ResearchPad - hyperglycemia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prediction of hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning: A cross-sectional study of chronic diseases in central China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14561 Retinal fundus photography provides a non-invasive approach for identifying early microcirculatory alterations of chronic diseases prior to the onset of overt clinical complications. Here, we developed neural network models to predict hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and a range of risk factors from retinal fundus images obtained from a cross-sectional study of chronic diseases in rural areas of Xinxiang County, Henan, in central China. 1222 high-quality retinal images and over 50 measurements of anthropometry and biochemical parameters were generated from 625 subjects. The models in this study achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.880 in predicting hyperglycemia, of 0.766 in predicting hypertension, and of 0.703 in predicting dyslipidemia. In addition, these models can predict with AUC>0.7 several blood test erythrocyte parameters, including hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and a cluster of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Taken together, deep learning approaches are feasible for predicting hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and risks of other chronic diseases.

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<![CDATA[Incidence and risk factors for hyperglycemia in pregnancy among nulliparous women: A Brazilian multicenter cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14493 To assess the incidence and risk factors for hyperglycemia in pregnancy in a cohort of Brazilian nulliparous pregnant women.Materials and methodsThis is a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort study that enrolled 1,008 nulliparous pregnant women at 19–21 weeks. Exclusion criteria included chronic exposure to corticosteroids and previous diabetes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses by Poisson regression were used to identify associated factors.ResultsThe incidence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy was 14.9% (150/1,008), and 94.7% of these cases were gestational diabetes mellitus (142/150). Significant associated factors included a family history of diabetes mellitus, maternal overweight or obesity at enrollment, and previous maternal conditions (polycystic ovarian syndrome, thyroid dysfunctions and hypertensive disorders). A BMI ≥ 26.3Kg/m2 (RRadj 1.87 [1.66–2.10]) and a family history of diabetes mellitus (RRadj 1.71 [1.37–2.15]) at enrollment were independent risk factors for HIP.ConclusionsA family history of diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity (until 19–21 weeks of gestation) may be used as selective markers for HIP in Brazilian nulliparous women. Given the scarcity of results in nulliparous women, our findings may contribute to determine the optimal diagnostic approach in populations of similar socioeconomic characteristics. ]]> <![CDATA[Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in Zucker diabetic fatty rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d612d5eed0c484031535

Diabetes is a very strong predictor of chronic systemic vascular diseases and acute cardiovascular events. Recently, associations between metabolic disorders and pulmonary hypertension have also been reported in both humans and animal models. In order to get some further insight into the relationship of pulmonary hypertension with obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, herein we have used the Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF/clr-lepr fa) at 20 weeks fed a standard diet and compared to their lean Zucker littermates (ZL). ZDF rats were obese, had elevated plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance, i.e. a clinically relevant model of type 2 diabetes. They presented elevated systolic, diastolic and mean pulmonary arterial pressures and a parallel increase in the Fulton index. Systemic arterial pressures were also increased but the left ventricle plus septum weight was similar in both groups and the heart rate was reduced. Wall media thickening was observed in the small pulmonary arteries from the ZDF rats. Isolated pulmonary arteries mounted in a wire myograph showed similar vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine and 5-HT and similar responses to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. However, the iNOS inhibitor 1400W enhanced the vasoconstrictor responses in ZDF but not in ZL rats. The protein expression of eNOS and iNOS was not significantly different in the lungs of the two groups. The lung expression of Bmpr2 mRNA was downregulated. However, the mRNA expression of Kcna5, Kcnk3, Kcnq1, Kcnq4 or Kcnq5, which encode for the potassium channels Kv1.5, TASK-1, Kv7.1, Kv7.4 and Kv7.5, respectively, was similar in ZL and ZDF rats. In conclusion, ZDF rats show increased pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary arterial medial thickening and downregulated lung Bmpr2 despite leptin resistance. These changes were mild but are consistent with the view that diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension.

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<![CDATA[The role of insulin resistance in experimental diabetic retinopathy—Genetic and molecular aspects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be02b7

Background

Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by defects in the retinal neurovascular unit. The underlying mechanisms of impairment–including reactive intermediates and growth-factor dependent signalling pathways and their possible interplay are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess the relative role of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia alone or in combination on the gene expression patterning in the retina of animal models of diabetes.

