ResearchPad - human-papillomavirus-infection https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Serum and cervicovaginal IgG immune responses against α7 and α9 HPV in non-vaccinated women at risk for cervical cancer: Implication for catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15726 Cervical cancer associated with high risk-human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is becoming the one of the most common female cancer in many sub-Saharan African countries. First-generation immigrant African women living in Europe are at-risk for cervical cancer, in a context of social vulnerability, with frequent lack of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination.ObjectiveOur objective was to address immunologically the issue of catch-up prophylactic HPV vaccination in first-generation African immigrant women living in France.MethodsIgG immune responses and cross-reactivities to α7 (HPV-18, -45 and -68) and α9 (HPV-16, -31, -33, -35, -52 and -58) HPV types, including 7 HR-HPV targeted by the Gardasil-9® prophylactic vaccine, were evaluated in paired serum and cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) by HPV L1-virus-like particles-based ELISA. Genital HPV were detected by multiplex real time PCR (Seegene, Seoul, South Korea).ResultsFifty-one immigrant women (mean age, 41.7 years; 72.5% HIV-infected) were prospectively included. More than two-third (68.6%) of them carried genital HPV (group I) while 31.4% were negative (group II). The majority (90.2%) exhibited serum IgG to at least one α7/α9 HR-HPV. Serum HPV-specific IgG were more frequently detected in group I than group II (100% versus 68.7%; P = 0.002). The distribution of serum and genital HPV-specific IgG was similar, but mean number of IgG reactivities to α7/α9 HR-HPV was higher in serum than CVS (5.6 IgG per woman in serum versus 3.2 in CVS; P<0.001). Rates of IgG cross-reactivities against HPV different from detected cervicovaginal HPV were higher in serum and CVS in group I than group II. Finally, the majority of groups I and II women (68.6% and 68.7%, respectively) exhibited serum or cervicovaginal IgG to Gardasil-9® HR-HPV, with higher mean rates in group I than group II (6.1 Gardasil-9® HR-HPV per woman versus 1.4; P<0.01). One-third (31.2%) of group II women did not show any serum and genital HPV-specific IgG.ConclusionsAround two-third of first-generation African immigrant women living in France showed frequent ongoing genital HPV infection and high rates of circulating and genital IgG to α7/α9 HPV, generally cross-reacting, avoiding the possibility of catch-up vaccination. Nevertheless, about one-third of women had no evidence of previous HPV infection, or showed only low levels of genital and circulating HR-HPV-specific IgG and could therefore be eligible for catch-up vaccination. ]]> <![CDATA[PML nuclear body-residing proteins sequentially associate with HPV genome after infectious nuclear delivery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7d95e9d5eed0c484734f7e

Subnuclear promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are targeted by many DNA viruses after nuclear delivery. PML protein is essential for formation of PML NBs. Sp100 and Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier (SUMO) are also permanently residing within PML NBs. Often, large DNA viruses disassemble and reorganize PML NBs to counteract their intrinsic antiviral activity and support establishment of infection. However, human papillomavirus (HPV) requires PML protein to retain incoming viral DNA in the nucleus for subsequent efficient transcription. In contrast, Sp100 was identified as a restriction factor for HPV. These findings suggested that PML NBs are important regulators of early stages of the HPV life cycle. Nuclear delivery of incoming HPV DNA requires mitosis. Viral particles are retained within membrane-bound transport vesicles throughout mitosis. The viral genome is released from transport vesicles by an unknown mechanism several hours after nuclear envelope reformation. The minor capsid protein L2 mediates intracellular transport by becoming transmembranous in the endocytic compartment. Herein, we tested our hypothesis that PML protein is recruited to incoming viral genome prior to egress from transport vesicles. High-resolution microscopy revealed that PML protein, SUMO-1, and Sp100 are recruited to incoming viral genomes, rather than viral genomes being targeted to preformed PML NBs. Differential immunofluorescent staining suggested that PML protein and SUMO-1 associated with transport vesicles containing viral particles prior to egress, implying that recruitment is likely mediated by L2 protein. In contrast, Sp100 recruitment to HPV-harboring PML NBs occurred after release of viral genomes from transport vesicles. The delayed recruitment of Sp100 is specific for HPV-associated PML NBs. These data suggest that the virus continuously resides within a protective environment until the transport vesicle breaks down in late G1 phase and imply that HPV might modulate PML NB assembly to achieve establishment of infection and the shift to viral maintenance.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of nurses on human papillomavirus vaccinations in the Republic of Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648cc6d5eed0c484c81769

Background

In June 2016, the Republic of Korea included free human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations for all 12-year-old girls in its national immunization program.

