ResearchPad - hemorrhagic-stroke https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Investigating predictors of community integration in individuals after stroke in a residential setting: A longitutinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15744 To identify potential predictors of community integration in individuals after stroke using a residential setting-based strategy.MethodA prospective cohort of post-stroke individuals was recruited from the Stroke Unit of the Roberto Santos General Hospital (UAVC-HGRS). All included individuals were aged over 18 years, received a diagnosis of ischemic stroke confirmed by neuroimaging and resided in the city of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Following discharge from the stroke unit, the individuals themselves, or their responsible parties, were contacted by telephone to schedule a home visit no less than three months after discharge. All subjects were examined in their homes, at which time the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was also applied. A robust linear regression model was used to assess community reintegration using CIQ score as the outcome variable.ResultsA total of 124 individuals effectively fulfilled the eligibility criteria: 51.6% were females, the median (IQR) age was 63(53–69) years, 82.3% were non-white, 53.2% were married, the median (IQR) of years of schooling was 6 (4–12) and family income averaged two minimum monthly wages. Investigated individuals presented a median (IQR) NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 7 (4–12). Multivariate linear regression identified the following independent predictors of community integration: age (β = -0.095; 95% CI = -0.165 to -0.025; p = 0.008), diabetes mellitus (β = -2.348; 95% CI = -4.125 to -0.571; p = 0.010), smoking habit (β = -2.951; 95% CI = -5.081 to -0.821; p = 0.007), functional capacity upon hospital discharge (β = 0.168; 95% CI = 0.093 to 0.242; p = <0.001) and stroke severity (β = -0.163; CI = -0.318 to -0.009); p = 0.038).ConclusionsRegardless of length of time since stroke, individuals present restrictions that compromise their reintegration into their respective communities. The demographic, clinical and functional factors identified herein as potential predictors should be considered when conducting regular follow-up, as well as in the rehabilitation of individuals after stroke with the purpose to identify the interventions necessary to optimize their reintegration into the community. ]]> <![CDATA[Stepwise stroke recognition through clinical information, vital signs, and initial labs (CIVIL): Electronic health record-based observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f0adfcb-3c92-4db3-bdce-cd884fd183e7

Background

Stroke recognition systems have been developed to reduce time delays, however, a comprehensive triaging score identifying stroke subtypes is needed to guide appropriate management. We aimed to develop a prehospital scoring system for rapid stroke recognition and identify stroke subtype simultaneously.

Methods and findings

In prospective database of regional emergency and stroke center, Clinical Information, Vital signs, and Initial Labs (CIVIL) of 1,599 patients suspected of acute stroke was analyzed from an automatically-stored electronic health record. Final confirmation was performed with neuroimaging. Using multiple regression analyses, we determined independent predictors of tier 1 (true-stroke or not), tier 2 (hemorrhagic stroke or not), and tier 3 (emergent large vessel occlusion [ELVO] or not). The diagnostic performance of the stepwise CIVIL scoring system was investigated using internal validation. A new scoring system characterized by a stepwise clinical assessment has been developed in three tiers. Tier 1: Seven CIVIL-AS3A2P items (total score from –7 to +6) were deduced for true stroke as Age (≥ 60 years); Stroke risks without Seizure or psychiatric disease, extreme Sugar; “any Asymmetry”, “not Ambulating”; abnormal blood Pressure at a cut-off point ≥ 1 with diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1%, specificity of 56.4%. Tier 2: Four items for hemorrhagic stroke were identified as the CIVIL-MAPS indicating Mental change, Age below 60 years, high blood Pressure, no Stroke risks with cut-point ≥ 2 (sensitivity 47.5%, specificity 85.4%). Tier 3: For ELVO diagnosis: we applied with CIVIL-GFAST items (Gaze, Face, Arm, Speech) with cut-point ≥ 3 (sensitivity 66.5%, specificity 79.8%). The main limitation of this study is its retrospective nature and require a prospective validation of the CIVIL scoring system.

Conclusions

The CIVIL score is a comprehensive and versatile system that recognizes strokes and identifies the stroke subtype simultaneously.

