ResearchPad - hip https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Special footwear designed for pregnant women and its effect on kinematic gait parameters during pregnancy and postpartum period]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13821 During pregnancy, an array of changes occurs in women body to enable the growth and development of the future baby and the consequent delivery. These changes are reflected in the range of motion of trunk, pelvis, lower limbs and other body segments, affect the locomotion and some of these changes may persist to the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to describe the changes affecting the gait during pregnancy and to determine the effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait characteristics during pregnancy as previous studies indicate that special orthopaedic insoles and footwear might be useful in prevention of the common musculoskeletal pain and discomfort related to pregnancy. Participants from the control group (n = 18), without any intervention, and the experimental group (n = 23), which was wearing the tested shoes, were measured at their 14, 28 and 37 gestational weeks and 28 weeks postpartum to capture the complete pregnancy-related changes in gait. The gait 3D kinematic data were obtained using Simi Motion System. The differences between the control and experimental group at the first data collection session in most of the analysed variables, as well as relatively high standard deviations of analysed variables indicate large individual differences in the gait pattern. The effect of tested footwear on kinematic gait pattern changes may be explained by its preventive effect against the foot arches falling. In the control group, changes associated previously with the foot arches falling and hindfoot hyperpronation were observed during advanced phases of pregnancy and postpartum, e.g. increase in knee flexion or increase in spinal curvature. For the comprehensive evaluation of the tested footwear on pregnancy gait pattern, future studies combining the kinematic and dynamic plantographic methods are needed.

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<![CDATA[Long-term performance of oxidized zirconium on conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c1f0746-701a-461b-a092-eb6988646d6c Introduction: Polyethylene wear and subsequent osteolysis remain obstacles to the long-term survivorship of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) with radical quenching represents a massive leap forward with dramatically improved wear rates compared to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). In this study we evaluate the wear of UHMWPE and XLPE coupled with oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral heads. Methods: A longitudinal, retrospective analysis was performed identifying consecutive patients who received a 28-mm OxZr-on-polyethylene primary THA from 2003 to 2004 by a single, high-volume arthroplasty surgeon. Patients were divided into two groups: those that received (1) UHMWPE liner and (2) a highly XLPE liner. Patients were included if clinical follow-up was complete to 2014 or later. Radiographic analysis was performed by two blinded observers. Measures included cup position, annual linear wear rate, and presence of osteolysis. Pairwise comparisons, correlations, and inter-rater reliability were calculated. Results: Eighty patients were in the UHMWPE group with an average follow-up of 10 ± 1.23 years and 88 patients in the XLPE group with an average of 10 ± 1.03-year follow-up. Average age (68) was similar between groups (p = 0.288). Observer reliability was excellent for cup abduction (ICC = 0.940), anteversion (ICC = 0.942), and detection of osteolysis (ICC = 0.811). Annual linear wear rates were significantly higher (p = 1 × 10−19) with UHMWPE (0.21 ± 0.12 mm/year) compared to XLPE (0.05 ± 0.03 mm/year). Linear wear rate was significantly correlated to decreasing acetabular abduction (p = 0.035). Osteolysis was noted only in the UHMWPE group, with 17 patients (21.2%) exhibiting acetabular osteolysis and 37 (46.3%) patients exhibiting femoral osteolysis. Conclusions: OxZr coupled with XLPE showed minimal wear and no osteolysis at 10-year follow up. The yearly linear penetration rate is similar to that seen in other studies of XLPE THA. A careful longitudinal follow-up will be required to determine if advanced bearings such as OxZr or ceramic can show improved performance in the second decade of implantation.

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<![CDATA[Factors lead to return to sports and recreational activity after total knee replacement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf57faf32-687a-4573-8dd2-19a0ea7a1cdb Introduction: The number of total knee replacements performed (TKR) is increasing and so are patient expectations and functional demands. The mean age at which orthopedic surgeons may indicate TKR is decreasing, and therefore return to sport (RTS) after TKR is often an important expectation for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the mid-term RTS, recreational activities, satisfaction level, and forgotten joint level after TKR. Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2016, 536 TKR (same implant design, same technique) were performed in our center. The mean age at survey was 69 years with a mean follow-up of 43 months. All patients who did not have a follow-up in the last 6 months were called. Finally, 443 TKR were analyzed. RTS was assessed using the University of California Los Angeles Scale (UCLA), forgotten joint score (FJS), and Satisfaction Score. Results: In this study, 85% of patients had RTS after TKR with a mean UCLA score increasing from 4.48 to 5.92 and a high satisfaction rate. Satisfaction with activity level was 93% (satisfied and very satisfied patients). The RTS is more important for people with a higher preoperative UCLA score and a lower American Society of Anesthesiologist score (ASA). Each point increase in ASA score is associated with reduced probability to RTS by 52%. Discussion: RTS and recreational activity were likely after TKR with a high satisfaction score. Preoperative condition and activity are the two most significant predictive factors for RTS. Level of evidence: Retrospective case series, level IV.

