ResearchPad - host-cells https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[<i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium discreet-invasion of the murine gut absorptive epithelium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14650 Bacterial pathogens can use secreted effector molecules to drive entry into host cells. Studies of the intestinal pathogen S.Tm have been central to uncover the mechanistic basis for the entry process. More than two decades of research have resulted in a detailed model for how S.Tm invades gut epithelial cells through effector triggering of large Rho-GTPase-dependent actin ruffles. However, the evidence for this model comes predominantly from studies in cultured cell lines. These experimental systems lack many of the architectural and signaling features of the intact gut epithelium. Our study surprisingly reveals that in the intact mouse gut, S.Tm invades absorptive epithelial cells through a process that does not require the Rho-GTPase-activating effectors and can proceed in the absence of the prototypical ruffling response. Instead, S.Tm exploits another effector, SipA, to sneak in through discreet entry structures close to cell–cell junctions. Our results challenge the current model for S.Tm epithelial cell entry and emphasizes the need of taking a physiological host cell context into account when studying bacterium–host cell interactions.

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<![CDATA[<i>Ehrlichia chaffeensis</i> TRP120-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of tumor suppressor FBW7 increases oncoprotein stability and promotes infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13827 E. chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that replicates in mononuclear phagocytes by secreting effectors that manipulate host cell processes and exploit evolutionarily conserved pathways. This investigation reveals the complex and expanding role of the E. chaffeensis TRP120 moonlighting effector as a ubiquitin (Ub) ligase targeting host nuclear proteins. Herein, we demonstrate that E. chaffeensis TRP120 HECT Ub ligase targets the nuclear tumor suppressor Skp1-cullin-1-FBOX E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase complex substrate recognition subunit, F-BOX and WD domain repeating-containing 7 (FBW7) for degradation. FBW7 is a central regulator of broadly acting host cell oncoproteins involved in cell proliferation and survival. The reduction in FBW7 through TRP120-mediated ubiquitination increases cellular oncoprotein levels and promotes E. chaffeensis infection. This study illuminates novel bacterial effector-host interactions, the importance and interplay of both host and bacterial Ub ligases and the Ub-proteasome system for infection, and mechanisms whereby evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways are hijacked by obligately intracellular pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Pelargonium sidoides radix extract EPs 7630 reduces rhinovirus infection through modulation of viral binding proteins on human bronchial epithelial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df34ed5eed0c484581110

Bronchial epithelial cells are the first target cell for rhinovirus infection. The course of viral infections in patients with acute bronchitis, asthma and COPD can be improved by oral application of Pelargonium sidoides radix extract; however, the mechanism is not well understood. This study investigated the in vitro effect of Pelargonium sidoides radix extract (EPs 7630) on the expression of virus binding cell membrane and host defence supporting proteins on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC). Cells were isolated from patients with severe asthma (n = 6), moderate COPD (n = 6) and non-diseased controls (n = 6). Protein expression was determined by Western-blot and immunofluorescence. Rhinovirus infection was determined by immunofluorescence as well as by polymerase chain reaction. Cell survival was determined by manual cell count after live/death immunofluorescence staining. All parameters were determined over a period of 3 days. The results show that EPs 7630 concentration-dependently and significantly increased hBEC survival after rhinovirus infection. This effect was paralleled by decreased expression of the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), its ligand ICOSL and cell surface calreticulin (C1qR). In contrast, EPs 7630 up-regulated the expression of the host defence supporting proteins β-defensin-1 and SOCS-1, both in rhinovirus infected and un-infected hBEC. The expression of other virus interacting cell membrane proteins such as MyD88, TRL2/4 or ICAM-1 was not altered by EPs 7630. The results indicate that EPs 7630 may reduce rhinovirus infection of human primary BEC by down-regulating cell membrane docking proteins and up-regulating host defence proteins.

