabetes group, low levels of methionine sulfoxide (adjusted for age, sex and mean HbA1c) were associated with normal coronary arteries, OR 0.48 (95% CI 0.27–0.88). Glucuronidine/LW-1 was associated with established CHD, OR 2.0 (1.16–3.49). MG-H1 and glucuronidine/LW-1 correlated with calcified plaque volume (r = 0.23–0.28, p<0.05), while pentosidine correlated with soft/mixed plaque volume (r = 0.29, p = 0.008), also in the adjusted analysis.ConclusionsLow levels of collagen-bound methionine sulfoxide were associated with normal coronary arteries while glucuronidine/LW-1 was positively associated with established CHD in long-term type 1 diabetes, suggesting a role for metabolic and oxidative stress in the formation of atherosclerosis in diabetes. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between circulating neuregulin4 levels and diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of observational studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9558b610-af50-4464-8a85-11a7817968a6

Introduction

Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) was proven as a brown fat-enriched secreted factor that can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the association between circulating Nrg4 levels and diabetes mellitus (DM) in human remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate association of circulating Nrg4 with DM.

Methods

Observational studies comparing circulating Nrg4 levels in diabetes patients and health controls were included. Circulating Nrg4, correlation coefficients of clinical indices and circulating Nrg4 were pooled by meta-analysis.

Results

Seven studies were included. The pooled results indicated there were no significant difference in the circulating Nrg4 between diabetes patients and controls (SMD = 0.18, 95%CI = -0.06 to 0.42, P = 0.143). However, diabetes patients had higher circulating Nrg4 than their controls in cross-sectional studies (SMD = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.36 to 0.73, P<0.001). None of the renal function and metabolic syndrome markers were correlated with circulating Nrg4, whereas the HbA1c and BMI were positively correlated (rs = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.16, P = 0.005; rs = 0.20, 95%CI = 0.07 to 0.34, P = 0.003; respectively).

Conclusion

Our findings suggested circulating Nrg4 may play a role in in the development of DM in cross-sectional studies and circulating Nrg4 might be associated with imbalance in glucose metabolism and obesity.

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<![CDATA[The role of the erythrocyte in the outcome of pregnancy with preeclampsia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897713d5eed0c4847d23cc

The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of osmotic and mechanical stability of erythrocytes with anthropometric, biochemical, hematologic and hemodynamic variables in pregnant women with preeclampsia (PE). The studied population consisted of 20 normotensive patients and 16 patients with PE. Patients with PE presented worse gestational outcome, greater hematologic impairment, erythrocytes osmotically more stable in vitro, but in conditions of isotonicity with the in vivo medium, in addition to hyperflow in orbital territory, when compared to normotensive patients. The correlation analysis between anthropometric, hematologic and hemodynamic variables in patients with PE indicated that erythrocytes with lower volumes and lower levels of hemoglobin favor the occurrence of a better gestational outcome, because they are more stable and because they are associated with a decrease in the hemodynamic changes present in the disease. This should mean that the tendency to microcytosis, probably due to a mechanism of compensatory mechanical selection, is a desirable characteristic in the disease.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and correlates of anemia among children aged 6-23 months in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c193ad5eed0c484b4d207

Background

Anemia, the world’s most common micro-nutrient deficiency disorder, can affect a person at any time and at all stages of life. Though all members of the community may face the problem, children aged 6–23 months are particularly at higher risk. If left untreated, it adversely affects the health, cognitive development, school achievement, and work performance. However, little was investigated among young children in Sub-Saharan countries including Ethiopia. This research aimed to investigate its magnitude and correlates to address the gap and guide design of evidence based intervention.

Methods

A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May -June 2016 in rural districts of Wolaita Zone. Multi-stage sampling technique was applied and 990 mother-child pairs were selected. Socio-demography, health and nutritional characteristics were collected by administering interview questionnaire to mothers/care-givers. Blood samples were taken to diagnose anemia by using HemoCue device, and the status was determined using cut-offs used for children aged 6–59 months. Hemoglobin concentration below 11.0 g/dl was considered anemic. Data were analyzed with Stata V14. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were applied to identify candidates and predictor variables respectively. Statistical significance was determined at p-value < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval.