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<![CDATA[Total Hip Arthroplasty in a Low-Income Country]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne17d0837-82ac-4743-b02d-59627172c7a6

Background:

We describe our 10-year experience performing total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients enrolled in the National Joint Registry of the Malawi Orthopaedic Association.

Methods:

Eighty-three THAs were performed in 70 patients (40 male and 30 female) with a mean age of 52 years (range, 18 to 77 years). The cohort included 24 patients (14 male and 10 female; mean age, 52 years [range, 35 to 78 years]) who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive.

Results:

The main indications for surgery were osteonecrosis (n = 41 hips) and osteoarthritis (n = 26 hips). There were no deaths perioperatively and no early complications at 6 weeks. Forty-six patients (59 THAs) were seen at 10 years postoperatively, with a mean Harris hip score (HHS) of 88 (range, 41 to 91) and a mean Oxford Hip Score (OHS) of 46 (range, 25 to 48). Five hips (8% of 59) were revised due to loosening (n = 4) and fracture (n = 1). There were no infections or dislocations. Fourteen patients died, including 4 HIV-positive patients, of unknown causes in the follow-up period, and 10 patients were lost to follow-up. In the group of 24 HIV-positive patients, there were no early complications, and the mean HHS was 88 (range, 76 to 91) at >10 years.

Conclusions:

Our 10-year experience and long-term outcomes after primary THA in a low-income setting show that good results can be achieved within a controlled hospital environment, thereby establishing a benchmark against which other hospitals and registries in similar low-income countries can compare their results.

Level of Evidence:

Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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<![CDATA[Joint-preserving procedures for osteonecrosis of the femoral head]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf10044a5-1589-4d09-978d-292378db52cb

  • Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a poorly understood condition that may lead to progressive destruction of the hip joint. Its incidence is common between the third and fifth decades of life and it is the diagnosis behind 5–18% of annually performed total hip arthroplasties (THAs) in the USA.

  • Regarding the high rate of complications of THA in that age group, authors have agreed on the importance of joint-preservation techniques for this disease but techniques vary to establish a generally accepted algorithmic approach.

  • Surgical head-preserving procedures, core decompression with or without graft, stem cell augmentation, or biologic adjuncts, vascularized bone grafting, and proximal femoral osteotomies have all been published on with heterogeneous results and with limited evidence to date.

  • Consensus states that the prognosis of patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head can be significantly improved with early diagnosis and timely intervention.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:647-658. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180073

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<![CDATA[Posterior versus direct anterior approach in revision hip arthroplasty using Kerboull-type plate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf6f56937-eb44-4da4-a8aa-5c537ee55f36

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate revision with a Kerboull-type plate through the posterior approach (PA) and direct anterior approach (DAA) and compare the clinical outcome.

Subjects and methods: Fifty-four patients (56 hip joints) underwent revision surgery in which acetabular reconstruction was performed concomitantly using the Kerboull-type plate and allogeneic bone. Revision surgery through DAA was performed in 21 hip joints and these were compared with 34 hip joints treated through PA. There was no significant difference in the patient demographics between the DAA and PA.

Results: There was no significant difference between the operative times in the DAA and PA groups (203.2 ± 43.5 and 211.7 ± 41.8 min). There was a significant difference between the intraoperative blood loss in the DAA and PA groups (503.9 ± 223.7 mL and 703.8 ± 329.6 mL, respectively, p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the modified Harris Hip Score in the DAA and the PA groups. The loosening of the acetabular component was observed in four cases (11.8%) in the PA group. In the DAA and PA groups, the 5-year survival rates were 100 and 85.7%, respectively. Recurrent dislocation of the hip was observed in six cases (one case in the DAA group (4.8%) and five cases in the PA group (14.7%)).