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<![CDATA[Trajectories of fatigue among stroke patients from the acute phase to 18 months post-injury: A latent class analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2795b82-f9e4-46cc-9fc3-23c3f213e7d4

Introduction

Post-stroke fatigue (PSF) is a common symptom affecting 23–75% of stroke survivors. It is associated with increased risk of institutionalization and death, and it is of many patients considered among the worst symptoms to cope with after stroke. Longitudinal studies focusing on trajectories of fatigue may contribute to understanding patients’ experience of fatigue over time and its associated factors, yet only a few have been conducted to date.

Objectives

To explore whether subgroups of stroke survivors with distinct trajectories of fatigue in the first 18 months post stroke could be identified and whether these subgroups differ regarding sociodemographic, medical and/or symptom-related characteristics.

Materials and methods

115 patients with first-ever stroke admitted to Oslo University Hospital or Buskerud Hospital were recruited and data was collected prospectively during the acute phase and at 6, 12 and 18 months post stroke. Data on fatigue (both pre- and post-stroke), sociodemographic, medical and symptom-related characteristics were collected through structured interviews, standardized questionnaires and from the patients’ medical records.

Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify latent classes, i.e., subgroups of patients, based on their Fatigue Severity Scales (FSS) scores at the four time points. Differences in sociodemographic, medical, and symptom-related characteristics between the latent classes were evaluated using univariate and multivariable ordinal regression analyses.

Results and their significance

Using GMM, three latent classes of fatigue trajectories over 18 months were identified, characterized by differing levels of fatigue: low, moderate and high. The mean FSS score for each class remained relatively stable across all four time points. In the univariate analyses, age <75, pre-stroke fatigue, multiple comorbidities, current depression, disturbed sleep and some ADL impairment were associated with higher fatigue trajectories. In the multivariable analyses, pre-stroke fatigue (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.84–13.2), multiple comorbidities (OR 4,52,95% CI 1.85–11.1) and not working (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.36–15,7) were the strongest predictor of higher fatigue trajectories The findings of this study may be helpful for clinicians in identifying patients at risk of developing chronic fatigue after stroke.

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<![CDATA[Rivaroxaban administration after acute ischemic stroke: The RELAXED study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca1cd5eed0c48452a7cf

The efficacy of early anticoagulation in acute stroke with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) remains unclear. We performed a study to evaluate the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (IS) and major bleeding in acute IS patients with NVAF who started rivaroxaban. This observational study evaluated patients with NVAF and acute IS/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the middle cerebral arterial territory who started rivaroxaban within 30 days after the index IS/TIA. The primary endpoints were recurrent IS and major bleeding within 90 days after the index IS/TIA. The relationship between the endpoints and the time to start rivaroxaban was evaluated by correlation analysis using cerebral infarct volume, determined by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images within 48 hours of onset of the index IS/TIA. Of 1309 patients analyzed, recurrent IS occurred in 30 (2.3%) and major bleeding in 11 (0.8%) patients. Among patients with known infarct size (N = 1207), those with small (<4.0 cm3), medium (≥4.0 and <22.5 cm3), and large (≥22.5 cm3) infarcts started rivaroxaban a median of 2.9, 2.9, and 5.8 days, respectively, after the index IS/TIA. Recurrent IS was significantly less frequent when starting rivaroxaban ≤14 days versus ≥15 days after IS (2.0% versus 6.8%, P = 0.0034). Incidences of recurrent IS and major bleeding in whom rivaroxaban was started <3 days (N = 584) after IS were also low: 1.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Initiation of rivaroxaban administration in acute IS or TIA was associated with a low recurrence of IS (2.3%), and a low incidence of major bleeding events (0.8%) for 90 days after the index stroke. For the prevention of recurrent attacks in acute IS patients with NVAF, it is feasible to start the administration of rivaroxaban within 14 days of onset. Rivaroxaban started within 3 days of onset may be a feasible treatment option for patients with a small or medium-sized infarction.