Results

The mean hemoglobin level of children was 10.44±1.3g/dl, and 65.7% of them were anemic. Among anemic children, 0.4% were severely anemic (<7.0g/dl), while 28.1% and 37.2% were mildly (10.0–10.9g/dl) and moderately (7.0–9.9g/dl) anemic, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, having maternal age of 35 years and above (AOR = 1.96), being government employee (AOR = 0.29), being merchant (AOR = 0.43) and ‘other’ occupation (AOR = 3.17) were correlated with anemia in children in rural Wolaita. Similarly, receiving anti-helminthic drugs (AOR = 0.39), being female child (AOR = 1.76), consuming poor dietary diversity (AOR = 1.40), and having moderate household food insecurity (AOR = 1.72) were associated with anemia in rural Wolaita.

Conclusion

A large majority of children in the rural Wolaita were anemic and the need for proven public health interventions such as food diversification, provision of anti-helminthic drugs and ensuring household food security is crucial. In addition, educating women on nutrition and diet diversification, as well as engaging them with alternative sources of income might be interventions in the study area.

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<![CDATA[Plasma sphingomyelins increase in pre-diabetic Korean men with abdominal obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823f3d5eed0c4846393cb

Abdominal or visceral obesity is a well-known risk factor for metabolic diseases. However, whether abdominal obesity significantly affects plasma lipid profile during the development of type 2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the differences in plasma lipid concentrations in 63 participants categorized into six groups (middle-aged Korean men); Normal, Pre-diabetes (pre-DM), and Diabetes mellitus (DM) with or without abdominal obesity (AO or lean). The lipidomic profiles were determined by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in plasma were significantly higher in the pre-DM with AO than in pre-DM with lean (p = 0.021). SM concentrations correlated positively with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r = 0.256, p = 0.044), cholesteryl ester (CE) (r = 0.483, p < 0.0001), ceramide (r = 0.489, p < 0.0001) and plasmanyl phosphatidylcholine (PC) (r = 0.446, p < 0.0001). The present study found that pre-diabetic patients with AO were characterized by increased plasma concentrations of SM. Plasma SM levels in individuals with AO may be an early prognostic biomarker to better predict the progression toward type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Hypoglycemia does not affect the progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823c0d5eed0c484638f5b

Introduction

Intensive treatment aimed at achieving optimal metabolic control to prevent the development of chronic diabetic complications is often associated with an increased rate of hypoglycemic events. Hypoglycemia is believed to be responsible for acute fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events likely as a consequence of the activation of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherothrombotic pathways. Hypoglycemia has been reported to influence the development of preclinical atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate whether hypoglycemia influences the function and the morphology of the arteries in subjects with type 2 diabetes without complications and uncontrolled diabetes.

Material and methods

Seventy-six subjects underwent a noninvasive evaluation of carotid wall thickness and brachial artery function at baseline and after one year of treatment with the intent of obtaining optimal glycemic control. At the end of the observation time, subjects were divided in two groups: with hypoglycemia (H-group) or without hypoglycemia (C-group).

Results

Baseline characteristic were comparable between groups. HbA1c significantly decreased in both groups, and fasting plasma glucose was only significant in the H-group. Subjects with hypoglycemia showed a significant reduction of carotid wall thickness after one-year of treatment (H-groups: right baseline 834±141 vs. 1-year 770±132 μ p<0.05; C-group: 757±162 vs. 767±135 μ p = ns). Endothelial function remained unchanged during the study for both groups.

Discussion

The present findings demonstrate that hypoglycemia does not affect endothelial function. Furthermore, subjects who experience more hypoglycemia show significant reduction of carotid wall thickness. Optimal metabolic control should be pursued as soon as possible.