Conclusions: It was verified that the difference in the surgical approach of acetabular reconstruction concomitantly using the Kerboull-type plate and allogeneic bone graft influenced the postoperative outcome.

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<![CDATA[Postural control of a musculoskeletal model against multidirectional support surface translations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897754d5eed0c4847d2a0a

The human body is a complex system driven by hundreds of muscles, and its control mechanisms are not sufficiently understood. To understand the mechanisms of human postural control, neural controller models have been proposed by different research groups, including our feed-forward and feedback control model. However, these models have been evaluated under forward and backward perturbations, at most. Because a human body experiences perturbations from many different directions in daily life, neural controller models should be evaluated in response to multidirectional perturbations, including in the forward/backward, lateral, and diagonal directions. The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of an NC model with FF and FB control under multidirectional perturbations. We developed a musculoskeletal model with 70 muscles and 15 degrees of freedom of joints, positioned it in a standing posture by using the neural controller model, and translated its support surface in multiple directions as perturbations. We successfully determined the parameters of the neural controller model required to maintain the stance of the musculoskeletal model for each perturbation direction. The trends in muscle response magnitudes and the magnitude of passive ankle stiffness were consistent with the results of experimental studies. We conclude that the neural controller model can adapt to multidirectional perturbations by generating suitable muscle activations. We anticipate that the neural controller model could be applied to the study of the control mechanisms of patients with torso tilt and diagnosis of the change in control mechanisms from patients’ behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Changes in Proximal Femoral Shape During Fetal Development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c973f65d5eed0c48496cdfd

Background:

Walker and Goldsmith's classic article on fetal hip joint development reported that neck/shaft angle did not change from 12 weeks of gestational age through term while version increased from 0 to 40 degrees. This suggests no change in coronal alignment during development, a conclusion we dispute. By re-examining their data, we found that the true neck/shaft angle (tNSA) decreased by 7.5 degrees as version increased by 40 degrees from 12 weeks of gestational age to term.

Methods:

Four investigators measured both femoral version and neck-shaft angle from photographs published by the authors of femurs at multiple stages of maturation from 12 weeks of gestational age to term. The tNSAs and inclination angles were calculated for each femur illustrated using previously validated formula. Changes in the morphology of the femur over time were analyzed using a Student t test. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were also determined by the Pearson R coefficient.

Results:

As reported by Walker and Goldsmith, apparent neck/shaft angle (aNSA) did not significantly change during maturation, whereas version increased by 40 degrees. However, tNSA decreased by 7.5 degrees during maturation, while the inclination increased by 32 degrees over the same period. This paper demonstrates angular changes in both the coronal and transverse planes with a 4:1 ratio of angular change in the transverse and coronal planes respectively. Interobserver Pearson coefficient R=0.98 and an intraobserver Pearson coefficient R=0.99.

Conclusions:

Although Walker and Goldsmith reported angular changes only in the transverse plane, we conclude that they identified angular changes in both the coronal and transverse planes. Here we show it is mathematically necessary for tNSA to decrease, if aNSA remains constant as version increases.

Clinical Relevance:

A reader who is not well versed in the difference between aNSA and tNSA or version and inclination cannot appreciate what Walker and Goldsmith presented. Surgeons operating on the proximal femur also benefit from understanding these distinctions.

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<![CDATA[Closed Reduction for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Early-term Results From a Prospective, Multicenter Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c973f63d5eed0c48496cdca

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

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<![CDATA[Affordable gait analysis using augmented reality markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1519d5eed0c48467adab