Purpose

This study investigated perceptions of nurses on HPV vaccination and their intent to vaccinate preteens at the best ages.

Methods

Recruited for the survey were 514 health teachers (181, 35.2%), public health nurses (168, 32.7%), and clinical nurses (165, 32.1%). Factor-analysis was conducted to validate the Vaccine-Hesitancy Scale for Korean nurses. Related variables associated with vaccine-acceptance were examined using the Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman’s rho coefficients, due to lack of normalization.

Results

Factor-analysis results showed that two factors of positive acceptance (7 items) and negative acceptance (3 items) accounted for 67.46% of the total variance, and explained 47.4% and 20.1%, respectively. Nurses who positively accepted HPV vaccine differed significantly in agreement to vaccinate girls or boys. For the proper vaccination age, a significant difference emerged between answers for girls and vaccine-acceptance scores, whereas no difference emerged between answers for boys and the scores. The vaccinated status of respondents significantly related to higher HPV vaccine acceptance, although age, religion, marital status, education, and working duration did not.

Conclusions

This study showed that vaccine-acceptance levels reflect nurses’ attitudes and opinions about HPV vaccination for girls and boys.

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<![CDATA[A mobile-phone based high-resolution microendoscope to image cervical precancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ce0d5eed0c484c819d1

Nearly 90% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries that lack comprehensive national HPV immunization and cervical cancer screening programs. In these settings, it is difficult to implement screening programs due to a lack of infrastructure and shortage of trained personnel. Screening programs based on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) have been successfully implemented in some low-resource settings. However, VIA has poor specificity and up to 90% of patients receiving treatment based on a positive VIA exam are over-treated. A number of studies have suggested that high-resolution cervical imaging to visualize nuclear morphology in vivo can improve specificity by better distinguishing precancerous and benign lesions. To enable high-resolution imaging in low-resource settings, we developed a portable, low-cost, high-resolution microendoscope that uses a mobile phone to detect and display images of cervical epithelium in vivo with subcellular resolution. The device was fabricated for less than $2,000 using commercially available optical components including filters, an LED and triplet lenses assembled in a 3D-printed opto-mechanical mount. We show that the mobile high-resolution microendoscope achieves similar resolution and signal-to-background ratio as previously reported high-resolution microendoscope systems using traditional cameras and computers to detect and display images. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the mobile high-resolution microendoscope to image normal and precancerous squamous epithelium of the cervix in vivo in a gynecological referral clinic in Barretos, Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus in women with high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions in Botswana using Abbott RealTime HPV assay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52a6d5eed0c4842bcd6b

Background

High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) has been demonstrated to be the necessary cause of cervical carcinoma. High-risk HPV detection has a prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. HPV genotyping in cervical cancer precursor lesions is crucial for prevention and management of cervical cancer. This study was designed to investigate the distribution of HR-HPV genotypes among a group of patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and higher, of the cervix, in Botswana.

Materials and methods

185-archived residual formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies collected between the years, 2006 and 2008 were studied. These tissues were diagnosed with HSIL (n = 146) and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 39). DNA was extracted using the Abbott m2000 analyser (Abbott Laboratories, Illinois) using reagents provided by the manufacturer. HPV genotyping was done using the Abbott RealTime HR-HPV PCR, which qualitatively detects 14 HR-HPV (reported as HPV 16, 18 & Other HR-HPV).

Results

DNA was successfully extracted from 162/185 (87.6%) tissues as indicated by a positive β-globin test. 132/162 (82%) tested positive for HR-HPV The HPV 16 prevalence was 50% (66/132), HPV 18 at 15.2% (20/132) and other Group 1 HR-HPV plus HPV 66 and 68 had a prevalence of 56.1% (74/132). Other HR-HPV types were common in HSIL than in carcinoma, while HPV 16 was more prevalent in carcinomas than other HR-HPV genotypes.