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<![CDATA[New insights of the local immune response against both fertile and infertile hydatid cysts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5259d5eed0c4842bc6ca

Background

Cystic echinococcosis is caused by the metacestode of the zoonotic flatworm Echinococcus granulosus. Within the viscera of the intermediate host, the metacestode grows as a unilocular cyst known as hydatid cyst. This cyst is comprised of two layers of parasite origin: germinal and laminated layers, and one of host origin: the adventitial layer, that encapsulates the parasite. This adventitial layer is composed of collagen fibers, epithelioid cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes. To establish itself inside the host, the germinal layer produces the laminated layer, and to continue its life cycle, generates protoscoleces. Some cysts are unable to produce protoscoleces, and are defined as infertile cysts. The molecular mechanisms involved in cyst fertility are not clear, however, the host immune response could play a crucial role.

Methodology/Principal findings

We collected hydatid cysts from both liver and lungs of slaughtered cattle, and histological sections of fertile, infertile and small hydatid cysts were stained with haematoxylin-eosin. A common feature observed in infertile cysts was the disorganization of the laminated layer by the infiltration of host immune cells. These infiltrating cells eventually destroy parts of laminated layer. Immunohistochemical analysis of both parasite and host antigens, identify these cells as cattle macrophages and are present inside the cysts associated to germinal layer.

Conclusions/Significance

This is the first report that indicates to cell from immune system present in adventitial layer of infertile bovine hydatid cysts could disrupt the laminated layer, infiltrating and probably causing the infertility of cyst.

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<![CDATA[Surface molecules of extracellular vesicles secreted by the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica direct their internalisation by host cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f2dd5eed0c484840b72

Helminth parasites secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can be internalised by host immune cells resulting in modulation of host immunity. While the molecular cargo of EVs have been characterised in many parasites, little is known about the surface-exposed molecules that participate in ligand-receptor interactions with the host cell surface to initiate vesicle docking and subsequent internalisation. Using a membrane-impermeable biotin reagent to capture proteins displayed on the outer membrane surface of two EV sub-populations (termed 15k and 120k EVs) released by adult F. hepatica, we describe 380 surface proteins including an array of virulence factors, membrane transport proteins and molecules involved in EV biogenesis/trafficking. Proteomics and immunohistochemical analysis show that the 120k EVs have an endosomal origin and may be released from the parasite via the protonephridial (excretory) system whilst the larger 15k EVs are released from the gastrodermal epithelial cells that line the fluke gut. A parallel lectin microarray strategy was used to profile the topology of major surface oligosaccharides of intact fluorogenically-labelled EVs as they would be displayed to the host. Lectin profiles corresponding to glycoconjugates exposed on the surface of the 15 K and 120K EV sub-populations are practically identical but are distinct from those of the parasite surface tegument, although all are predominated by high mannose sugars. We found that while the F. hepatica EVs were resistant to exo- and endo-glycosidases, the glyco-amidase PNGase F drastically remodelled the surface oligosaccharides and blocked the uptake of EVs by host macrophages. In contrast, pre-treatment with antibodies obtained from infected hosts, or purified antibodies raised against the extracellular domains of specific EV surface proteins (DM9-containing protein, CD63 receptor and myoferlin), significantly enhanced their cellular internalisation. This work highlights the diversity of EV biogenesis and trafficking pathways used by F. hepatica and sheds light on the molecular interaction between parasite EVs and host cells.

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<![CDATA[Utilization of proliferable extracellular amastigotes for transient gene expression, drug sensitivity assay, and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout in Trypanosoma cruzi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c466535d5eed0c484517ffa