Material and methods

As insulinopenic, hyperglycemic model reflecting type 1 diabetes, male STZ-Wistar rats (60mg/kg BW; i.p. injection at life age week 7) were used. Male obese ZDF rats (fa/fa) were used as type-2 diabetes model characterized by persisting hyperglycemia and transient hyperinsulinemia. Male obese ZF rats (fa/fa) were used reflecting euglycemia and severe insulin resistance. All groups were kept till an age of 20 weeks on respective conditions together with appropriate age-matched controls. Unbiased gene expression analysis was performed per group using Affymetrix gene arrays. Bioinformatics analysis included analysis for clustering and differential gene expression, and pathway and upstream activator analysis. Gene expression differences were confirmed by microfluidic card PCR technology.

Results

The most complex genetic regulation in the retina was observed in ZDF rats with a strong overlap to STZ-Wistar rats. Surprisingly, systemic insulin resistance alone in ZF rats without concomitant hyperglycemia did not induce any significant change in retinal gene expression pattern. Pathway analysis indicate an overlap between ZDF rats and STZ-treated rats in pathways like complement system activation, acute phase response signalling, and oncostatin-M signalling. Major array gene expression changes could be confirmed by subsequent PCR. An analysis of upstream transcriptional regulators revealed interferon-γ, interleukin-6 and oncostatin-M in STZ and ZDF rats. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic hyperinsulinaemia without hyperglycemia does not result in significant gene expression changes in retina. In contrast, persistent systemic hyperglycemia boosts much stronger expression changes with a limited number of known and new key regulators.

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<![CDATA[Prenatal Metformin Exposure in a Maternal High Fat Diet Mouse Model Alters the Transcriptome and Modifies the Metabolic Responses of the Offspring]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf4ab0ee8fa60bc23d4

Aims

Despite the wide use of metformin in metabolically challenged pregnancies, the long-term effects on the metabolism of the offspring are not known. We studied the long-term effects of prenatal metformin exposure during metabolically challenged pregnancy in mice.

Materials and Methods

Female mice were on a high fat diet (HFD) prior to and during the gestation. Metformin was administered during gestation from E0.5 to E17.5. Male and female offspring were weaned to a regular diet (RD) and subjected to HFD at adulthood (10-11 weeks). Body weight and several metabolic parameters (e.g. body composition and glucose tolerance) were measured during the study. Microarray and subsequent pathway analyses on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the male offspring were performed at postnatal day 4 in a separate experiment.

Results

Prenatal metformin exposure changed the offspring's response to HFD. Metformin exposed offspring gained less body weight and adipose tissue during the HFD phase. Additionally, prenatal metformin exposure prevented HFD-induced impairment in glucose tolerance. Microarray and annotation analyses revealed metformin-induced changes in several metabolic pathways from which electron transport chain (ETC) was prominently affected both in the neonatal liver and adipose tissue.

Conclusion

This study shows the beneficial effects of prenatal metformin exposure on the offspring's glucose tolerance and fat mass accumulation during HFD. The transcriptome data obtained at neonatal age indicates major effects on the genes involved in mitochondrial ATP production and adipocyte differentiation suggesting the mechanistic routes to improved metabolic phenotype at adulthood.

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<![CDATA[Adipose Hypothermia in Obesity and Its Association with Period Homolog 1, Insulin Sensitivity, and Inflammation in Fat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da69ab0ee8fa60b926b8

Visceral fat adiposity plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome. We reported previously the impact of human visceral fat adiposity on gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells. Genes related to circadian rhythm were highly associated with visceral fat area and period homolog 1 (PER1) showed the most significant negative correlation with visceral fat area. However, regulation of adipose Per1 remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to understand the regulation of Per1 in adipose tissues. Adipose Per1 mRNA levels of ob/ob mice were markedly low at 25 and 35 weeks of age. The levels of other core clock genes of white adipose tissues were also low in ob/ob mice at 25 and 35 weeks of age. Per1 mRNA was mainly expressed in the mature adipocyte fraction (MAF) and it was significantly low in MAF of ob/ob mice. To examine the possible mechanisms, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with H2O2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), S100A8, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, no significant changes in Per1 mRNA level were observed by these agents. Exposure of cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes to low temperature (33°C) decreased Per1 and catalase, and increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1) mRNA levels. Hypothermia also worsened insulin-mediated Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, telemetric analysis showed low temperature of adipose tissues in ob/ob mice. In obesity, adipose hypothermia seems to accelerate adipocyte dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5fab0ee8fa60b90b90