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<![CDATA[Utilization patterns of insulin for patients with type 2 diabetes from national health insurance claims data in South Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89775bd5eed0c4847d2ad6

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease that requires long-term therapy and regular check-ups to prevent complications. In this study, insurance claim data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of Korea were used to investigate insulin use in T2DM patients according to the economic status of patients and their access to primary physicians, operationally defined as the frequently used medical care providers at the time of T2DM diagnosis. A total of 91,810 participants were included from the NHIS claims database for the period between 2002 and 2013. The utilization pattern of insulin was set as the dependent variable and classified as one of the following: non-use of antidiabetic drugs, use of oral antidiabetic drugs only, or use of insulin with or without oral antidiabetic drugs. The main independent variables of interest were level of income and access to a frequently-visited physician. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed. Insulin was used by 9,281 patients during the study period, while use was 2.874 times more frequent in the Medical-aid group than in the highest premium group [hazard ratio (HR): 2.874, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.588–3.192]. Insulin was also used ~50% more often in the patients managed by a frequently-visited physician than in those managed by other healthcare professionals (HR: 1.549, 95% CI: 1.434–1.624). The lag time to starting insulin was shorter when the patients had a low income and no frequently-visited physicians. Patients with a low level of income were more likely to use insulin and to have a shorter lag time from diagnosis to starting insulin. The likelihood of insulin being used was higher when the patients had a frequently-visited physician, particularly if they also had a low level of income. Therefore, the economic statuses of patients should be considered to ensure effective management of T2DM. Utilizing frequently-visited physicians might improve the management of T2DM, particularly for patients with a low income.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of two portable clinical analyzers to one stationary analyzer for the determination of blood gas partial pressures and blood electrolyte concentrations in horses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70675bd5eed0c4847c6ef8

Portable blood gas analyzers are used to facilitate diagnosis and treatment of disorders related to disturbances of acid-base and electrolyte balance in the ambulatory care of equine patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether 2 portable analyzers produce results in agreement with a stationary analyzer. Blood samples from 23 horses hospitalized for various medical reasons were included in this prospective study. Blood gas analysis and electrolyte concentrations measured by the portable analyzers VetStat and epoc were compared to those produced by the cobas b 123 analyzer via concordance analysis, Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Limits of agreement indicated relevant bias between the VetStat and cobas b 123 for partial pressure of oxygen (pO2; 27.5–33.8 mmHg), sodium ([Na+]; 4.3–21.6 mmol/L) and chloride concentration ([Cl-]; 0.3–7.9 mmol/L) and between the epoc and cobas b 123 for pH (0.070–0.022), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2; 3.6–7.3 mmHg), pO2 (36.2–32.7 mmHg) and [Na+] (0.38.1 mmol/L). The VetStat analyzer yielded results that were in agreement with the cobas b 123 analyzer for determination of pH, pCO2, bicarbonate ([HCO3-]) and potassium concentration [K+], while the epoc analyzer achieved acceptable agreement for [HCO3-] and [K+]. The VetStat analyzer may be useful in performing blood gas analysis in equine samples but analysis of [Na+], [Cl-] and pO2 should be interpreted with caution. The epoc delivered reliable results for [HCO3-] and [K+], while results for pH, pCO2, pO2 and [Na+] should be interpreted with caution.

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<![CDATA[The risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe3ad5eed0c484e5b744

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common chronic complication of diabetes, has become an important public health crisis worldwide. Given that DPN is extremely difficult to treat, determining its risk factors and controlling it at an early stage is critical to preventing its serious consequences and the burden of social disease. Current studies suggest that the risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy are the duration of diabetes, age, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), diabetic retinopathy (DR), smoking, and body mass Index (BMI). However, most of the aforementioned studies are cross-sectional, and the sample sizes are very limited, so the strength of causal reasoning is relatively low. The current study systematically evaluated DPN’s influencing factors in patients with type 2 diabetes using evidence-based medicine. Overall, 16 included studies (14 cross-sectional studies and 2 case-control studies including 12,116 cases) that conformed to the present criteria were included in the final analysis. The results suggested that the duration of diabetes (MD 2.5, 95% CI 1.71~3.29), age (MD 4.00, 95% CI 3.05~4.95), HbA1c (MD 0.48, 95% CI 0.33~0.64), and DR (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.74~3.16) are associated with significantly increased risks of DPN among diabetic patients, while BMI, smoking, total triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) did not indicate any risks of increasing DPN. The findings provide a scientific basis for a further understanding of the causes of type 2 diabetes complicated with peripheral neuropathy and the improvement of preventive strategies. The next step is to conduct further high-quality prospective cohort studies to validate this paper’s findings.