Trypanosoma cruzi has three distinct life cycle stages; epimastigote, trypomastigote, and amastigote. Amastigote is the replication stage in host mammalian cells, hence this stage of parasite has clinical significance in drug development research. Presence of extracellular amastigotes (EA) and their infection capability have been known for some decades. Here, we demonstrate that EA can be utilized as an axenic culture to aid in stage-specific study of T. cruzi. Amastigote-like property of axenic amastigote can be sustained in LIT medium at 37°C at least for 1 week, judging from their morphology, amastigote-specific UTR-regulated GFP expression, and stage-specific expression of selected endogenous genes. Inhibitory effect of benznidazole and nifurtimox on axenic amastigotes was comparable to that on intracellular amastigotes. Exogenous nucleic acids can be transfected into EA via conventional electroporation, and selective marker could be utilized for enrichment of transfectants. We also demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout can be performed in EA. Essentiality of the target gene can be evaluated by the growth capability of the knockout EA, either by continuation of axenic culturing or by host infection and following replication as intracellular amastigotes. By taking advantage of the accessibility and sturdiness of EA, we can potentially expand our experimental freedom in studying amastigote stage of T. cruzi.

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<![CDATA[Visualization of translocons in Yersinia type III protein secretion machines during host cell infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb8d5eed0c484d9b471

Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence factors of numerous bacterial pathogens. Upon host cell contact the T3SS machinery—also named injectisome—assembles a pore complex/translocon within host cell membranes that serves as an entry gate for the bacterial effectors. Whether and how translocons are physically connected to injectisome needles, whether their phenotype is related to the level of effector translocation and which target cell factors trigger their formation have remained unclear. We employed the superresolution fluorescence microscopy techniques Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) and Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) as well as immunogold electron microscopy to visualize Y. enterocolitica translocons during infection of different target cell types. Thereby we were able to resolve translocon and needle complex proteins within the same injectisomes and demonstrate that these fully assembled injectisomes are generated in a prevacuole, a PI(4,5)P2 enriched host cell compartment inaccessible to large extracellular proteins like antibodies. Furthermore, the operable translocons were produced by the yersiniae to a much larger degree in macrophages (up to 25% of bacteria) than in HeLa cells (2% of bacteria). However, when the Rho GTPase Rac1 was activated in the HeLa cells, uptake of the yersiniae into the prevacuole, translocon formation and effector translocation were strongly enhanced reaching the same levels as in macrophages. Our findings indicate that operable T3SS translocons can be visualized as part of fully assembled injectisomes with superresolution fluorescence microscopy techniques. By using this technology, we provide novel information about the spatiotemporal organization of T3SS translocons and their regulation by host cell factors.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha and beta subunits and their roles in cytoadherence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813bad5eed0c484775ac6

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens, typically causing great economic losses. Cytoadherence is the critical stage for mycoplasma infection, and the associated proteins are important for mycoplasma pathogenesis. Many glycolytic enzymes are localized on the cell surface and can bind the extracellular matrix of host cells. In this study, the M. gallisepticum pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit (PDHA) and beta subunit (PDHB) were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their enzymatic activities were identified based on 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction. When recombinant PDHA (rPDHA) and recombinant PDHB (rPDHB) were mixed at a 1:1 molar ratio, they exhibited strong enzymatic activity. Alone, rPDHA and rPDHB exhibited no or weak enzymatic activity. Further experiments indicated that both PDHA and PDHB were surface-exposed immunogenic proteins of M. gallisepticum. Bactericidal assays showed that the mouse anti-rPDHA and anti-rPDHB sera killed 48.0% and 75.1% of mycoplasmas respectively. A combination of rPDHA and rPDHB antisera had a mean bactericidal rate of 65.2%, indicating that rPDHA and rPDHB were protective antigens, and combining the two sera did not interfere with bactericidal activity. Indirect immunofluorescence and surface display assays showed that both PDHA and PDHB adhered to DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cells and adherence was significantly inhibited by antisera against PDHA and PDHB. Adherence inhibition of M. gallisepticum to DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cells was 30.2% for mouse anti-rPDHA serum, 45.1% for mouse anti-rPDHB serum and 72.5% for a combination of rPDHA and rPDHB antisera, suggesting that rPDHA and rPDHB antisera may have synergistically interfered with M. gallisepticum cytoadherence. Plasminogen (Plg)-binding assays further demonstrated that both PDHA and PDHB were Plg-binding proteins, which may have contributed to bacterial colonization. Our results clarified the enzymatic activity of M. gallisepticum PDHA and PDHB and demonstrated these compounds as Plg-binding proteins involved in cytoadherence.