Recent meta-analyses have found no association between heart disease and dietary saturated fat; however, higher proportions of plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) predict greater risk for developing type-2 diabetes and heart disease. These observations suggest a disconnect between dietary saturated fat and plasma SFA, but few controlled feeding studies have specifically examined how varying saturated fat intake across a broad range affects circulating SFA levels. Sixteen adults with metabolic syndrome (age 44.9±9.9 yr, BMI 37.9±6.3 kg/m2) were fed six 3-wk diets that progressively increased carbohydrate (from 47 to 346 g/day) with concomitant decreases in total and saturated fat. Despite a distinct increase in saturated fat intake from baseline to the low-carbohydrate diet (46 to 84 g/day), and then a gradual decrease in saturated fat to 32 g/day at the highest carbohydrate phase, there were no significant changes in the proportion of total SFA in any plasma lipid fractions. Whereas plasma saturated fat remained relatively stable, the proportion of palmitoleic acid in plasma triglyceride and cholesteryl ester was significantly and uniformly reduced as carbohydrate intake decreased, and then gradually increased as dietary carbohydrate was re-introduced. The results show that dietary and plasma saturated fat are not related, and that increasing dietary carbohydrate across a range of intakes promotes incremental increases in plasma palmitoleic acid, a biomarker consistently associated with adverse health outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of GLP-1 Analogues versus Sitagliptin in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Head-to-Head Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baf1dc

Background

Incretin–based therapies which include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are recommended by several practice guidelines as second-line agents for add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who do not achieve glycemic control with metformin plus lifestyle interventions alone. The purpose of this study is to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of existing head to head studies to compare the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors.

Methods

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head studies to compare GLP-1 analogues with DPP-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. A random effects model was selected to perform the meta-analyses, results were expressed as weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks for dichotomous outcomes, both with 95% confidence intervals, and with I2 values and P values as markers of heterogeneity.

Results

Four head-to-head randomized controlled studies with 1755 patients were included. Compared to sitagliptin, GLP-1 analogues are more effective in reducing HbA1C (weight mean difference −0.41%, 95% CI −0.51 to −0.31) and body weight (weight mean difference −1.55 kg, 95% CI −1.98 to −1.12). Conversely, GLP-1 analogues are associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events compared to sitagliptin: nausea (relative risk 3.14, 95% CI 2.15 to 4.59), vomiting (relative risk 2.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.56), diarrhea (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.69), and constipation (relative risk 2.50, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.70).

Conclusions

The result of this meta-analysis demonstrates that compared to sitagliptin, GLP-1 analogues are more effective for glycemic control and weight loss, but have similar efficacy in reducing blood pressure and lipid parameters, however, GLP-1 analogues are associated with a higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events and a similar incidence of hypoglycemia compared to sitagliptin.

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<![CDATA[Alteration in Expression and Methylation of IGF2/H19 in Placenta and Umbilical Cord Blood Are Associated with Macrosomia Exposed to Intrauterine Hyperglycemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db05ab0ee8fa60bc802e

Objective

Macrosomia is one of the most common complications in gestational diabetes mellitus. Insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 are two of the imprinted candidate genes that are involved in fetal growth and development. Change in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 has been proved to be an early event related to the programming of metabolic profile, including macrosomia and small for gestational age in offspring. Here we hypothesize that alteration in methylation at differentially methylated region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 is associated with macrosomia induced by intrauterine hyperglycemia.

Results

The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group) compared to normal glucose tolerance group (NGT group) both in umbilical cord blood and placenta, while the expression of H19 is significant lower in GDM group in umbilical cord blood. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 is significant higher in normal glucose tolerance with macrosomia group (NGT-M) compared to normal glucose tolerance with normal birthweight group (NGT-NBW group) both in placenta and umbilical cord blood. A model with interaction term of gene expression of IGF2 and H19 found that IGF2 and the joint action of IGF2 and H19 in placenta showed significantly relationship with GDM/NGT and GDM-NBW/NGT-NBW. A borderline significant association was seen among IGF2 and H19 in cord blood and GDM-M/NGT-M. The methylation level at different CpG sites of insulin-like growth factor 2 and H19 in umbilical cord blood was also significantly different among groups. Based on the multivariable linear regression analysis, the methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 / H19 is closely related to birth weight and intrauterine hyperglycemia.