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<![CDATA[Technology enabled non-physician health workers extending telemedicine to rural homes to control hypertension and diabetes (TETRA): A pre-post demonstration project in Telangana, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75abfbd5eed0c484d07f6f

Objectives

We aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention anchored on mHealth and task sharing strategy of involving non-physician health workers (NPHW) on population level detection, treatment and control of hypertension and diabetes in India.

Methods

Non-physician health workers (NPHWs) equipped with tablet computers that were linked with point-of-care devices for blood pressure (BP) and blood sugar measurements visited households, screened adult individuals for hypertension and diabetes from two randomly selected villages in the Medchal district, Telangana, India. Further, they digitally connected those individuals with hypertension and diabetes to a study physician via Skype, and handed over a printed e-prescription. Medication adherence checks, BP and fasting blood sugar measurements were done once a month and doctor consultations once in three months during follow-up.

Results

Among 2456 eligible individuals, 1751 and 1686 individuals were screened for hypertension and diabetes, respectively. Prevalence of hypertension was 23·6% (95% CI 21·6%-25·6%) and among them 38.9% were newly detected. Prevalence of diabetes was 11·2% (9·7%-12·7%) and 28.6% of them were newly detected. After 24 months of intervention, control of BP and blood sugar was achieved in 54.0% and 34·1% of individuals with hypertension and diabetes, respectively. Blood pressure control rate improved by 12% (7.9%-16.0%) in known hypertensive individuals over the intervention period.

Interpretation

This research demonstrates the feasibility and local acceptability of a mHealth intervention strategy anchored on NPHWs guided by physicians for detection, treatment and regular follow-up of individuals with hypertension and diabetes in a community setting in India.

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<![CDATA[Frequency-resolved analysis of coherent oscillations of local cerebral blood volume, measured with near-infrared spectroscopy, and systemic arterial pressure in healthy human subjects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75b8d5eed0c4843d006b

We report a study on twenty-two healthy human subjects of the dynamic relationship between cerebral hemoglobin concentration ([HbT]), measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the prefrontal cortex, and systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP), measured with finger plethysmography. [HbT] is a measure of local cerebral blood volume (CBV). We induced hemodynamic oscillations at discrete frequencies in the range 0.04–0.20 Hz with cyclic inflation and deflation of pneumatic cuffs wrapped around the subject’s thighs. We modeled the transfer function of ABP and [HbT] in terms of effective arterial (K(a)) and venous (K(v)) compliances, and a cerebral autoregulation time constant (τ(AR)). The mean values (± standard errors) of these parameters across the twenty-two subjects were K(a) = 0.01 ± 0.01 μM/mmHg, K(v) = 0.09 ± 0.05 μM/mmHg, and τ(AR) = 2.2 ± 1.3 s. Spatially resolved measurements in a subset of eight subjects reveal a spatial variability of these parameters that may exceed the inter-subject variability at a set location. This study sheds some light onto the role that ABP and cerebral blood flow (CBF) play in the dynamics of [HbT] measured with NIRS, and paves the way for new non-invasive optical studies of cerebral blood flow and cerebral autoregulation.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of hemostasis in patients with end-stage renal disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe68d5eed0c484e5b9fa