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<![CDATA[The ’bendy' basilar: progressive aneurysm tilting and arterial deformation can be a delayed outcome after coiling of large basilar apex aneurysms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59e1b4d5eed0c484112177

Background

Morphological changes in the basilar artery and the artery-aneurysm relationship following coiling of large basilar apex aneurysms may induce morbidity.

Methods

The basilar artery radius-of-curvature was measured along its center line on volumetrically reconstructed images formatted along the plane of curvature. The aneurysm-tilt-angle was measured between the distal basilar and the vertical long axis of the aneurysm. The measurements were compared between small (<10 mm) and large (≥10 mm) aneurysms on baseline and follow-up studies. The volume (mm3) and mass (g) of the deployed coils was also compared.

Results

Among 94 consecutive aneurysms, 62 (66%) were <10 mm and 32 (34%) were ≥10 mm. The mean aneurysm size and volume was 9 mm (±4) and 507 mm3(±1366) respectively. The median aneurysm follow-up was 24 months (IQR 6–59). There was no difference between the groups based on age, gender, or associated comorbidities. The coil mass was 0.4 g (±0.2) for aneurysms <10 mm and 1.9 g (±1.6) for aneurysms ≥10 mm (P<0.0001). The total coil volume was 32 (±20) mm3 for aneurysms <10 mm and 187 (±172) mm3 for aneurysms ≥10 mm (P<0.0001). Aneurysms ≥10 mm tilted 13.5o (±14.4) compared with 1.1o (±2.8) for aneurysms <10 mm (P<0.0001). The basilar artery became more curved by 1.3 (±9.4) mm for aneurysms ≥10 mm and 0.25 (±2.1) mm for aneurysms <10 mm (P=0.0002). Other than size of the coiled aneurysms no other factors correlated with the geometrical changes.

Conclusion

Large coiled basilar apex aneurysms may be more prone to aneurysm tilting and bending of the basilar artery. Speculative causes include the weight of the coil mass and the biomechanical forces exerted on the coiled aneurysm.

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<![CDATA[Interpretation of CVD risk predictions in clinical practice: Mission impossible?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa55ad5eed0c484ca35c7

Background

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction models are often used to identify individuals at high risk of CVD events. Providing preventive treatment to these individuals may then reduce the CVD burden at population level. However, different prediction models may predict different (sets of) CVD outcomes which may lead to variation in selection of high risk individuals. Here, it is investigated if the use of different prediction models may actually lead to different treatment recommendations in clinical practice.

Method

The exact definition of and the event types included in the predicted outcomes of four widely used CVD risk prediction models (ATP-III, Framingham (FRS), Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) and SCORE) was determined according to ICD-10 codes. The models were applied to a Dutch population cohort (n = 18,137) to predict the 10-year CVD risks. Finally, treatment recommendations, based on predicted risks and the treatment threshold associated with each model, were investigated and compared across models.

Results

Due to the different definitions of predicted outcomes, the predicted risks varied widely, with an average 10-year CVD risk of 1.2% (ATP), 5.2% (FRS), 1.9% (PCE), and 0.7% (SCORE). Given the variation in predicted risks and recommended treatment thresholds, preventive drugs would be prescribed for 0.2%, 14.9%, 4.4%, and 2.0% of all individuals when using ATP, FRS, PCE and SCORE, respectively.

Conclusion

Widely used CVD prediction models vary substantially regarding their outcomes and associated absolute risk estimates. Consequently, absolute predicted 10-year risks from different prediction models cannot be compared directly. Furthermore, treatment decisions often depend on which prediction model is applied and its recommended risk threshold, introducing unwanted practice variation into risk-based preventive strategies for CVD.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy and safety of sonothombolysis versus non-sonothombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa585d5eed0c484ca5549