Conclusion

In this study, HPV 16 and other HR-HPV genotypes were commonly associated with HSIL but HPV 18 was uncommon among Botswana women. Our data highlights the need for multivalent HPV vaccines with cross coverage for other high risk HPV other than HPV 16 and 18.

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<![CDATA[An efficient and cost-effective method for purification of small sized DNAs and RNAs from human urine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633929d5eed0c484ae611f

Urine holds great promise as a non-invasive sampling method for molecular diagnostics. The cell-free nucleic acids of urine however are small, labile, and difficult to purify. Here an efficient method for the purification of these nucleic acids is presented. An empirically derived protocol was devised by first identifying conditions that allowed recovery of a 100 base pair (bp) DNA, followed by optimization using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. The resulting method efficiently purifies both small sized DNAs and RNAs from urine, which when combined with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRTPCR), demonstrably improves detection sensitivity. Fractionation experiments reveal that nucleic acids in urine exist both in the cell-free and cellular fraction, roughly in equal proportion. Consistent with previous studies, amplicons > 180bp show a marked loss in PCR sensitivity for cell-free nucleic acids. Finally, the lysis buffer developed here also doubles as an effective preservative, protecting against nucleic acid degradation for at least two weeks under simulated field conditions. With this method, volumes of up to 25ml of whole urine can be purified in a high-throughput and cost-effective manner. Coupled with its ability to purify both DNA and RNA, the described method may have broad applicability for improving the diagnostic utility of urine, particularly for the detection of low abundant targets.

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<![CDATA[HPV-driven oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer in Croatia — Demography and survival]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df339d5eed0c484580f3c

Objectives

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Main HNSCC risk factors are tobacco, alcohol, and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) usually have different etiology, increasing incidence and often show an improved survival when compared to HPV-negative cases. The objective of the current study was to retrospectively examine the influence of HPV on the survival of OPSCC patients in a non-Western population setting.

Materials and methods

We determined the presence of HPV DNA and/or RNA in 99 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of OPSCC patients treated between 2002 and 2015. Patients were compared based on laboratory, demographic, clinical, life style characteristics and survival.

Results

HPV RNA was found in 29.3% cases. However, groups based on HPV data (either RNA, DNA or retrospectively collected p16 staining) did not show significant differences. Overall, 5-year survival was 30% with minimal influence of the HPV positivity.

Conclusions

The HPV influence on survival of OPSCC patients is not identical between populations probably due to other factors overshadowing the HPV effect. This should be taken into account when treatment or policy decisions are made in each particular setting.

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<![CDATA[The molecular biology and HPV drug responsiveness of cynomolgus macaque papillomaviruses support their use in the development of a relevant in vivo model for antiviral drug testing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6c2d5eed0c484ef3d31

Due to the extreme tissue and species restriction of the papillomaviruses (PVs), there is a great need for animal models that accurately mimic PV infection in humans for testing therapeutic strategies against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). In this study, we present data that demonstrate that in terms of gene expression during initial viral DNA amplification, Macaca fascicularis PV (MfPV) types 5 and 8 appear to be similar to mucosal oncogenic HPVs, while MfPV1 (isolated from skin) resembles most high-risk cutaneous beta HPVs (HPV5). Similarities were also observed in replication properties during the initial amplification phase of the MfPV genomes. We demonstrate that high-risk mucosal HPV-specific inhibitors target the transient replication of the MfPV8 genomes, which indicates that similar pathways are used by the high-risk HPVs and MfPVs during their genome replication. Taking all into account, we propose that Macaca fascicularis may serve as a highly relevant model for preclinical tests designed to evaluate therapeutic strategies against HPV-associated lesions.

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<![CDATA[Epithelial stratification shapes infection dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52182bd5eed0c48479763d

Infections of stratified epithelia contribute to a large group of common diseases, such as dermatological conditions and sexually transmitted diseases. To investigate how epithelial structure affects infection dynamics, we develop a general ecology-inspired model for stratified epithelia. Our model allows us to simulate infections, explore new hypotheses and estimate parameters that are difficult to measure with tissue cell cultures. We focus on two contrasting pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Human papillomaviruses (HPV). Using cervicovaginal parameter estimates, we find that key infection symptoms can be explained by differential interactions with the layers, while clearance and pathogen burden appear to be bottom-up processes. Cell protective responses to infections (e.g. mucus trapping) generally lowered pathogen load but there were specific effects based on infection strategies. Our modeling approach opens new perspectives for 3D tissue culture experimental systems of infections and, more generally, for developing and testing hypotheses related to infections of stratified epithelia.

