ResearchPad - hot-topic https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[An Update on Current Therapeutic Drugs Treating COVID-19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10368 The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presented unprecedented challenges to the healthcare systems in almost every country around the world. Currently, there are no proven effective vaccines or therapeutic agents against the virus. Current clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support. Evolving research and clinical data regarding the virologic SARS-CoV-2 suggest a potential list of repurposed drugs with appropriate pharmacological effects and therapeutic efficacies in treating COVID-19 patients. In this review, we will update and summarize the most common and plausible drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others. We hope that this review will provide useful and most updated therapeutic drugs to prevent, control, and treat COVID-19 patients until the approval of vaccines and specific drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2.

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<![CDATA[Report of five nurses infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during patient care: case series]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7883 The high prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has received much attention all over the world. Nurses are in the first line of defence against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and are placed in a high-risk situation. This study aimed to report on infection with SARS-CoV-2 during patient care among nures in the Mostafa Khomini Hospital, Ilam, Iran. In this hospital 125 nurses were enrolled in the COVID-19 centre. Five out of 125 nurses (4%) who enrolled in the COVID-19 infection centre, developed COVID-19. They were first positive by real-time PCR but the CT scan was positive for only one of them. None of the infected nurses were hospitalized and all of them preferred to quarantine at home and receive the necessary care and treatment (oseltamivir, azithromycin and lopinavir/ritonavir). This study showed that, regardless of self caring, the nurses were exposed to the virus, because at the start of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Iran, there was no special protection against this infection, so the nurses were placed at risk. This study also reported that receiving the necessary care and treatment at home was a good experience for nurses and can be used in some cases.

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<![CDATA[A Precision Medicine Approach to SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N19b43e9e-c7f1-42bf-a7e5-e3bca88f901b Precision medicine (PM) represents a new paradigm in disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. To apply PM premises in an emerging coronavirus pandemic acquires potentially greater relevance in order to allow the selection of specific preventive measures as well as biomarkers that will be useful in disease management.Recent findingsThe identification of the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as the responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had led to a plethora of strategies to contain viral dissemination, affecting life styles and personal behaviors. Viral genomic sequencing has shown that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) found on ciliated epithelial cells of the human lungs as its specific receptor. Neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein were detected in patients recovered from COVID-19; however, both T cells and NK cells were reduced in severe cases. Excessive and uncontrolled releases of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1B, IL-1RA, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were increased in severe patients. These cytokines might be useful biomarkers of disease worsening and potential targets for new biological therapies currently under investigation.SummaryPresent knowledge and recent developments in PM approach to COVID-19 disease prevention, evaluation, and management are pointed out. Better understanding of pathogenic pathways together with an accurate phenotype classification of patients presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptoms might contribute to a more accurate definition of biomarkers and other diagnostic tools, which may lead to more precise mitigation strategies, personalized pharmacologic options, as well as new biological therapy developments. ]]> <![CDATA[COVID-19 and Cancer: a Comprehensive Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nec64aa25-7d57-476f-8c2a-da4162d6b50a The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged to be the biggest global health threat worldwide, which has now infected over 1.7 million people and claimed more than 100,000 lives around the world. Under these unprecedented circumstances, there are no well-established guidelines for cancer patients.Recent FindingsThe risk for serious disease and death in COVID-19 cases increases with advancing age and presence of comorbid health conditions. Since the emergence of the first case in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, tremendous research efforts have been underway to understand the mechanisms of infectivity and transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a fatal virus responsible for abysmal survival outcomes. To minimize the mortality rate, it becomes prudent to identify symptoms promptly and employ treatments appropriately. Even though no cure has been established, multiple clinical trials are underway to determine the most optimal strategy. Managing cancer patients under these circumstances is rather challenging, given their vulnerable status and the aggressive nature of their underlying disease.SummaryIn this comprehensive review, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on health and the immune system of those affected, reviewing the latest treatment approaches and ongoing clinical trials. Additionally, we discuss challenges faced while treating cancer patients and propose potential approaches to manage this vulnerable population during this pandemic. ]]> <![CDATA[Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with COVID-19: Consequences of Viral Toxicities and Host Immune Response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3bf0e235-89ba-4475-a0c3-88e920c98af8

Purpose of Review

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. While cardiac injury has been demonstrated in critically ill COVID-19 patients, the mechanism of injury remains unclear. Here, we review our current knowledge of the biology of SARS-CoV-2 and the potential mechanisms of myocardial injury due to viral toxicities and host immune responses.