Conclusions

We confirmed the existence of alteration in DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia and reported a functional role in regulating gene associated with insulin-like growth factor 2/H19. Both of these might be the underlying pathogenesis of macrosomia. We also provided the evidence of strong associations between methylation of insulin-like growth factor 2/H19 and macrosomia induced by intrauterine hyperglycemia.

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<![CDATA[Galectin-3 and Its Genetic Variation rs4644 Modulate Enterovirus 71 Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9efab0ee8fa60b6dbf1

Galectin-3, a chimeric type β-galactoside-binding protein, is known to modulate viral infection; however, its role in enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has not been investigated. We generated galectin-3 null rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and evaluated whether EV71 infection would be affected. In galectin-3 null cells, the released and intracellular EV71 viral loads were suppressed after 24 h of infection, and cell death rates were significantly lower, while cell proliferation remained unaltered. In addition, RD cells expressing a nonsynonymous genetic variant of galectin-3, rs4644 (LGALS3 +191C/A, P64H), produced lower virus titers than those with wild-type galectin-3 (C allele). To clarify whether the in vitro viral load reduction correlates with clinical severity, we enrolled children with laboratory-confirmed EV71 infection. Since hyperglycemia is an indicator of severe EV71 infection in children, 152 of 401 enrolled children had glucose examinations at admission, and 59 subjects had serum glucose levels ≥ 150 mg/dL. In comparison to the rs4644 AA genotype (2.2 ± 0.06 log10 mg/dL), serum glucose levels during EV71 infection were higher in patients with CC (2.4 ± 0.17 log10 mg/dL, p = 0.03) and CA (2.4 ± 0.15 log10 mg/dL, p = 0.02) genotypes, respectively. These findings suggest that the rs4644 AA genotype of galectin-3 might exert a protective effect. In summary, galectin-3 affects EV71 replication in our cellular model and its variant, rs4644, is associated with hyperglycemia in the clinical setting. The underlying mechanism and its potential therapeutic application warrant further investigation.

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<![CDATA[Cardiovascular Protective Effect of Metformin and Telmisartan: Reduction of PARP1 Activity via the AMPK-PARP1 Cascade]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8c07

Hyperglycemia and hypertension impair endothelial function in part through oxidative stress-activated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1). Biguanides and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as metformin and telmisartan have a vascular protective effect. We used cultured vascular endothelial cells (ECs), diabetic and hypertensive rodent models, and AMPKα2-knockout mice to investigate whether metformin and telmisartan have a beneficial effect on the endothelium via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation of PARP1 and thus inhibition of PARP1 activity. The results showed that metformin and telmisartan, but not glipizide and metoprolol, activated AMPK, which phosphorylated PARP1 Ser-177 in cultured ECs and the vascular wall of rodent models. Experiments using phosphorylated/de-phosphorylated PARP1 mutants show that AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 leads to decreased PARP1 activity and attenuated protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), but increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) expression. Taken together, the data presented here suggest biguanides and ARBs have a beneficial effect on the vasculature by the cascade of AMPK phosphorylation of PARP1 to inhibit PARP1 activity and protein PARylation in ECs, thereby mitigating endothelial dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Elevated Fasting Blood Glucose Is Predictive of Poor Outcome in Non-Diabetic Stroke Patients: A Sub-Group Analysis of SMART]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9bab0ee8fa60ba3ae0

Background

Although increasing evidence suggests that hyperglycemia following acute stroke adversely affects clinical outcome, whether the association between glycaemia and functional outcome varies between stroke patients with\without pre-diagnosed diabetes remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the fasting blood glucose (FBG) and the 6-month functional outcome in a subgroup of SMART cohort and further to assess whether this association varied based on the status of pre-diagnosed diabetes.

Methods

Data of 2862 patients with acute ischemic stroke (629 with pre-diagnosed diabetics) enrolled from SMART cohort were analyzed. Functional outcome at 6-month post-stroke was measured by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and categorized as favorable (mRS:0–2) or poor (mRS:3–5). Binary logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, educational level, history of hypertension and stroke, baseline NIHSS and treatment group, was used in the whole cohort to evaluate the association between admission FBG and functional outcome. Stratified logistic regression analyses were further performed based on the presence/absence of pre-diabetes history.