Recent studies have shown that inconsistent results of safety and efficacy between sonothombolysis vs. non-sonothombolysis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We implemented a meta-analysis to explore the value of sonothrombolysis in AIS treatment. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which had evaluated sonothrombolysis or ultrasound thrombolysis in AIS. One hundred five studies were retrieved and analyzed, among them, 7 RCTs were included in the current meta-analysis. In comparison with the non-sonothombolysis, sonothrombolysis significantly improved complete recanalization (RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.51 to 3.08, P < 0.001), complete or partial recanalization (RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.88, P = 0.002), there is also a tendency to improvement of ≥ 4 points in NIHSS score (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.07, P = 0.057). However, sonothrombolysis and non-sonothrombolysis had insignificant differences in neurological recovery and adverse events. In subgroup analysis, we found that “With t-PA”, “NIHSS > 15”, “Treatment time ≤ 150min”, and “Age ≤ 65 years” are potential favorable factors for efficacy outcomes of sonothombolysis. Sonothrombolysis can significantly increase the rate of recanalization in patients with AIS compared with non-sonothrombolysis, but there is no significant effect on improving neurological functional recovery and avoiding complications.

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<![CDATA[An autopsy report of basilar artery aneurysm flow diversion complicated by postoperative day 3 hemorrhage from vessel rupture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394695d5eed0c484a380b0

A middle-aged patient presented with posterior circulation symptoms attributable to a large eccentric basilar trunk aneurysm. The planned treatment was flow diversion with loose coil packing which was successfully performed using a Pipeline Flex device deployed from the basilar to the left posterior cerebral artery. The complete procedure including live biplane fluoroscopy was digitally recorded. The patient had symptomatic improvement postoperatively and was discharged on day 1. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest on postoperative day 3 secondary to massive intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. An aneurysm rupture was suspected; however, postmortem examination showed an intact aneurysm sac. The hemorrhage was attributed to a small focal rent in the distal basilar artery next to an atheromatous plaque. The Pipeline device was visible through the rent. This is an autopsy report documenting an injury to the parent artery and not the aneurysm as a source of fatal delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage following flow diversion.

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<![CDATA[Conservatively managed patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome are undertreated with indicated medicines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841fcd5eed0c484fcb5e1

Introduction and aims

Patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) are often managed conservatively. Clinical practice guidelines recommend treating these patients with the same pharmacological drugs as those who receive invasive treatment. We analyze the use of new antiplatelet drugs (NADs) and other recommended treatments in people discharged following an NSTE-ACS according to the treatment strategy used, comparing the medium-term prognosis between groups.

Methods

Prospective observational multicenter registry study in 1717 patients discharged from hospital following an ACS; 1143 patients had experienced an NSTE-ACS. We analyzed groups receiving the following treatment: No cardiac catheterization (NO CATH): n = 134; 11.7%; Cardiac catheterization without revascularization (CATH-NO REVASC): n = 256; 22.4%; percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): n = 629; 55.0%; and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): n = 124; 10.8%. We assessed major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, and hemorrhagic complications at one year.

Results

NO CATH was the oldest, had the most comorbidities, and was at the highest risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic events. Few patients who were not revascularized with PCI received NADs (NO CATH: 3.7%; CATH-NO REVASC: 10.6%; PCI: 43.2%; CABG: 3.2%; p<0.001). Non-revascularized patients also received fewer beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and statins (p<0.001). At one year, MACE incidence in NO CATH group was three times that of the other groups (30.1%, p<0.001), and all-cause mortality was also much higher (26.3%, p<0.001). There were no significant differences in hemorrhagic events. Belonging to NO CATH group was an independent predictor for MACE at one year in the multivariate analysis (HR 2.72, 95% CI 1.29–5.73; p = 0.008).

Conclusions

Despite current invasive management of NSTE-ACS, patients not receiving catheterization are at very high risk for under treatment with recommended drugs, including NADs. Their medium-term prognosis is poor, with high mortality. Patients treated with PCI receive better pharmacological management, with high use of NADs.

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<![CDATA[Post-ischemic stroke rehabilitation is associated with a higher risk of fractures in older women: A population-based cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc735

Background

Rehabilitation can improve physical activity after stroke. However, patients may be more prone to falls and fractures because of balance and gait deficits. Few reports have studied the relationship between rehabilitation and subsequent fractures after ischemic stroke.

Objective

To investigate whether post-stroke rehabilitation affects fracture risk.