An increased bleeding risk is reported for patients with end-stage renal disease. This study aims to analyze, whether bleeding risk can be assessed by global tests of hemostasis. Standard laboratory tests and an extended evaluation of hemostasis by rotational thromboelastometry, platelet function analyzer (PFA) and multiple electrode aggregometry as well as thrombin generation assays and measurement of fibrinolytic potential were performed in 20 patients on hemodialysis, 10 patients on peritoneal dialysis, 10 patients with chronic kidney disease stage G5 (CKD5) and in 10 healthy controls (HC). Hemoglobin was significantly lower in patients with end-stage renal disease versus HC (each p<0.01). Patients on peritoneal dialysis showed increased fibrinogen levels compared to HC (p<0.01), which were also reflected by FIBTEM results (each p<0.05). 41% of hemodialysis patients and 44% of CKD5 patients presented with prolonged PFA-ADP-test (p<0.05), while no patient on peritoneal dialysis and no HC offered this modification. Thrombin generating potential was significantly lower in patients on hemodialysis, while clot lysis time revealed a hypofibrinolytic state in patients on hemo- and peritoneal dialysis compared to HC (p<0.001). In conclusion, patients with end-stage renal disease have complex hemostatic changes with both hyper- and hypocoagulable features, which are dependent on use and type of dialysis. Hypercoagulable features include elevated fibrinogen levels and a hypofibrinolytic state, whereas hypocoagulable features include decreased thrombin generating capacity and platelet dysfunction. Our results may contribute to a more rational approach to hemostatic management in these patients.

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<![CDATA[Multiple micronutrient status and predictors of anemia in young children aged 12-23 months living in New Delhi, India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730acd5eed0c484f37e90

Anemia has been identified as a severe public health concern among young children in India, however, information on the prevalence of anemia attributed to micronutrient deficiencies is lacking. We aimed to assess multiple micronutrient status (iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin D, folate and vitamin B12) in young Indian children and to investigate the role of these seven micronutrients and other non-nutritional factors on hemoglobin concentrations and anemia. One-hundred and twenty children aged 12 to 23 months were included in a cross-sectional nutritional assessment survey, of which 77 children provided a blood sample. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total body iron, zinc, selenium, retinol binding protein (RBP), folate, vitamin B12 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured, and adjusted for inflammation using C-reactive protein (CRP) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), where appropriate. Predictors for hemoglobin and anemia were identified in multiple regression models. Most of the children were classified as anemic, of which 86 to 93% was associated with iron deficiency depending on the indicator applied. Deficiencies of folate (37%), and notably vitamin D (74%) were also common; fewer children were classified with deficiencies of vitamin B12 (29%), zinc (25%), and vitamin A (17%) and selenium deficiency was nearly absent. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies were common with over half (57%) deficient in three or more micronutrients, and less than 10% of children were classified with adequate status for all the micronutrients measured. Iron status was found to be the only nutritional factor statistically significantly inversely associated with anemia (P = 0.003) in multivariate analysis after controlling for sex. A coordinated multi-micronutrient program is urgently needed to combat the co-existing micronutrient deficiencies in these young children to improve micronutrient status and reduce the high burden of childhood anemia.

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<![CDATA[Glycated haemoglobin threshold for dysglycaemia screening, and application to metabolic syndrome diagnosis in HIV-infected Africans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2aed5eed0c48441e88c

Background

Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test has been increasingly promoted as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to diagnose dysglycaemia but its performance in HIV-infected Africans has yet to be established. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c for dysglycaemia including FPG-defined and OGTT-defined dysglycaemia, and OGTT-defined diabetes in HIV-infected Africans, and the effect of HbA1c-predicted dysglycaemia on Joint Interim Statement (JIS)-based prevalent metabolic syndrome (MS).

Methods

A cross-sectional study included HIV-positive patients recruited across public healthcare facilities in the Western Cape. The recommended HbA1c cut-points were tested alongside the optimal cut-points obtained from receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, while the agreement between the MS criteria were assessed using kappa statistic.

Results

748 participants (157 men), median age 38 years, 93% on anti-retroviral drugs were included. The optimal HbA1c cut-points of 5.75% (39.3 mmol/mol) showed 54% sensitivity, 84% specificity for FPG-defined dysglycaemia, and 52% sensitivity, 85% specificity for OGTT-defined dysglycaemia. The HbA1c value of 5.85% (40.4 mmol/mol) (63% sensitivity, 99% specificity) was optimal for diabetes. The internationally advocated cut-point of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) had 37% sensitivity and 99% specificity for diabetes, while HbA1c ≥5.7% (≥39 mmol/mol) yielded similar performance with the study-specific cut-point for any dysglycaemia. MS prevalence by the JIS criteria (28.2%) increased to 29.7% when using HbA1c ≥5.75% (≥39.3 mmol/mol) and to 32.9% with HbA1c ≥5.7% (≥39 mmol/mol); agreement between the original and modified criteria was generally good.