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<![CDATA[Clinical performance of Anyplex II HPV28 by human papillomavirus type and viral load in a referral population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217cad5eed0c4847945b2

Anyplex II HPV28 (`Anyplex`) is a semi-quantitative DNA PCR assay divided into set A, comprising 14 high risk (hr)HPV types; and set B, comprising 5 possibly hrHPV types and 9 low risk (lr)HPV types. We compared the ability of Anyplex to that of Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and PreTect HPV-Proofer (`Proofer`) to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade two or worse (CIN2+) by HPV types and viral load. This cross-sectional study included 296 women referred to colposcopy with abnormal cervical cytology and/or persistent HPV infection. CIN2+ was identified in 175/296 women. Liquid based cytology samples were used to perform HPV testing. The sensitivity of Anyplex to detect CIN2+ was 98.9% (95% CI 95.9–99.9) and specificity 43.0% (95% CI 34.0–52.3). Restricting to medium and high viral loads in Anyplex set A, sensitivity and specificity were 97.1% (95% CI 93.5–99.1) and 59.5% (95% CI 50.2–68.3) with positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) 77.6% and 93.5%, respectively, comparable to HC2. Restricting Anyplex to the hrHPV types in Proofer, HPV16, 18, 31, 33 and 45, sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ were 85.1% (95% CI 79.0–90.1) and 71.1% (95% CI 62.1–79.0), comparable to Proofer`s. When adding HPV52 and 58, the sensitivity for CIN2+ was 92.6% (95% CI 87.6–96.0) and CIN3+ 96.5% (95% CI 92.0–98.8). No value of Anyplex set B was found in detecting CIN2+. In conclusion, the clinical performance of medium and high viral loads in Anyplex set A was comparable to HC2. Restricting the test to the 7 hrHPV types included in the 9-valent HPV-vaccine, HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58, satisfies the international criteria for cervical cancer screening with relative sensitivity compared to HC2 for CIN2+ and CIN3+ of 0.98 and 1.01, respectively. Detecting all 28 Anyplex HPV types adds no benefit in a referral population.

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<![CDATA[Role of genomic DNA methylation in detection of cytologic and histologic abnormalities in high risk HPV-infected women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390b8ed5eed0c48491d389

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. The development of disease is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. Cytology has been the most recommended triage for primary cervical (pre)cancer screening despite relatively low sensitivity. Recently, genomic DNA methylation has been proposed as an additional marker to increase sensitivity for detecting cervical precancerous lesion. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of methylation status of three tumor suppressor genes (CADM1, FAM19A4, and MAL) and HPV genotyping in detection of cytologic and histologic abnormalities in cervical cancer screening. Two hundred and sixty samples with available frozen cell pellets including 70 randomly selected cases of negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)&HPV-negative, 70 randomly selected cases of NILM&HPV-positive, and 120 cytologic abnormalities & HPV-positive from a population-based cervical cancer screening program (n = 7,604) were investigated for the DNA methylation pattern of CADM1, FAM19A4, and MAL. Of 120 cytologic abnormalities & HPV-positive cases, there were 115 available histologic results. HPV52 and HPV58 were most commonly found in histologic HSIL+. The methylation levels of CADM1, FAM19A4, and MAL were elevated with the severity of cytologic abnormality which significantly increased by 3.37, 6.65 and 2 folds, respectively, in cytologic HSIL comparing with NILM. A significant increase in methylation levels of these three genes was also observed in histologic HSIL+ compared with negative histology but only CADM1 showed a significant higher methylation level than histologic LSIL. Using the ROC curve analysis, DNA methylation levels of FAM19A4 performed best in differentiating high-grade cytology (ASC-H+ from NILM/ASC-US/LSIL), followed by CADM1 and MAL. Whilst the CADM1 methylation performed best in distinguishing histologic HSIL+ from negative/LSIL with an area under the ROC curve of 0.684, followed by MAL (0.663) and FAM19A4 (0.642). Interestingly, after combining high DNA methylation levels to HPV16/18 genotypes, rates of histologic HSIL+ detection were substantially increased from 25% to 79.55% for CADM1, 77.27% for FAM19A4, and 72.73% for MAL, respectively. The rate further increased up to 95.45% when at least one of three genes had a high methylation level. This suggests a possible role of genomic DNA methylation, especially CADM1, in detecting histologic HSIL+ lesions in combination with hrHPV testing.