Methods

We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a newly diagnosed ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012 were included. After propensity score matching, a total of 8,384 patients were enrolled. Half of the patients (4,192) received post-stroke rehabilitation within 1 month; the other half did not receive any post-stroke rehabilitation. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures among patients with and without rehabilitation within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Patients were further stratified by sex and age (20–64 and ≥65 years).

Results

Patients receiving post-stroke rehabilitation had a higher incidence of fracture (6.2 per 100 person-years) than those who did not (4.1 per 100 person-years) after adjustment for sociodemographic and coexisting medical conditions [HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25–1.87, p < 0.001]. The analyses performed after stratifying for sex and age showed that only older women undergoing rehabilitation had a significantly higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.21–2.17, p = 0.001).

Conclusion

Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke is associated with an increased fracture risk in older women.

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<![CDATA[Changes in the living arrangement and risk of stroke in Japan; does it matter who lives in the household? Who among the family matters?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc5a0

Previous studies have suggested associations of family composition with morbidity and mortality; however, the evidence of associations with risk of stroke is limited. We sought to examine the impact of changes in the household composition on risk of stroke and its types in Japanese population. Cox proportional hazard modelling was used to assess the risk of incident stroke and stroke types within a cohort of 77,001 Japanese men and women aged 45–74 years who experienced addition and/or loss of family members [spouse, child(ren), parent(s) and others] to their households over a five years interval (between 1990–1993 and 1995–1998). During 1,043,446 person-years of the follow-up for 35,247 men and 41,758 women, a total of 3,858 cases of incident stroke (1485 hemorrhagic and 2373 ischemic) were documented. When compared with a stable family composition, losing at least one family member was associated with 11–15% increased risk of stroke in women and men; hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.11 (1.01–1.22) and 1.15 (1.05–1.26), respectively. The increased risk was associated with the loss of a spouse, and was evident for ischemic stroke in men and hemorrhagic stroke in women. The addition of any family members to the household was not associated with risk of stroke in men, whereas the addition of a parent (s) to the household was associated with increased risk in women: 1.49 (1.09–2.28). When the loss of a spouse was accompanied by the addition of other family members to the household, the increased risk of stroke disappeared in men: 1.18 (0.85–1.63), but exacerbated in women: 1.58 (1.19–2.10). In conclusion, men who have lost family members, specifically a spouse have higher risk of ischemic stroke, and women who gained family members; specifically a parent (s) had the higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke than those with a stable family composition.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness and usage of a decision support system to improve stroke prevention in general practice: A cluster randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcaa1

Background

Adherence to guidelines pertaining to stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation is poor. Decision support systems have shown promise in increasing guideline adherence.

Aims

To improve guideline adherence with a non-obtrusive clinical decision support system integrated in the workflow. Secondly, we seek to capture reasons for guideline non-adherence.

Design and setting

A cluster randomized controlled trial in Dutch general practices.

Method

A decision support system was developed that implemented properties positively associated with effectiveness: real-time, non-interruptive and based on data from electronic health records. Recommendations were based on the Dutch general practitioners guideline for atrial fibrillation that uses the CHA2DS2-VAsc for stroke risk stratification. Usage data and responses to the recommendations were logged. Effectiveness was measured as adherence to the guideline. We used a chi square to test for group differences and a mixed effects model to correct for clustering and baseline adherence.

Results

Our analyses included 781 patients. Usage of the system was low (5%) and declined over time. In total, 76 notifications received a response: 58% dismissal and 42% acceptance. At the end of the study, both groups had improved, by 8% and 5% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups (Control: 50%, Intervention: 55% P = 0.23). Clustered analysis revealed similar results. Only one usable reasons for non-adherence was captured.

Conclusion

Our study could not demonstrate the effectiveness of a decision support system in general practice, which was likely due to lack of use. Our findings should be used to develop next generation decision support systems that are effective in the challenging setting of general practice.