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<![CDATA[Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii perforin-like protein 1 membrane interaction and activity during egress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028d2d5eed0c4842482d4

Intracellular pathogens must egress from the host cell to continue their infectious cycle. Apicomplexans are a phylum of intracellular protozoans that have evolved members of the membrane attack complex and perforin (MACPF) family of pore forming proteins to disrupt cellular membranes for traversing cells during tissue migration or egress from a replicative vacuole following intracellular reproduction. Previous work showed that the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii secretes a perforin-like protein (TgPLP1) that contains a C-terminal Domain (CTD) which is necessary for efficient parasite egress. However, the structural basis for CTD membrane binding and egress competency remained unknown. Here, we present evidence that TgPLP1 CTD prefers binding lipids that are abundant in the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Additionally, solving the high-resolution crystal structure of the TgPLP1 APCβ domain within the CTD reveals an unusual double-layered β-prism fold that resembles only one other protein of known structure. Three direct repeat sequences comprise subdomains, with each constituting a wall of the β-prism fold. One subdomain features a protruding hydrophobic loop with an exposed tryptophan at its tip. Spectrophotometric measurements of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence are consistent with insertion of the hydrophobic loop into a target membrane. Using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing we show that parasite strains bearing mutations in the hydrophobic loop, including alanine substitution of the tip tryptophan, are equally deficient in egress as a strain lacking TgPLP1 altogether. Taken together our findings suggest a crucial role for the hydrophobic loop in anchoring TgPLP1 to the membrane to support its cytolytic activity and egress function.

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<![CDATA[Listeria monocytogenes InlP interacts with afadin and facilitates basement membrane crossing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b271463d7e11c3009599

During pregnancy, the placenta protects the fetus against the maternal immune response, as well as bacterial and viral pathogens. Bacterial pathogens that have evolved specific mechanisms of breaching this barrier, such as Listeria monocytogenes, present a unique opportunity for learning how the placenta carries out its protective function. We previously identified the L. monocytogenes protein Internalin P (InlP) as a secreted virulence factor critical for placental infection. Here, we show that InlP, but not the highly similar L. monocytogenes internalin Lmo2027, binds to human afadin (encoded by AF-6), a protein associated with cell-cell junctions. A crystal structure of InlP reveals several unique features, including an extended leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain with a distinctive Ca2+-binding site. Despite afadin’s involvement in the formation of cell-cell junctions, MDCK epithelial cells expressing InlP displayed a decrease in the magnitude of the traction stresses they could exert on deformable substrates, similar to the decrease in traction exhibited by AF-6 knock-out MDCK cells. L. monocytogenes ΔinlP mutants were deficient in their ability to form actin-rich protrusions from the basal face of polarized epithelial monolayers, a necessary step in the crossing of such monolayers (transcytosis). A similar phenotype was observed for bacteria expressing an internal in-frame deletion in inlP (inlP ΔLRR5) that specifically disrupts its interaction with afadin. However, afadin deletion in the host cells did not rescue the transcytosis defect. We conclude that secreted InlP targets cytosolic afadin to specifically promote L. monocytogenes transcytosis across the basal face of epithelial monolayers, which may contribute to the crossing of the basement membrane during placental infection.

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<![CDATA[Illuminating pathogen–host intimacy through optogenetics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5ff78f463d7e28ade495c3

The birth and subsequent evolution of optogenetics has resulted in an unprecedented advancement in our understanding of the brain. Its outstanding success does usher wider applications; however, the tool remains still largely relegated to neuroscience. Here, we introduce selected aspects of optogenetics with potential applications in infection biology that will not only answer long-standing questions about intracellular pathogens (parasites, bacteria, viruses) but also broaden the dimension of current research in entwined models. In this essay, we illustrate how a judicious integration of optogenetics with routine methods can illuminate the host–pathogen interactions in a way that has not been feasible otherwise.