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<![CDATA[Facilitators and barriers for healthcare providers to recommend HPV vaccination to attendees of public sexually transmitted diseases clinics in Hong Kong, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa58dd5eed0c484ca5b0d

Background

Attendees of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics could also benefit from HPV vaccination. Healthcare providers’ recommendation is the most effective published method in motivating HPV vaccination initiation. This study was to investigate practice of recommending HPV vaccination to attendees among healthcare providers (doctors and nurses) working in public STD clinics in Hong Kong, China.

Method

Participants were medical doctors, registered nurses and enrolled nurses working in all eight public STD clinics in Hong Kong. All of them (29 doctors and 82 nurses) were approached by telephone. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to them. A total of 98 completed questionnaires were received (28 doctors and 70 nurses). The study was conducted during January to May, 2018. Using recommendation of HPV vaccination to any attendees in the last year as the dependent variable, univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted.

Results

In the last 12 months, 16.3% and 36.7% of the participants had recommended HPV vaccination to any male attendees and to any female attendees of their clinics; 41.8% had recommended it to either male or female attendees. Adjusting for significant background variables (professions and years of working experience in the clinic), three constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior were significantly associated with the dependent variable in expected directions. They were: 1) the Positive Attitude Scale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR: 1.20, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.41), 2) the Negative Attitude Scale (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.77, 0.94), and 3) the Perceived Behavioral Control Scale (AOR: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.08, 1.75).

Conclusion

STD clinics are ideal settings that allow healthcare providers to access individuals who are at high-risk of HPV infection and promote HPV vaccination. Health promotion targeting these healthcare providers is warranted to enhance their perceived importance of recommending HPV vaccination. Such promotion should modify their attitudes and perceived behavioral control related to recommending HPV vaccination to attendees.

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<![CDATA[Which primary care practitioners have poor human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge? A step towards informing the development of professional education initiatives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0a83d5eed0c484426264

Background

Primary care practitioners (PCP) play key roles in cervical cancer prevention. Human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge is an important influence on PCPs’ cervical cancer prevention-related behaviours. We investigated HPV knowledge, and associated factors, among general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses.

Methods

A survey, including factual questions about HPV infection and vaccination, was mailed to GPs and practice nurses in Ireland. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine which PCPs had low knowledge (questions correctly answered: infection ≤5/11; vaccination: ≤4/10). Questions least often answered correctly were identified.

Results

697 PCPs participated. For HPV infection, GPs and practice nurses answered a median of nine and seven questions correctly, respectively (p<0.001). Significantly associated with low HPV infection knowledge were: being a practice nurse/male GP; working fewer hours/week; not having public patients; and having never taken a cervical smear. For HPV vaccination, both GPs and practice nurses answered a median of six questions correctly (p = 0.248). Significantly associated with low HPV vaccination knowledge were: being a practice nurse/male GP; working more years in general practice, fewer hours/week, in a smaller practice or in a practice not specialising in women’s health; and having never taken a smear. Six HPV infection questions, and seven HPV vaccination questions, were not answered correctly by >⅓ of PCPs.

Conclusions

There are important limitations in HPV infection and vaccination knowledge among PCPs. By identifying factors associated with poor knowledge, and areas of particular uncertainty, these results can inform development of professional education initiatives thereby ensuring women have access to uniformly high-quality HPV-related information and advice.

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<![CDATA[Long-distance communication: Looping of human papillomavirus genomes regulates expression of viral oncogenes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f060d5eed0c484c6d84e

High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a major cause of cancers. HPVs infect epithelial cells, and viral oncogenes disrupt several cellular processes, including cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis. Expression of these oncogenes is relatively low in undifferentiated epithelial cells but increases in differentiating cells by unknown mechanisms. In a new study, Parish and colleagues unveil how two cellular proteins, CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and Yin Yang 1 (YY1), mediate looping of the HPV18 genome, which regulates expression of viral oncogenes in both dividing and differentiating epithelial cells.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of a method for human papillomavirus genotyping based on molecular beacon probes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993d0d5eed0c4842ad9d7