Recent Findings

A number of studies have reported an epidemiological association between history of cardiac disease and worsened outcome during COVID infection. Development of new onset myocardial injury during COVID-19 also increases mortality. While limited data exist, potential mechanisms of cardiac injury include direct viral entry through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and toxicity in host cells, hypoxia-related myocyte injury, and immune-mediated cytokine release syndrome. Potential treatments for reducing viral infection and excessive immune responses are also discussed.

Summary

COVID patients with cardiac disease history or acquire new cardiac injury are at an increased risk for in-hospital morbidity and mortality. More studies are needed to address the mechanism of cardiotoxicity and the treatments that can minimize permanent damage to the cardiovascular system.

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<![CDATA[Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 Infection Taking ACEI/ARB]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N77b05e32-944f-4d8e-a6cb-f885dc68f9cf

Purpose of Review

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the aggressive coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Recently, investigators have stipulated that COVID-19 patients receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) may be subject to poorer outcomes. This editorial presents the available evidence to guide treatment practices during this pandemic.

Recent Findings

Recent studies from Wuhan cohorts provide valuable information about COVID-19. A cohort with 52 critically ill patients revealed cardiac injury in 12% of patients. Worse outcomes appear to be more prevalent in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM), possibly due to overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in airway alveolar epithelial cells. Investigators suspect that SARS-CoV-2 uses the ACE2 receptor to enter the lungs in a mechanism similar to SARS-CoV. Several hypotheses have been proposed to date regarding the net effect of ACEI/ARB on COVID-19 infections. Positive effects include ACE2 receptor blockade, disabling viral entry into the heart and lungs, and an overall decrease in inflammation secondary to ACEI/ARB. Negative effects include a possible retrograde feedback mechanism, by which ACE2 receptors are upregulated.

Summary

Even though physiological models of SARS-CoV infection show a theoretical benefit of ACEI/ARB, these findings cannot be extrapolated to SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19. Major cardiology scientific associations, including ACC, HFSA, AHA, and ESC Hypertension Council, have rejected these correlation hypotheses. After an extensive literature review, we conclude that there is no significant evidence to support an association for now, but given the rapid evolvement of this pandemic, findings may change.

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<![CDATA[Has Hajj-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus transmission occurred? The case for effective post-Hajj surveillance for infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9ab0b398-0282-429d-b0c8-8863003323f5 ]]> <![CDATA[Algorithm for predicting CHD death risk in Turkish adults: conventional factors contribute only moderately in women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b3e2240463d7e42b8c15cb5

Objective:

To assist the management strategy of individuals, we determined an algorithm for predicting the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death in Turkish adults with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods:

The risk of CHD death was estimated in 3054 middle-aged adults, followed over 9.08±4.2 years. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict risk. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistics.

Results:

CHD death was identified in 233 subjects. In multivariable analysis, the serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level was not predictive in men and the non-HDL-C level was not predictive in women. Age, presence of diabetes, systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg, smoking habit, and low physical activity were predictors in both sexes. The exclusion of coronary disease at baseline did not change the risk estimates materially. Using an algorithm of the 7 stated variables, individuals in the highest category of risk score showed a 19- to 50-fold higher spread in the absolute risk of death from CHD than those in the second lowest category. C-index of the model using age alone was as high as 0.774 in men and 0.836 in women (p<0.001 each), while the incorporation of 6 conventional risk factors contributed to a C-index of 0.058 in males and 0.042 in females.

Conclusion:

In a middle-aged population with prevalent MetS, men disclosed anticipated risk parameters (except for high HDL-C levels) as determinants of the risk of CHD death. On the other hand, serum non-HDL-C levels and moderate systolic hypertension were not relevant in women. The moderate contribution of conventional risk factors (beyond age) to the estimation of the risk of CHD death in women is consistent with the operation of autoimmune activation.

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