Conclusions

This study agrees with the internationally recommended HbA1c cut-point for detecting dysglycaemia, but not for diabetes in HIV-infected Africans. In line with previous studies in general African populations, our findings suggest that similar factors interfere with HbA1c values regardless of HIV infection status. Replacing FPG-based with HbA1c-predicted dysglycaemia in the JIS criteria to diagnose MS is feasible in HIV-infected Africans.

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<![CDATA[Mortality risk in adults according to categories of impaired glucose metabolism after 18 years of follow-up in the North of Spain: The Asturias Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e8d5eed0c48441ed1d

People who develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) are known to have a higher mortality risk. We estimated all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality-risks in our patient cohort according to categories of impaired glucose metabolism. This 18-year retrospective analysis included a region-wide, representative sample of a population aged 30–75 years. Age- and sex-stratified hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for 48 participants with diagnosed T2D, 83 with undiagnosed T2D (HbA1c ≥6.5%, fasting glycemia ≥126 mg/dL, or glycemia after 75 g glucose load ≥200 mg/dL); 296 with prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7%-6.4%, fasting glycemia 100–125 mg/dL, or glycemia after 75 g glucose load 140–199 mg/dL), and 607 with normoglycemia. Over 18,612 person-years, 32 individuals with undiagnosed T2D, 30 with diagnosed T2D, 62 with prediabetes, and 80 with normoglycemia died. Total sample crude mortality rate (MR) was 10.96 deaths per 1,000 person-years of follow-up. MR of the diagnosed T2D group was more than 3-times higher and that of newly diagnosed T2D was 2-times higher (34.72 and 21.42, respectively) than total sample MR. Adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 2.02 (95% confidence interval 1.29–3.16) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00–2.28) in the diagnosed T2D group and the newly diagnosed T2D group, respectively. Adjusted HR for cardiovascular mortality in the T2D group was 2.79 (95% CI 1.35–5.75); this risk was greatly increased in women with T2D: 6.72 (95% CI 2.50–18.07). In Asturias, age- and sex-standardized all-cause mortality is more than 2-times higher for adults with T2D than for adults without T2D. The HR for cardiovascular mortality is considerably higher in T2D women than in normoglycemic women.

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<![CDATA[Greater aortic stiffness is associated with renal dysfunction in participants of the ELSA-Brasil cohort with and without hypertension and diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e92bd5eed0c48496f8f4

Background

Arterial stiffness has been associated with renal dysfunction and its progression, but the pathophysiological relation underlying this association has not been fully established, particularly among individuals without hypertension and diabetes. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between arterial stiffness and renal function in adults without cardiovascular disease, and whether this association remained among subjects without hypertension and diabetes.

Methods

All eligible participants from ELSA-Brasil (2008–2010), aged 35 to 74 years (N = 13,586) were included, of whom 7,979 were free from hypertension and diabetes. The response variables were: 1) low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2) estimated by CKD-EPI; 2) increased albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR ≥30mg/g); and 3) chronic kidney disease (CKD). Arterial stiffness was ascertained by the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). The covariates were sex, age, race/color, level of schooling, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol/HDL-c glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and use of antihypertensive drugs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations.

Results

After all adjustments, 1 m/s increase in PWV was associated with ORs equal to 1.10 (95%CI: 1.04–1.16), 1.10 (95%CI: 1.05–1.16) and 1.12 (95%CI: 1.08–1.17) of low eGFR, high ACR, and CKD, respectively. In subjects without hypertension and diabetes, these ORs were 1.19 (95%CI: 1.07–1.33), 1.20 (95%CI: 1.07–1.32) and 1.21 (95%CI: 1.11–1.30), respectively.

Conclusion

The increase in PWV was associated with all renal dysfunction markers, even in individuals without hypertension and diabetes, suggesting a relation that is not completely mediated by the presence of these conditions.