We describe a new assaying system for the detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) based on linear-after-the-exponential-PCR(LATE-PCR) and melting curve analysis. The 23 most prevalent HPV strains (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 42, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73, 81, 82, and 83) are assayed in two sealed reaction tubes within 2 h. Good sensitivity and specificity was evaluated by testing cloned HPV DNA and clinical samples. The detection limit was 5–500 copies/reaction depending on the genotype. No cross-reactivity was observed with the other HPV types that are not covered by our method or pathogens tested which were commonly found in female genital tract. When compared with the HPV GenoArray Diagnostic kit, the results from 1104 clinical samples suggest good overall agreement between the two methods,(98.37%, 95% CI: 97.44%–98.97%) and the kappa value was 0.954. Overall, this new HPV genotyping assay system presents a simple, rapid, universally applicable, sensitive, and highly specific detection methodology that should be useful for HPV detection and genotyping, therefore, is potentially of great value in clinical application.

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<![CDATA[Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and associated risk factors in women from Curaçao]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6003a8463d7e38dd0d05ba

Background

In the Caribbean region, a notable difference in HPV-prevalence and genotypes distribution between the islands is observed. Recently we found in Curaçao a low incidence of HPV16 and 18 in cervical cancer compared to the standard world population. We aimed to determine HPV-prevalence, HPV-genotype distribution and associated risk-factors in women from Curaçao.

Methods

5000 women aged 25–65 years were randomly selected from the national Population Register. HPV was detected by means of GP5+/6+PCR EIA and GP 5+/6+amplimers from HPV-positive samples were genotyped with a reverse hybridisation assay. We also collected personal data and data on risk-factors.

Results

1075 women were enrolled in the study. Overall HPV-prevalence was 19.7%. Most frequent genotypes were HPV16 (2.3%), 35 (2.1%) and 52 (1.8%). Twenty-seven women detected with abnormal cytology (i.e.≥ASC-US) were referred for biopsy. In women with normal cytology (n = 1048), HPV-prevalence was 17.9% and the most common high-risk HPV (hrHPV)-types were HPV35 (2.0%), 18 (1.8%), 16 (1.5%) and 52 (1.5%). The highest HPV-prevalence (32.8%) was found in the age-group: 25–34 (n = 247). HPV positive women started sex at a younger age (p = 0.032).

Conclusions

HPV-prevalence in the overall population is high and HPV16 was the most common genotype followed by 35 and 18. In women with normal cytology HPV35 is the most common genotype followed by HPV18, 52 and 16. The high HPV-prevalence (32.8%) in women of 25–34 years argue for introduction of cervical cancer prevention strategies. HPV-type distribution found in Curaçao should be taken into account when considering the choice for prophylactic vaccination.

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<![CDATA[Acceptability of HPV vaccines and associations with perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccines among male baccalaureate students in Hong Kong]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498fab463d7e0897c6e01d

Objectives

The highly infectious human papillomavirus (HPV) causes both genital warts and cervical cancer in women. In 2009, the prevalence of genital warts in Hong Kong was 203.7 per 100,000 person-years. Cervical cancer, more seriously, was the eight most common cancer among women and girls in Hong Kong, accounting for 2.3% of all new cancer cases in females in 2014. Cervical cancer is a significant global public health problem and HPV is a major risk factor leading to the development of cervical cancer. HPV is also the most common sexually transmitted disease among university students. This is the first study to examine the acceptability of HPV vaccines and associations with perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccines among the male baccalaureate student population locally.

Methods

A self-administrative cross-sectional survey was used to assess whether male baccalaureate students from eight local Hong Kong universities intended to be immunized for HPV. The study also asked questions concerning how its subjects perceived HPV and HPV vaccines using the Health Belief Model. Data collection spanned from June to September 2015. A multiple stepwise regression model was used to examine associations between cognitive factors and subjects’ intention to take up the HPV vaccine.

Results

A total of 1,004 (83.7%) students aged 18 and 26 participated in this study. 23.3% found vaccinating for HPV acceptable, a level correlating with a number of indicators. Subjects were more likely to find vaccinating acceptable if 1) they knew something about HPV vaccines; 2) they understood that men were susceptible to infection by HPV; 3) they realised they could benefit by HPV vaccination, and 4) they were aware of the arguments for and against HPV vaccination, as disseminated by either the media or peers.