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<![CDATA[Tetherin Can Restrict Cell-Free and Cell-Cell Transmission of HIV from Primary Macrophages to T Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7dcd

Bst-2/Tetherin inhibits the release of HIV by tethering newly formed virus particles to the plasma membrane of infected cells. Although the mechanisms of Tetherin-mediated restriction are increasingly well understood, the biological relevance of this restriction in the natural target cells of HIV is unclear. Moreover, whether Tetherin exerts any restriction on the direct cell-cell spread of HIV across intercellular contacts remains controversial. Here we analyse the restriction endogenous Tetherin imposes on HIV transmission from primary human macrophages, one of the main targets of HIV in vivo. We find that the mRNA and protein levels of Tetherin in macrophages are comparable to those in T cells from the same donors, and are highly upregulated by type I interferons. Improved immunocytochemistry protocols enable us to demonstrate that Tetherin localises to the cell surface, the trans-Golgi network, and the macrophage HIV assembly compartments. Tetherin retains budded virions in the assembly compartments, thereby impeding the release and cell-free spread of HIV, but it is not required for the maintenance of these compartments per se. Notably, using a novel assay to quantify cell-cell spread, we show that Tetherin promotes the transfer of virus clusters from macrophages to T cells and thereby restricts the direct transmission of a dual-tropic HIV-1. Kinetic analyses provide support for the notion that this direct macrophage-T cell spread is mediated, at least in part, by so-called virological synapses. Finally, we demonstrate that the viral Vpu protein efficiently downregulates the cell surface and overall levels of Tetherin, and thereby abrogates this HIV restriction in macrophages. Together, our study shows that Tetherin, one of the most potent HIV restriction factors identified to date, can inhibit virus spread from primary macrophages, regardless of the mode of transmission.

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<![CDATA[Borna Disease Virus Infection Perturbs Energy Metabolites and Amino Acids in Cultured Human Oligodendroglia Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daadab0ee8fa60baa1f5

Background

Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear.

Methodology

Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n = 14) and matched control cells (n = 14). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups.

Findings

Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (α-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate) and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine). Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups.

Conclusion

Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell’s metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation.

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<![CDATA[Evolutionary Reconstructions of the Transferrin Receptor of Caniforms Supports Canine Parvovirus Being a Re-emerged and Not a Novel Pathogen in Dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db02ab0ee8fa60bc6e5d

Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR) for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species) modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

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<![CDATA[Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 mediates internalization of pathogenic spotted fever rickettsiae into host endothelium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafbfe6463d7e7cbd91358f

Rickettsial infections continue to cause serious morbidity and mortality in severe human cases around the world. Host cell adhesion and invasion is an essential requisite for intracellular growth, replication, and subsequent dissemination of pathogenic rickettsiae. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans [HSPGs] facilitate the interactions between fibroblast growth factor(s) and their tyrosine kinase receptors resulting in receptor dimerization/activation and have been implicated in bacterial adhesion to target host cells. In the present study, we have investigated the contributions of fibroblast growth factor receptors [FGFRs] in rickettsial entry into the host cells. Inhibition of HSPGs by heparinase and FGFRs by AZD4547 (a selective small-molecule inhibitor) results in significant reduction in rickettsial internalization into cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (ECs), which represent the primary targets of pathogenic rickettsiae during human infections. Administration of AZD4547 during R. conorii infection in a murine model of endothelial-target spotted fever rickettsiosis also diminishes pulmonary rickettsial burden in comparison to mock-treated controls. Silencing of FGFR1 expression using a small interfering RNA also leads to similar inhibition of R. rickettsii invasion into ECs. Consistent with these findings, R. rickettsii infection of ECs also results in phosphorylation of tyrosine 653/654, suggesting activation of FGFR1. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation [iTRAQ]-based proteomics approach, we further demonstrate association of β-peptide of rickettsial outer membrane protein OmpA with FGFR1. Mechanistically, FGFR1 binds to caveolin-1 and mediates bacterial entry via caveolin-1 dependent endocytosis. Together, these results identify host cell FGFR1 and rickettsial OmpA as another novel receptor-ligand pair contributing to the internalization of pathogenic rickettsiae into host endothelial cells and the potential application of FGFR-inhibitor drugs as adjunct therapeutics against spotted fever rickettsioses.