A typical optical based gait analysis laboratory uses expensive stereophotogrammetric motion capture systems. The study aims to propose and validate an affordable gait analysis method using augmented reality (AR) markers with a single action camera. Image processing software calculates the position and orientation of the AR markers. Anatomical landmark calibration is applied on the subject to calibrate each of the anatomical points with respect to their corresponding AR markers. This way, anatomical points are tracked through AR markers using homogeneous coordinate transformations, and the further processing of gait analysis is identical with conventional solutions. The proposed system was validated on nine participants of varying age using a conventional motion capture system on simultaneously measured treadmill gait trials on 2, 3 and 4.5 km/h walking speeds. Coordinates of the virtual anatomical points were compared using the Bland-Altman analysis. Spatial-temporal gait parameters (step length, stride length, walking base, cadence, pelvis range of motion) and angular gait parameters (range of motion of knee, hip and pelvis angles) were compared between measurement systems by RMS error and Bland-Altman analysis. The proposed method shows some differences in the raw coordinates of virtually tracked anatomical landmarks and gait parameters compared to the reference system. RMS errors of spatial parameters were below 23 mm, while the angular range of motion RMS errors varies from 2.55° to 6.73°. Some of these differences (e.g. knee angle range of motion) is comparable to previously reported differences between commercial motion capture systems and gait variability. The proposed method can be a very cheap gait analysis solution, but precision is not guaranteed for every aspect of gait analysis using the currently exemplified implementation of the AR marker tracking approach.

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<![CDATA[Periprosthetic joint infections after total hip replacement: an algorithmic approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bfeb3d5eed0c484b29202

An algorithm for managing periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) after total hip replacement (THR) surgery using a multidisciplinary approach and a clearly defined protocol may improve infection eradication rates. In this article, we present an algorithm for the management of different types of PJIs including the acutely infected cemented and cementless THRs where the components are well-fixed postoperatively and when the infection is secondary to haematogenous spread in previously well-functioning and well-fixed implants. For chronic PJIs where the components are often loose, the standard treatment includes a two-stage revision procedure. However, in a highly selected subset of patients, a single-stage approach has been utilised with high rates of eradicating infections.

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<![CDATA[Hip Joint Torsional Loading Before and After Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c800fcad5eed0c484a965c7

Background:

Surgical management of cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) aims to preserve the native hip and restore joint function, although it is unclear how the capsulotomy, cam deformity, and capsular repair influence joint mechanics to balance functional mobility.

Purpose:

To examine the contributions of the capsule and cam deformity to hip joint mechanics. Using in vitro, cadaveric methods, we examined the individual effects of the surgical capsulotomy, cam resection, and capsular repair on passive range of motion and resistance of applied torque.

Study Design:

Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods:

Twelve cadaveric hips with cam deformities were skeletonized to the capsule and mounted onto a robotic testing platform. The robot positioned each intact hip in multiple testing positions: (1) extension, (2) neutral 0°, (3) flexion 30°, (4) flexion 90°, (5) flexion-adduction and internal rotation (FADIR), and (6) flexion-abduction and external rotation. Then the robot performed applicable internal and external rotations, recording the neutral path of motion until a 5-N·m of torque was reached in each rotational direction. Each hip then underwent a series of surgical stages (T-capsulotomy, cam resection, capsular repair) and was retested to reach 5 N·m of internal and external torque again after each stage. During the capsulotomy and cam resection stages, the initial intact hip’s recorded path of motion was replayed to measure changes in resisted torque.

Results:

Regarding changes in motion, external rotation increased substantially after capsulotomies, but internal rotation only further increased at flexion 90° (change +32%, P = .001, d = 0.58) and FADIR (change +33%, P < .001, d = 0.51) after cam resections. Capsular repair provided marginal restraint for internal rotation but restrained the external rotation compared with the capsulotomy stage. Regarding changes in torque, both internal and external torque resistance decreased after capsulotomy. Compared with the capsulotomy stage, cam resection further reduced internal torque resistance during flexion 90° (change −45%, P < .001, d = 0.98) and FADIR (change −37%, P = .003, d = 1.0), where the cam deformity accounted for 21% of the intact hip’s torsional resistance in flexion 90° and 27% in FADIR.

Conclusion:

Although the capsule played a predominant role in joint constraint, the cam deformity provided 21% to 27% of the intact hip’s resistance to torsional load in flexion and internal rotation. Resecting the cam deformity would remove this loading on the chondrolabral junction.

Clinical Relevance:

These findings are the first to quantify the contribution of the cam deformity to resisting hip joint torsional loads and thus quantify the reduced loading on the chondrolabral complex that can be achieved after cam resection.

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<![CDATA[Predicting ambulatory energy expenditure in lower limb amputees using multi-sensor methods]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca28cd5eed0c48441e5dd

Purpose

To assess the validity of a derived algorithm, combining tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate (HR) data, compared to a research-grade multi-sensor physical activity device, for the estimation of ambulatory physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in individuals with traumatic lower-limb amputation.