Results

In the whole cohort, multivariable logistical regression showed that poor functional outcome was associated with elevated FBG (OR1.21 (95%CI 1.07–1.37), p = 0.002), older age (OR1.64 (95% CI1.38–1.94), p<0.001), higher NIHSS (OR2.90 (95%CI 2.52–3.33), p<0.001) and hypertension (OR1.42 (95%CI 1.13–1.98), p = 0.04). Stratified logistical regression analysis showed that the association between FBG and functional outcome remained significant only in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes (OR1.26 (95%CI 1.03–1.55), p = 0.023), but not in those with premorbid diagnosis of diabetes (p = 0.885).

Conclusion

The present results demonstrate a significant association between elevated FBG after stroke and poor functional outcome in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes, but not in diabetics. This finding confirms the importance of glycemic control during acute phase of ischemic stroke especially in patients without pre-diagnosed diabetes. Further investigation for developing optimal strategies to control blood glucose level in hyperglycemic setting is therefore of great importance.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00664846

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<![CDATA[Deletion of Serum Amyloid A3 Improves High Fat High Sucrose Diet-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Hyperlipidemia in Female Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75e24

Serum amyloid A (SAA) increases in response to acute inflammatory stimuli and is modestly and chronically elevated in obesity. SAA3, an inducible form of SAA, is highly expressed in adipose tissue in obese mice where it promotes monocyte chemotaxis, providing a mechanism for the macrophage accumulation that occurs with adipose tissue expansion in obesity. Humans do not express functional SAA3 protein, but instead express SAA1 and SAA2 in hepatic as well as extrahepatic tissues, making it difficult to distinguish between liver and adipose tissue-specific SAA effects. SAA3 does not circulate in plasma, but may exert local effects that impact systemic inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that SAA3 contributes to chronic systemic inflammation and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in obesity using mice deficient for Saa3 (Saa3−/−). Mice were rendered obese by feeding a pro-inflammatory high fat, high sucrose diet with added cholesterol (HFHSC). Both male and female Saa3−/− mice gained less weight on the HFHSC diet compared to Saa3+/+ littermate controls, with no differences in body composition or resting metabolism. Female Saa3−/− mice, but not males, had reduced HFHSC diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and macrophage content. Both male and female Saa3−/− mice had reduced liver Saa1 and Saa2 expression in association with reduced plasma SAA. Additionally, female Saa3−/− mice, but not males, showed improved plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein profiles, with no changes in glucose metabolism. Taken together, these results suggest that the absence of Saa3 attenuates liver-specific SAA (i.e., SAA1/2) secretion into plasma and blunts weight gain induced by an obesogenic diet. Furthermore, adipose tissue-specific inflammation and macrophage accumulation are attenuated in female Saa3−/− mice, suggesting a novel sexually dimorphic role for this protein. These results also suggest that Saa3 influences liver-specific SAA1/2 expression, and that SAA3 could play a larger role in the acute phase response than previously thought.

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<![CDATA[MafA Is Required for Postnatal Proliferation of Pancreatic β-Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa9ab0ee8fa60ba8ae1

The postnatal proliferation and maturation of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells are critical for glucose metabolism and disease development in adults. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these events will be beneficial to direct the differentiation of stem cells into functional β-cells. Maturation of β-cells is accompanied by increased expression of MafA, an insulin gene transcription factor. Transcriptome analysis of MafA knockout islets revealed MafA is required for the expression of several molecules critical for β-cell function, including Glut2, ZnT8, Granuphilin, Vdr, Pcsk1 and Urocortin 3, as well as Prolactin receptor (Prlr) and its downstream target Cyclin D2 (Ccnd2). Inhibition of MafA expression in mouse islets or β-cell lines resulted in reduced expression of Prlr and Ccnd2, and MafA transactivated the Prlr promoter. Stimulation of β-cells by prolactin resulted in the phosphorylation and translocation of Stat5B and an increased nuclear pool of Ccnd2 via Prlr and Jak2. Consistent with these results, the loss of MafA resulted in impaired proliferation of β-cells at 4 weeks of age. These results suggest that MafA regulates the postnatal proliferation of β-cells via prolactin signaling.