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<![CDATA[A Real-Time PCR Method to Detect the Population Level of Halovirus SNJ1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1fab0ee8fa60bcedcf

Although viruses of haloarchaea are the predominant predator in hypersaline ecosystem, the culture studies about halovirus-host systems are infancy. The main reason is the tradition methodology (plaque assay) for virus-host interaction depends on culturable and susceptible host. Actually, more than 90% of haloarchaea are unculturable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an approach for detecting the dynamics of virus in hypersaline environment without culture. In this study, we report a convenient method to determine the dynamics of halovirus SNJ1 based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). All findings showed that the qPCR method was specific (single peak in melt curves), accurate (a good linear relationship between the log of the PFU and the Ct values, R2 = 0.99), reproducible (low coefficient of variations, below 1%). Additionally, the physicochemical characteristics of the samples tested did not influence the stability of qPCR. Therefore, the qPCR method has the potential value in quantifying and surveying haloviruses in halophilic ecological system.

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<![CDATA[Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Global Protein Synthesis during HSV Infection Using Bioorthogonal Precursors and Click Chemistry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daadab0ee8fa60baa15b

We used pulse-labeling with the methionine analogue homopropargylglycine (HPG) to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of protein synthesis during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. In vivo incorporation of HPG enables subsequent selective coupling of fluorochrome-capture reagents to newly synthesised proteins. We demonstrate that HPG labeling had no effect on cell viability, on accumulation of test early or late viral proteins, or on overall virus yields. HPG pulse-labeling followed by SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed incorporation into newly synthesised proteins, while parallel processing by in situ cycloaddition revealed new insight into spatiotemporal aspects of protein localisation during infection. A striking feature was the rapid accumulation of newly synthesised proteins not only in a general nuclear pattern but additionally in newly forming sub-compartments represented by small discrete foci. These newly synthesised protein domains (NPDs) were similar in size and morphology to PML domains but were more numerous, and whereas PML domains were progressively disrupted, NPDs were progressively induced and persisted. Immediate-early proteins ICP4 and ICP0 were excluded from NPDs, but using an ICP0 mutant defective in PML disruption, we show a clear spatial relationship between NPDs and PML domains with NPDs frequently forming immediately adjacent and co-joining persisting PML domains. Further analysis of location of the chaperone Hsc70 demonstrated that while NPDs formed early in infection without overt Hsc70 recruitment, later in infection Hsc70 showed pronounced recruitment frequently in a coat-like fashion around NPDs. Moreover, while ICP4 and ICP0 were excluded from NPDs, ICP22 showed selective recruitment. Our data indicate that NPDs represent early recruitment of host and viral de novo translated protein to distinct structural entities which are precursors to the previously described VICE domains involved in protein quality control in the nucleus, and reveal new features from which we propose spatially linked platforms of newly synthesised protein processing after nuclear import.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal Changes of Peripheral Blood DC Subsets and Regulatory T Cells in Chinese Chronic HIV-1-Infected Patients during Antiretroviral Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db12ab0ee8fa60bcc587

It has been emphasized that chronic generalized immune dysfunction is the leading event in the pathogenesis of HIV infection, in which the contribution of dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) should not be underestimated. In current study, we assessed the longitudinal changes of peripheral blood DC subsets and Tregs in chronically asymptomatic treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients during 60 weeks of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and compared with those in healthy controls and long term non-progressors (LTNPs). Blood samples were collected at week 0, 4, 12, 24, 48 and 60 of treatment to measure the counts of DC subsets and Tregs by flow cytometry and IFN-a plasma levels by ELISA. The counts of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) increased during ART, reaching similar levels to healthy controls at week 60 post ART but still lower than those of LTNPs. In HIV-1-infected patients, the mDCs counts were directly correlated with CD4 counts during ART. Changes in mDCs at week 8 were positively correlated with the changes in CD4 counts at week 60 post ART. However, the counts and function of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) remained relatively stable during ART, and similar to those in healthy controls and LTNPs. The percentage of Tregs increased before ART and normalized after ART. Importantly, we found pDCs counts were associated with percentage of Tregs during ART, which may help in understanding of the role of these cells in HIV infection.