Methods

Twenty-eight participants [unilateral (n = 9), bilateral (n = 10) with lower-limb amputations, and non-injured controls (n = 9)] completed eight activities; rest, ambulating at 5 progressive treadmill velocities (0.48, 0.67, 0.89, 1.12, 1.34m.s-1) and 2 gradients (3 and 5%) at 0.89m.s-1. During each task, expired gases were collected for the determination of V˙O2 and subsequent calculation of PAEE. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was worn on the hip of the shortest residual limb and, a HR monitor and an Actiheart (AHR) device were worn on the chest. Multiple linear regressions were employed to derive population-specific PAEE estimated algorithms using Actigraph GT3X+ outputs and HR signals (GT3X+HR). Mean bias±95% Limits of Agreement (LoA) and error statistics were calculated between criterion PAEE (indirect calorimetry) and PAEE predicted using GT3X+HR and AHR.

Results

Both measurement approaches used to predict PAEE were significantly related (P<0.01) with criterion PAEE. GT3X+HR revealed the strongest association, smallest LoA and least error. Predicted PAEE (GT3X+HR; unilateral; r = 0.92, bilateral; r = 0.93, and control; r = 0.91, and AHR; unilateral; r = 0.86, bilateral; r = 0.81, and control; r = 0.67). Mean±SD percent error across all activities were 18±14%, 15±12% and 15±14% for the GT3X+HR and 45±20%, 39±23% and 34±28% in the AHR model, for unilateral, bilateral and control groups, respectively.

Conclusions

Statistically derived algorithms (GT3X+HR) provide a more valid estimate of PAEE in individuals with traumatic lower-limb amputation, compared to a proprietary group calibration algorithm (AHR). Outputs from AHR displayed considerable random error when tested in a laboratory setting in individuals with lower-limb amputation.

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<![CDATA[Which osteoarthritic gait features recover following total knee replacement surgery?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79afe0d5eed0c4841e38ee

Background

Gait analysis can be used to measure variations in joint function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and is useful when observing longitudinal biomechanical changes following Total Knee Replacement (TKR) surgery. The Cardiff Classifier is an objective classification tool applied previously to examine the extent of biomechanical recovery following TKR. In this study, it is further developed to reveal the salient features that contribute to recovery towards healthy function.

Methods

Gait analysis was performed on 30 patients before and after TKR surgery, and 30 healthy controls. Median TKR follow-up time was 13 months. The combined application of principal component analysis (PCA) and the Cardiff Classifier defined 18 biomechanical features that discriminated OA from healthy gait. Statistical analysis tested whether these features were affected by TKR surgery and, if so, whether they recovered to values found for the controls.

Results

The Cardiff Classifier successfully discriminated between OA and healthy gait in all 60 cases. Of the 18 discriminatory features, only six (33%) were significantly affected by surgery, including features in all three planes of the ground reaction force (p<0.001), ankle dorsiflexion moment (p<0.001), hip adduction moment (p = 0.003), and transverse hip angle (p = 0.007). All but two (89%) of these features remained significantly different to those of the control group after surgery.

Conclusions

This approach was able to discriminate gait biomechanics associated with knee OA. The ground reaction force provided the strongest discriminatory features. Despite increased gait velocity and improvements in self-reported pain and function, which would normally be clinical indicators of recovery, the majority of features were not affected by TKR surgery. This TKR cohort retained pre-operative gait patterns; reduced sagittal hip and knee moments, decreased knee flexion, increased hip flexion, and reduced hip adduction. The changes that were associated with surgery were predominantly found at the ankle and hip, rather than at the knee.

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<![CDATA[Validation of the Fitbit Charge 2 compared to the ActiGraph GT3X+ in older adults with knee osteoarthritis in free-living conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52a5d5eed0c4842bcd46

Objective

To evaluate physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) measured by the Fitbit Charge 2 (Fitbit) and a wrist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGW) compared to the hip-worn ActiGraph (AGH).

Design

We recruited a cohort of subjects with knee OA from rheumatology clinics. Subjects wore the AGH for four weeks, AGW for two weeks, and Fitbit for two weeks over a four-week study period. We collected accelerometer counts (ActiGraphs) and steps (ActiGraphs, Fitbit) and calculated time spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous activity. We used triaxial PA intensity count cut-points from the literature for ActiGraph and a stride length-based cadence algorithm to categorize Fitbit PA. We compared Fitbit wear times calculated from a step-based algorithm and a novel algorithm that incorporates steps and heart rate (HR).