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<![CDATA[Ferrous Citrate Up-Regulates the NOS2 through Nuclear Translocation of NFκB Induced by Free Radicals Generation in Mouse Cerebral Endothelial Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da68ab0ee8fa60b9259d

Previous studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) of the brain vascular tissue in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) rats is a critical factor for inducing cerebral vasospasm. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we applied ferrous citrate (FC) complexes to the primary cultured mouse cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) to mimic the SAH conditions and to address the issue how SAH-induced NOS2 up-regulation. Using immunocytochemical staining technique, we demonstrated that NOS2 was expressed in the cultured CEC. Treatment of the CEC with FC induced increases of the intracellular level of ROS, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) nuclear translocation as well as NFκB binding onto the NOS promoter, and the levels of NOS2 mRNA and protein. These effects were abolished by pre-treatment of the cell with N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. In the present study, two previously predicted NFκB binding sites were confirmed in the NOS2 promoter within the range of −1529 bp to −1516 bp and −1224 bp to −1210 bp. Interestingly, both NFκB binding sites are involved in the FC-activated NOS2 transcriptional activity; the binding site located at −1529 bp to −1516 bp played a greater role than the other binding site located at −1224 bp to −1210 bp in the mouse CEC. These findings highlight the molecular mechanism underlying FC-induced up-regulation of NOS2 in the mouse CEC.

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<![CDATA[Motor Planning in Chronic Upper-Limb Hemiparesis: Evidence from Movement-Related Potentials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab4ab0ee8fa60bac643

Background

Chronic hemiplegia is a common long-term consequence of stroke, and subsequent motor recovery is often incomplete. Neurophysiological studies have focused on motor execution deficits in relatively high functioning patients. Much less is known about the influence exerted by processes related to motor preparation, particularly in patients with poor motor recovery.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The current study investigates motor preparation using a modified response-priming experiment in a large sample of patients (n = 50) with moderate-to-severe chronic hemiparesis. The behavioural results revealed that hemiparetic patients had an increased response-priming effect compared to controls, but that their response times were markedly slower for both hands. Patients also demonstrated significantly enhanced midline late contingent negative variation (CNV) during paretic hand preparation, despite the absence of overall group differences when compared to controls. Furthermore, increased amplitude of the midline CNV correlated with a greater response-priming effect. We propose that these changes might reflect greater anticipated effort to respond in patients, and consequently that advance cueing of motor responses may be of benefit in these individuals. We further observed significantly reduced CNV amplitudes over the lesioned hemisphere in hemiparetic patients compared to controls during non-paretic hand preparation, preparation of both hands and no hand preparation. Two potential explanations for these CNV reductions are discussed: alterations in anticipatory attention or state changes in motor processing, for example an imbalance in inter-hemispheric inhibition.

Conclusions/Significance

Overall, this study provides evidence that movement preparation could play a crucial role in hemiparetic motor deficits, and that advance motor cueing may be of benefit in future therapeutic interventions. In addition, it demonstrates the importance of monitoring both the non-paretic and paretic hand after stroke and during therapeutic intervention.

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<![CDATA[4D-CTA improves diagnostic certainty and accuracy in the detection of proximal intracranial anterior circulation occlusion in acute ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbcaf

Introduction

In acute ischemic stroke, imaging of the cranio-cervical vessels is essential for intra-arterial treatment selection. Fast, reliable and easy accessible imaging is necessary 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Radiologists in training and non-expert readers often perform initial reviewing. In this pilot study, the potential benefit of adding 4Dimensional-CT Angiography (4D-CTA) to the patient selection protocol for intra-arterial therapy is investigated.

Materials and methods

Twenty-five datasets of prospectively recruited patients, eligible for intra-arterial treatment, were enrolled. Four radiologists-in-training consecutively reviewed CTA, CT-Perfusion and 4D-CTA (post-processed from CTP datasets) and scored: occlusion-presence and diagnostic certainty (scale 1–10). Time-to-diagnosis was registered.

Results

Arterial occlusion was present in 8 patients. Accuracy improved from 88–92% after CTA and CTP assessment to 96–100% after 4D-CTA assessment (P-values >0,05). Mean diagnostic certainty improved from 7,2–8,6 to 8,8–9,3 (P-values all < 0,05). Mean time to diagnosis increased from 3, 5, 5 and 4 minutes after CTA to 9, 14, 12, and 10 minutes after 4D-CTA.