Conclusions

HPV remains a significant public health concern in Hong Kong and China more broadly. This study’s findings show a disconnect between the perceived and actual risk of being infected with the HPV vaccine among male baccalaureate students. This disconnect may be bridged by informing young men of the benefits of their being vaccinated against HPV, by removing the psychological and financial barriers that prevent them from taking up the vaccine and by improving how primary healthcare providers motivate them to get immunized.

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<![CDATA[High Risk HPV Contamination of Endocavity Vaginal Ultrasound Probes: An Underestimated Route of Nosocomial Infection?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac7ab0ee8fa60bb2e72

Background

Endocavity ultrasound is seen as a harmless procedure and has become a common gynaecological procedure. However without correct disinfection, it may result in nosocomial transmission of genito-urinary pathogens, such as high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). We aimed to evaluate the currently recommended disinfection procedure for covered endocavity ultrasound probes, which consists of “Low Level Disinfection” (LLD) with “quaternary ammonium compounds” containing wipes.

Methods

From May to October 2011 swabs were taken from endovaginal ultrasound probes at the Gynecology Department of the Lyon University Hospital. During the first phase (May–June 2011) samples were taken after the ultrasound examination and after the LLD procedure. In a second phase (July–October 2011) swab samples were collected just before the probe was used. All samples were tested for the presence of human DNA (as a marker for a possible transmission of infectious pathogens from the genital tract) and HPV DNA with the Genomica DNA microarray (35 different HPV genotypes).

Results

We collected 217 samples before and 200 samples after the ultrasound examination. The PCR was inhibited in two cases. Human DNA was detected in 36 (18%) post-examination samples and 61 (28%) pre-examination samples. After the ultrasound LLD procedure, 6 (3.0%) samples contained HR-HPV types (16, 31, 2×53 and 58). Similarly, HPV was detected in 6 pre-examination samples (2.7%). Amongst these 4 (1.9%) contained HR-HPV (types 53 and 70).

Conclusion

Our study reveals that a considerable number of ultrasound probes are contaminated with human and HR-HPV DNA, despite LLD disinfection and probe cover. In all hospitals, where LLD is performed, the endovaginal ultrasound procedure must therefore be considered a source for nosocomial HR-HPV infections. We recommend the stringent use of high-level disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide solutions.

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<![CDATA[Common Commensal Cancer Viruses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcef2 ]]> <![CDATA[The Cervical Microbiome over 7 Years and a Comparison of Methodologies for Its Characterization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf6ab0ee8fa60bc2d4b

Background

The rapidly expanding field of microbiome studies offers investigators a large choice of methods for each step in the process of determining the microorganisms in a sample. The human cervicovaginal microbiome affects female reproductive health, susceptibility to and natural history of many sexually transmitted infections, including human papillomavirus (HPV). At present, long-term behavior of the cervical microbiome in early sexual life is poorly understood.

Methods

The V6 and V6–V9 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified from DNA isolated from exfoliated cervical cells. Specimens from 10 women participating in the Natural History Study of HPV in Guanacaste, Costa Rica were sampled successively over a period of 5–7 years. We sequenced amplicons using 3 different platforms (Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina HiSeq 2000) and analyzed sequences using pipelines based on 3 different classification algorithms (usearch, RDP Classifier, and pplacer).

Results

Usearch and pplacer provided consistent microbiome classifications for all sequencing methods, whereas RDP Classifier deviated significantly when characterizing Illumina reads. Comparing across sequencing platforms indicated 7%–41% of the reads were reclassified, while comparing across software pipelines reclassified up to 32% of the reads. Variability in classification was shown not to be due to a difference in read lengths. Six cervical microbiome community types were observed and are characterized by a predominance of either G. vaginalis or Lactobacillus spp. Over the 5–7 year period, subjects displayed fluctuation between community types. A PERMANOVA analysis on pairwise Kantorovich-Rubinstein distances between the microbiota of all samples yielded an F-test ratio of 2.86 (p<0.01), indicating a significant difference comparing within and between subjects’ microbiota.

Conclusions

Amplification and sequencing methods affected the characterization of the microbiome more than classification algorithms. Pplacer and usearch performed consistently with all sequencing methods. The analyses identified 6 community types consistent with those previously reported. The long-term behavior of the cervical microbiome indicated that fluctuations were subject dependent.

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