Results

We enrolled 15 subjects (67% female, mean age 68 years). Relative to AGH, Fitbit, on average, overestimated steps by 39% and sedentary time by 37% and underestimated MVPA by 5 minutes. Relative to AGH, AGW overestimated steps 116%, underestimated sedentary time by 66%, and captured 281 additional MVPA minutes. The step-based wear time Fitbit algorithm captured 14% less wear time than the HR-based algorithm.

Conclusions

Fitbit overestimates steps and underestimates MVPA in knee OA subjects. Cut-offs validated for AGW should be developed to support the use of AGW for PA assessment. The HR-based Fitbit algorithm captured more wear time than the step-based algorithm. These data provide critical insight for researchers planning to use commercially-available accelerometers in pragmatic studies.

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<![CDATA[Objective measures of rollator user stability and device loading during different walking scenarios]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5283d5eed0c4842bca5f

Walking aids are widely used by older adults, however, alarmingly, their use has been linked to increased falls-risk, yet clinicians have no objective way of assessing user stability. This work aims to demonstrate the application of a novel methodology to investigate how the type of walking task, the amount of body weight supported by the device (i.e., device loading), and task performance strategy affect stability of rollator users. In this context, ten users performed six walking tasks with an instrumented rollator. The combined stability margin “SM” was calculated, which considers user and rollator as a combined system. A Friedman Test was used to investigate the effects of task on SM and a least-squares regression model was applied to investigate the relationship between device loading and SM. In addition, the effects of task performance strategy on SM were explored. As a result, it was found that: the minimum SM for straight line walking was higher than for more complex tasks (p<0.05); an increase in device loading was associated with an increase in SM (p<0.05); stepping up a kerb with at least 1 rollator wheel in ground contact at all times resulted in higher SM than lifting all four wheels simultaneously. Hence, we conclude that training should not be limited to straight line walking but should include various everyday tasks. Within person, SM informs on which tasks need practicing, and which strategy facilitates stability, thereby enabling person-specific guidance/training. The relevance of this work lies in an increase in walking aid users, and the costs arising from fall-related injuries.

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<![CDATA[Postural control in healthy adults: Determinants of trunk sway assessed with a chest-worn accelerometer in 12 quiet standing tasks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521837d5eed0c4847977f3

Many diseases and conditions decrease the ability to control balance. In clinical settings, there is therefore a major interest in the assessment of postural control. Trunk accelerometry is an easy, low-cost method used for balance testing and constitutes an alternative method to the posturography using force platforms. The objective was to assess the responsiveness of accelerometry in a battery of 12 quiet standing tasks. We evaluated the balance of 100 healthy adults with an accelerometer fixed onto the sternum. We used the average amplitude of acceleration as an indirect measure of postural sways. The tasks of increased difficulty were realized with or without vision. The battery of tasks was repeated four times on two different days to assess reliability. We analyzed the extent to which the task difficulty and the absence of vision affected the trunk sway. The influence of individual characteristics (age, height, mass, sex, and physical activity level) was also assessed. The reliability analysis revealed that four repetitions of the battery of tasks are needed to reach a high accuracy level (mean ICC = 0.85). The results showed that task difficulty had a very large effect on trunk sways and that the removal of vision further increased sways. Concerning the effects of individual characteristics, we observed that women tended to oscillate more than men did in tasks of low difficulty. Age and physical activity level also had significant effects, whereas height and mass did not. In conclusion, age, sex, and physical fitness are confounders that should be considered when assessing patients’ balance. A battery of simple postural tasks measured by upper-trunk accelerometry can be a useful method for simple balance evaluation in clinical settings.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic stretching alone can impair slower velocity isokinetic performance of young male handball players for at least 24 hours]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e66ed5eed0c484ef3164