Conclusion

4D-CTA as an additive to regular CTA and CT-Perfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke eligible for intra-arterial treatment shows a tendency to increase diagnostic accuracy and improves diagnostic certainty, when reviewed by radiologist in training, while only mildly prolonging time to diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[No Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcome in Stroke Patients Treated with IV Thrombolysis BMI and IV Thrombolysis Outcome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da84ab0ee8fa60b9babc

Background and Purpose

The impact of excess body weight on prognosis after stroke is controversial. Many studies report higher survival rates in obese patients (“obesity paradox”). Recently, obesity has been linked to worse outcomes after intravenous (IV) thrombolysis, but the number and sample size of these studies were small. Here, we aimed to assess the relationship between body weight and stroke outcome after IV thrombolysis in a large cohort study.

Methods

In a prospective observational multicenter study, we analyzed baseline and outcome data of 896 ischemic stroke patients who underwent IV thrombolysis. Patients were categorized according to body mass index (BMI) as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), obese (30–34.9 kg/m2) or severely obese (>35 kg/m2). Using uni- and multivariate modeling, we assessed the relationship of BMI with favorable outcome (defined as modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) and mortality 3 months after stroke as well as the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhages (sICH). We also measured the incidence of patients that had an early neurological improvement of >40% on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) after 24 hours.

Results

Among 896 patients, 321 were normal weight (35.8%), 22 underweight (2.5%), 378 overweight (42.2%), 123 obese (13.7%) and 52 severely obese (5.8%). Three-month mortality was comparable in obese vs. non-obese patients (8.1% vs. 8.3%) and did not differ significantly among different BMI groups. This was also true for favorable clinical outcome, risk of sICH and early neurological improvement on NIHSS at 24 hours. These results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding factors in the multivariate analyses.

Conclusion

BMI was not related to clinical outcomes in stroke patients treated with IVT. Our data suggest that the current weight-adapted dosage scheme of IV alteplase is appropriate for different body weight groups, and challenge the existence of the obesity paradox after stroke.

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<![CDATA[Resting Heart Rate and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Death: The Kailuan Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2aab0ee8fa60b8220d

Background

Resting heart rate (RHR) predicts both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular death in different populations. However, the results of the association between RHR and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are inconsistent, especially for each subtype of CVDs.

Objective

The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationship between RHR and CVDs including myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke and all-cause death in a general population.

Methods

The Kailuan study is a prospective longitudinal cohort study on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events. Hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regression modeling.

Results

We analyzed 92,562 participants (18–98 years old) in the Kailuan Study. CVDs were developed in 1,903 people during follow-ups. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for major traditional cardiovascular risk factors, HRs of the highest quintile group compared with the lowest quintile group of RHR for all-cause CVDs, MI, any stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and all-cause death were 1.03 (95% CI, 0.98–1.07), 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01–1.20), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06), 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96–1.07), 1.01 (95% CI, 0.92–1.11) and 1.18, (95% CI, 1.13–1.23), respectively.

Conclusions

The elevated RHR was independently associated with the increased risk for MI and all-cause death, but not for all-cause CVDs, any stroke, ischemic stroke, nor hemorrhagic stroke. This indicates that the elevated RHR might be a risk marker for MI and all-cause death in general populations.

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<![CDATA[Economic Evaluation of Apixaban for the Prevention of Stroke in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation in the Netherlands]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f2d5

Background

Stroke prevention is the main goal of treating patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs) present an effective treatment in stroke prevention, however, the risk of bleeding and the requirement for regular coagulation monitoring are limiting their use. Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant associated with significantly lower hazard rates for stroke, major bleedings and treatment discontinuations, compared to VKAs.

Objective

To estimate the cost-effectiveness of apixaban compared to VKAs in non-valvular AF patients in the Netherlands.