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<![CDATA[Is health related quality of life influenced by diabetic neuropathic pain among type II diabetes mellitus patients in Ethiopia?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8d0d5eed0c48496f1d0

Background

Polyneuropathy is one of the commonest complications of long-standing diabetes. Progressive sensory loss can predispose patients to foot ulcer and the neuropathy oftentimes causes pain. The pain can significantly affect the quality of life of patients.

Objectives

To describes the health-related quality of life of patients with type II diabetes mellitus suffering from painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy at two referral hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2017.

Methods

An institution based cross sectional study with internal comparison was conducted among a sample of 220 type II diabetes mellitus patients in a 1:1 matched ratio of those with and without diabetes associated peripheral neuropathic pain. All were having regular follow up at two hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Short Form (SF-36) health-related quality of life instrument was used to collect data on quality of life while basic socio-demographic and other disease specific features were collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to examine the mean scores of health related quality of life. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were applied to estimate the internal consistency, and the level of agreement between the different domains of SF-36, respectively. To measure association between health related quality of life domains and explanatory variables, independent T-test and ANOVA were performed followed by multiple linear regression analyses.

Results

The health related quality of life of type II diabetes mellitus patients with peripheral neuropathic pain was poorer than those without pain in all the eight domains and the two summary scores by SF-36 (p < 0.001). Higher mean score difference was observed in Mental Component Summary Score (MCS) (14.6) compared to Physical Component Score (PCS) (9.3). Among the eight domains, the largest mean difference was found with the physical one (39.1) followed by mental health (38.2) and physical functioning (30). Pain intensity had a statistically significant negative correlation with all domains as well as the two summary scores. Younger age, a higher level of education, being single, a higher monthly income, normal body mass index, HbA1c less than seven mmo/L, absence of other diabetic complications and taking only oral hypoglycemic agents were found to predict better health related quality of life.

Conclusion

The presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain was found to negatively influence the health-related quality of life of type II diabetic patients; the greatest impact being on the ‘role physical’ and ‘mental health’ domains. Older age, presence of diabetes related complications, longer duration of illness negatively influenced the health-related quality of life.

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<![CDATA[Decreased total iron binding capacity upon intensive care unit admission predicts red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521820d5eed0c484797475

Introduction

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with poor clinical outcome in critically ill patients. We investigated the predictive value of biomarkers on intensive care units (ICU) admission for RBC transfusion within 28 days.

Methods

Critically ill patients (n = 175) who admitted to our ICU with organ dysfunction and an expected stay of ≥ 48 hours, without hemorrhage, were prospectively studied (derivation cohort, n = 121; validation cohort, n = 54). Serum levels of 12 biomarkers (hemoglobin, creatinine, albumin, interleukin-6 [IL-6], erythropoietin, Fe, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], transferrin, ferritin, transferrin saturation, folate, and vitamin B12) were measured upon ICU admission, days 7, 14, 21 and 28.

Results

Among the 12 biomarkers measured upon ICU admission, levels of hemoglobin, albumin, IL-6, TIBC, transferrin and ferritin were statistically different between transfusion and non-transfusion group. Of 6 biomarkers, TIBC upon ICU admission had the highest area under the curve value (0.835 [95% confidence interval] = 0.765–0.906) for predicting RBC transfusion (cut-off value = 234.5 μg/dL; sensitivity = 0.906, specificity = 0.632). This result was confirmed in validation cohort, whose sensitivity and specificity were 0.888 and 0.694, respectively. Measurement of these biomarkers every seven days revealed that albumin, TIBC and transferrin were statistically different between groups throughout hospitalization until 28 days. In validation cohort, patients in the transfusion group had significantly higher serum hepcidin levels than those in the non-transfusion group (P = 0.004). In addition, joint analysis across derivation and validation cohorts revealed that the serum IL-6 levels were higher in the transfusion group (P = 0.0014).

Conclusion

Decreased TIBC upon ICU admission has high predictive value for RBC transfusion unrelated to hemorrhage within 28 days.

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