There are many adult studies reporting static stretch (SS)-induced deficits and dynamic stretch (DS) performance improvements shortly after the intervention. However, there is only a single study examining stretch-induced performance changes with youth at 24 hours’ post-stretch. The objective of this study was to examine physiological responses of young trained athletes at 24-hours after experiencing SS or DS protocols. Eight young male, elite handball players (age: 16.1±5.1 years) were tested prior to-, 3-minutes and 24-hours following the three conditions (DS, SS, Control) in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Similar volumes of SS (2 repetitions of 75s for each leg) and DS (5 repetitions of 30s for each leg) involved one stretch each for the quadriceps and hamstrings. Tests included (i) two 4s maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) at 60° of knee flexion with 2-min rest, (ii) two maximal isokinetic contractions each at 60°/sec and 300°/sec with 1-min rest, and (iii) two drop jumps with 30-sec rest. To simulate a full warm-up, dynamic activity including 5 minutes of aerobic cycling (70 rpm; 1 kilopond), 4 submaximal isometric contractions and 4 drop jumps were instituted before the pre-tests and following the interventions. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that 1) both the SS and control conditions exhibited knee extensor 60°.s-1 (SS:-10.3%; p = 0.04, Control: -8.7%; p = 0.07) and 300°.s-1 (SS: -12.9%; p = 0.005, Control: -16.3%; p = 0.02) isokinetic deficits at post-test, 2) DS impaired knee flexor 60°.s-1 isokinetic work and power-related measures at post-test (Work: -10.1%; p = 0.0006; Power: -19.1%; p = 0.08) and at 24-hours’ post-test (Work: 9.9%; p = 0.023; Power: -9.6%; p = 0.01), 3) DS (12.07% and 10.47%) and SS (13.7% and 14.6%) enhanced knee flexor 300°.s-1 isokinetic force and power-related measures compared to control. In conclusion, testing-induced knee extensor isokinetic impairments were counterbalanced by DS, however the hip flexion DS could have produced minor muscle damage for at least 24-hours decreasing knee flexor forces and power at 60°.s-1.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics of trunk and lower limb alignment at maximum reach during the Star Excursion Balance Test in subjects with increased knee valgus during jump landing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6e7d5eed0c484ef425c

Background

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is often injured during sport. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) has been used to evaluate ankle and knee stability of the supporting leg while reaching in eight different directions with the non-stance leg. We hypothesized that the SEBT might be useful in categorising ACL injury risk. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between knee valgus alignment during single leg drop landing (SDL) and alignment of the trunk and lower limb during the SEBT.

Methods

A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure the trunk, hip and knee angles during SDL and the SEBT. Groupings were allocated based on 5 degrees of knee valgus angle during SDL. Independent t-test’s were used to identify differences in the trunk, hip and knee angles between the two groups.

Results

The knee valgus angles in the knee valgus group were greater than those in the control group in five directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05). In addition, the hip internal rotation angle in the knee valgus group was lower than that in the control group during two directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the knee flexion and trunk right rotation angles in the knee valgus group were lower than those in the control group in two directions of the SEBT (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

Decreases in hip internal rotation, knee flexion and trunk rotation to the supporting leg during the SEBT might be considered as risk factors for non-contact ACL injury.

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<![CDATA[Electromyographic comparison of the barbell deadlift using constant versus variable resistance in healthy, trained men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c441d5eed0c4845e83ac

Variable, external resistance is proposed to increasingly augment the muscular stress throughout a dynamic movement. However, it is uncertain how different levels of variable resistance affect the activation in the deadlift. The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis and erector spinae muscles during the barbell deadlift with free weights (FW) alone, with two (FW-2EB), and four elastic bands (FW-4EB) to deload some of the constant external resistance. Fifteen resistance-trained men participated in a cross-over design where resistance loadings were matched using two-repetition maximum loadings in the three different conditions. For the whole movement, both repetitions were analyzed. For the phase-specific analysis, the last repetition was divided into six parts, i.e. the lower, middle and upper phase in both the ascending and descending phase of the movement. The mean deloading contributions from FW-2EB and FW-4EB were 21% and 41%, respectively. In FW-4EB, the erector spinae was activated more in the whole movement (8%, ES = 0.31, p = 0.002) compared to FW-2EB. There was also a tendency towards higher activation in FW-4EB versus FW for the whole movement (5%, ES = 0.18, p = 0.072). There were no significant differences between the conditions in any of the other phases or muscles (p = 0.106–0.926). In summary, a high contribution from variable, external resistance seems to activate the back extensors more than a low contribution.

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