Methods

Previously published lifetime Markov model using efficacy data from the ARISTOTLE and the AVERROES trial was modified to reflect the use of oral anticoagulants in the Netherlands. Dutch specific costs, baseline population stroke risk and coagulation monitoring levels were incorporated. Univariate, probabilistic sensitivity and scenario analyses on the impact of different coagulation monitoring levels were performed on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).

Results

Treatment with apixaban compared to VKAs resulted in an ICER of €10,576 per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Those findings correspond with lower number of strokes and bleedings associated with the use of apixaban compared to VKAs. Univariate sensitivity analyses revealed model sensitivity to the absolute stroke risk with apixaban and treatment discontinuations risks with apixaban and VKAs. The probability that apixaban is cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000/QALY was 68%. Results of the scenario analyses on the impact of different coagulation monitoring levels were quite robust.

Conclusions

In patients with non-valvular AF, apixaban is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to VKAs in the Netherlands.

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<![CDATA[Interfacility Helicopter Ambulance Transport of Neurosurgical Patients: Observations, Utilization, and Outcomes from a Quaternary Level Care Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacdab0ee8fa60bb4d81

Background

The clinical benefit of helicopter transport over ground transportation for interfacility transport is unproven. We sought to determine actual practice patterns, utilization, and outcomes of patients undergoing interfacility transport for neurosurgical conditions.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We retrospectively examined all interfacility helicopter transfers to a single trauma center during 2008. We restricted our analysis to those transfers leading either to admission to the neurosurgical service or to formal consultation upon arrival. Major exclusion criteria included transport from the scene, death during transport, and transport to any area of the hospital other than the emergency department. The primary outcome was time interval to invasive intervention. Secondary outcomes were estimated ground transportation times from the referring hospital, admitting disposition, and discharge disposition. Of 526 candidate interfacility helicopter transfers to our emergency department in 2008, we identified 167 meeting study criteria. Seventy-five (45%) of these patients underwent neurosurgical intervention. The median time to neurosurgical intervention ranged from 1.0 to 117.8 hours, varying depending on the diagnosis. For 101 (60%) of the patients, estimated driving time from the referring institution was less than one hour. Four patients (2%) expired in the emergency department, and 34 patients (20%) were admitted to a non-ICU setting. Six patients were discharged home within 24 hours. For those admitted, in-hospital mortality was 28%.

Conclusions/Significance

Many patients undergoing interfacility transfer for neurosurgical evaluation are inappropriately triaged to helicopter transport, as evidenced by actual times to intervention at the accepting institution and estimated ground transportation times from the referring institution. In a time when there is growing interest in health care cost containment, practitioners must exercise discretion in the selection of patients for air ambulance transport—particularly when it may not bear influence on clinical outcome. Neurosurgical evaluation via telemedicine may be one strategy for improving air transport triage.

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<![CDATA[Intracerebral Hemorrhages in Adults with Community Associated Bacterial Meningitis in Adults: Should We Reconsider Anticoagulant Therapy?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad4ab0ee8fa60bb75a3

Objective

To study the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of intracranial hemorrhagic complications in adult patients with community associated bacterial meningitis.

Methods

Nationwide prospective cohort study from all hospitals in the Netherlands, from 1 March 2006, through 31 December 2010.

Results

Of the 860 episodes of bacterial meningitis that were included, 24 were diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhagic complications: 8 upon presentation and 16 during clinical course. Clinical presentation between patients with or without intracranial hemorrhage was similar. Causative bacteria were Streptococcus pneumoniae in 16 patients (67%), Staphylococcus aureus in 5 (21%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monocytogenes both in 1 patient (4%). Occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage was associated with death (63% vs. 15%, P<0.001) and unfavorable outcome (94% vs. 34%, P<0.001). The use of anticoagulants on admission was associated with a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhages (odds ratio 5.84, 95% confidence interval 2.17–15.76).

Conclusion

Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but devastating complication in patients with community-associated bacterial meningitis. Since anticoagulant therapy use is associated with increased risk for intracranial hemorrhage, physicians may consider reversing or temporarily discontinuing anticoagulation in patients with bacterial meningitis.

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