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<![CDATA[Herpes Simplex Virus Dances with Amyloid Precursor Protein while Exiting the Cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db01ab0ee8fa60bc68a6

Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for anterograde transport machinery that when proteolyzed produces A-beta, the major component of senile plaques. Here we focus on transport inside epithelial cells of newly synthesized virus during its transit to the cell surface. We hypothesize that HSV1 recruits cellular APP during transport. We explore this with quantitative immuno-fluorescence, immuno-gold electron-microscopy and live cell confocal imaging. After synchronous infection most nascent VP26-GFP-labeled viral particles in the cytoplasm co-localize with APP (72.8+/−6.7%) and travel together with APP inside living cells (81.1+/−28.9%). This interaction has functional consequences: HSV1 infection decreases the average velocity of APP particles (from 1.1+/−0.2 to 0.3+/−0.1 µm/s) and results in APP mal-distribution in infected cells, while interplay with APP-particles increases the frequency (from 10% to 81% motile) and velocity (from 0.3+/−0.1 to 0.4+/−0.1 µm/s) of VP26-GFP transport. In cells infected with HSV1 lacking the viral Fc receptor, gE, an envelope glycoprotein also involved in viral axonal transport, APP-capsid interactions are preserved while the distribution and dynamics of dual-label particles differ from wild-type by both immuno-fluorescence and live imaging. Knock-down of APP with siRNA eliminates APP staining, confirming specificity. Our results indicate that most intracellular HSV1 particles undergo frequent dynamic interplay with APP in a manner that facilitates viral transport and interferes with normal APP transport and distribution. Such dynamic interactions between APP and HSV1 suggest a mechanistic basis for the observed clinical relationship between HSV1 seropositivity and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

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<![CDATA[Interaction of the Trans-Frame Potyvirus Protein P3N-PIPO with Host Protein PCaP1 Facilitates Potyvirus Movement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3eab0ee8fa60bd5e9e

A small open reading frame (ORF), pipo, overlaps with the P3 coding region of the potyviral polyprotein ORF. Previous evidence suggested a requirement for pipo for efficient viral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide immunoblotting evidence that the protein PIPO is expressed as a trans-frame protein consisting of the amino-terminal half of P3 fused to PIPO (P3N-PIPO). P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) fused to GFP facilitates its own cell-to-cell movement. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we found that P3N-PIPO interacts with host protein PCaP1, a cation-binding protein that attaches to the plasma membrane via myristoylation. BiFC revealed that it is the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO that binds PCaP1 and that myristoylation of PCaP1 is unnecessary for interaction with P3N-PIPO. In PCaP1 knockout mutants (pcap1) of Arabidopsis, accumulation of TuMV harboring a GFP gene (TuMV-GFP) was drastically reduced relative to the virus level in wild-type plants, only small localized spots of GFP were visible, and the plants showed few symptoms. In contrast, TuMV-GFP infection in wild-type Arabidopsis yielded large green fluorescent patches, and caused severe stunting. However, viral RNA accumulated to high level in protoplasts from pcap1 plants indicating that PCaP1 is not required for TuMV RNA synthesis. In contrast to TuMV, the tobamovirus Oilseed rape mosaic virus did not require PCaP1 to infect Arabidopsis plants. We conclude that potyviral P3N-PIPO interacts specifically with the host plasma membrane protein PCaP1 to participate in cell-to-cell movement. We speculate that PCaP1 links a complex of viral proteins and genomic RNA to the plasma membrane by binding P3N-PIPO, enabling localization to the plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement. The PCaP1 knockout may contribute to a new strategy for recessive resistance to potyviruses.

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