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<![CDATA[Combination of Alcohol and Fructose Exacerbates Metabolic Imbalance in Terms of Hepatic Damage, Dyslipidemia, and Insulin Resistance in Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadfab0ee8fa60bbb4a9

Although both alcohol and fructose are particularly steatogenic, their long-term effect in the development of a metabolic syndrome has not been studied in vivo. Consumption of fructose generally leads to obesity, whereas ethanol can induce liver damage in the absence of overweight. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum for 28 days on five diets: chow (control), liquid Lieber-DeCarli (LDC) diet, LDC +30%J of ethanol (L-Et) or fructose (L-Fr), and LDC combined with 30%J ethanol and 30%J fructose (L-EF). Body weight (BW) and liver weight (LW) were measured. Blood and liver samples were harvested and subjected to biochemical tests, histopathological examinations, and RT-PCR. Alcohol-containing diets substantially reduced the food intake and BW (≤3rd week), whereas fructose-fed animals had higher LW than controls (P<0.05). Additionally, leukocytes, plasma AST and leptin levels were the highest in the fructose-administered rats. Compared to the chow and LDC diets, the L-EF diet significantly elevated blood glucose, insulin, and total-cholesterol levels (also vs. the L-Et group). The albumin and Quick-test levels were the lowest, whereas ALT activity was the highest in the L-EF group. Moreover, the L-EF diet aggravated plasma triglyceride and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels more than 2.7-fold compared to the sum of the effects of the L-Et and L-Fr diets. The decreased hepatic insulin clearance in the L-EF group vs. control and LDC groups was reflected by a significantly decreased C-peptide:insulin ratio. All diets except the control caused hepatosteatosis, as evidenced by Nile red and H&E staining. Hepatic transcription of insulin receptor substrate-1/2 was mainly suppressed by the L-Fr and L-EF diets. The L-EF diet did not enhance the mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids (Cpt1α and Ppar-α expressions) compared to the L-Et or L-Fr diet. Together, our data provide evidence for the coaction of ethanol and fructose with a high-fat-diet on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance-accompanied liver damage.

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<![CDATA[Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da12ab0ee8fa60b79f54

In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE). Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), increased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA), suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro) and fluid transport (in vivo). Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

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<![CDATA[Hyperglycemia Determines Increased Specific MicroRNAs Levels in Sera and HDL of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients and Stimulates MicroRNAs Production in Human Macrophages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3eab0ee8fa60b890fa

We aimed to determine the levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in sera and HDL of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to stable angina (SA) patients with/without hyperglycemia, and evaluate comparatively the functional effect of these sera on the processing machinery proteins (Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer) and miRNAs production in human macrophages. MiRNAs levels in sera and HDL from 35 SA and 72 ACS patients and 30 healthy subjects were measured by using microRNA TaqMan assays. MiR-223, miR-92a, miR-486, miR-122, miR-125a and miR-146a levels were higher in the hyperglycemic ACS compared to normoglycemic sera. MiR-223 and miR-486 prevailed in HDL2, while miR-92a predominated in HDL3, all three miRNAs discriminating between ACS and SA patients; their levels were increased in HDL from hyperglycemic ACS patients versus normoglycemic ones. The incubation of human macrophages with sera from ACS and SA patients showed that all patients’ sera induced an increase of Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expressions and of selected miRNAs levels compared to control sera, the effect being higher in the case of hyperglycemic versus normoglycemic ACS sera. The addition of glucose to SA and ACS sera increased Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expression and miRNAs levels in the exposed macrophages. In conclusion, hyperglycemia is associated with increased miR-223, miR-92a, miR-486 levels in HDL, which discriminate between ACS and SA patients. Exposure of human macrophages to ACS compared to SA sera determines the upregulation of Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expression and the increase of selected miRNAs production, the effect being augmented by an increased glucose concentration.

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<![CDATA[Interpretation of metabolic memory phenomenon using a physiological systems model: What drives oxidative stress following glucose normalization?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b36a80e463d7e5a25ee92c9

Hyperglycemia is generally associated with oxidative stress, which plays a key role in diabetes-related complications. A complex, quantitative relationship has been established between glucose levels and oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo. For example, oxidative stress is known to persist after glucose normalization, a phenomenon described as metabolic memory. Also, uncontrolled glucose levels appear to be more detrimental to patients with diabetes (non-constant glucose levels) vs. patients with high, constant glucose levels. The objective of the current study was to delineate the mechanisms underlying such behaviors, using a mechanistic physiological systems modeling approach that captures and integrates essential underlying pathophysiological processes. The proposed model was based on a system of ordinary differential equations. It describes the interplay between reactive oxygen species production potential (ROS), ROS-induced cell alterations, and subsequent adaptation mechanisms. Model parameters were calibrated using different sources of experimental information, including ROS production in cell cultures exposed to various concentration profiles of constant and oscillating glucose levels. The model adequately reproduced the ROS excess generation after glucose normalization. Such behavior appeared to be driven by positive feedback regulations between ROS and ROS-induced cell alterations. The further oxidative stress-related detrimental effect as induced by unstable glucose levels can be explained by inability of cells to adapt to dynamic environment. Cell adaptation to instable high glucose declines during glucose normalization phases, and further glucose increase promotes similar or higher oxidative stress. In contrast, gradual ROS production potential decrease, driven by adaptation, is observed in cells exposed to constant high glucose.

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<![CDATA[Impact of Hyperglycemia and Low Oxygen Tension on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Compared with Dermal Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes: Importance for Wound Healing in Type 2 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da80ab0ee8fa60b9a420

Aim

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are currently proposed for wound healing in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, this study investigated the impact of diabetes on adipose tissue in relation to ASC isolation, proliferation, and growth factor release and the impact of hyperglycemia and low oxygen tension (found in diabetic wounds) on dermal fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and ASC in vitro.

Methods

Different sequences of hypoxia and hyperglycemia were applied in vitro to ASC from nondiabetic (n = 8) or T2DM patients (n = 4) to study cell survival, proliferation, and growth factor release. Comparisons of dermal fibroblasts (n = 8) and keratinocytes (primary lineage) were made.

Results

No significant difference of isolation and proliferation capacities was found in ASC from nondiabetic and diabetic humans. Hypoxia and hyperglycemia did not impact cell viability and proliferation. Keratinocyte Growth Factor release was significantly lower in diabetic ASC than in nondiabetic ASC group in each condition, while Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor release was not affected by the diabetic origin. Nondiabetic ASC exposition to hypoxia (0.1% oxygen) combined with hyperglycemia (25mM glucose), resulted in a significant increase in VEGF secretion (+64%, p<0.05) with no deleterious impact on KGF release in comparison to physiological conditions (5% oxygen and 5 mM glucose). Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1α (-93%, p<0.001) and KGF (-20%, p<0.05) secretion by DF decreased in these conditions.

Conclusions

A better profile of growth factor secretion (regarding wound healing) was found in vitro for ASC in hyperglycemia coupled with hypoxia in comparison to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Interestingly, ASC from T2DM donors demonstrated cellular growth rates and survival (in hypoxia and hyperglycemic conditions) similar to those of healthy ASC (from normoglycemic donors); however, KGF secretion was significantly depleted in ASC obtained from T2DM patients. This study demonstrated the impact of diabetes on ASC for regenerative medicine and wound healing.

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<![CDATA[The Metabolic Syndrome and ECG Detected Left Ventricular Hypertrophy – Influences from IGF-1 and IGF-Binding Protein-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd08c3

Background and Aims

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate potential influences from insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) on the relationship between the MetS and LVH, also taking into account the role of physical activity (PA), use of oestrogen and gender.

Methods and Results

In a population-based cross-sectional study of 60-year-old men (n = 1822) and women (n = 2049) participants underwent physical examination and laboratory tests, including electrocardiography (ECG), and completed an extensive questionnaire. Women showed higher levels of IGFBP-1 than men (37.0 vs. 28.0 µg/l, p<0.001), and women with LVH had lower levels of IGFBP-1 than women without LVH (31.0 µg/l vs. 37.0 µg/l, p<0.001). Furthermore, women with low levels of IGFBP-1 had a significantly increased risk of having LVH (crude OR≈2.5). When stratifying for PA and oestrogen, respectively, a weaker association between IGFBP-1 and LVH was demonstrated in physically active men and women, compared to inactive individuals, as well as in women using oestrogen, compared to non-users.

Conclusion

In a representative sample of 60-year-old Swedish men and women, the main findings were higher levels of IGFBP-1 in women than in men; lower levels of IGFBP-1 in women with LVH, compared to women without LVH; and an increased risk of having LVH in women with low levels of IGFBP-1. The association between IGFBP-1 and LVH was diminished in physically active men and women, as well as in women using oestrogen.

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