ResearchPad - hypothesis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The Transformative Influence of La Varenne's <i>Le Cuisinier Francois</i> (1651) on French Culinary Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13791 The current proliferation of modern cookbooks targeted to the public at large makes it impossible to conceive of there being any that could have had an overriding influence on culinary practice or eating preferences, even at a local level. However, when there was a historical absence of cookbooks for a half-century, as there was in France in the first half of the seventeenth century, it is argued herein that the advent of a single cookbook in 1651, Le Cuisinier Francois by La Varenne, could have had a transformational influence on culinary practice over the ensuing half-century. The book went into more than 50 subsequent editions in the second half of the century. La Varenne stated clearly that his intent was to provide a guide for professional cooks. However, it is hypothesized in this article that the widespread and enduring success of the book was due to its attraction to and acquisition by the general public, including household cooks. This can be ascribed to (i) the fact that there had been no French cookbook describing novel culinary approaches in the preceding 50 years, (ii) La Varenne's concise, uncomplicated, and practical style of presentation of recipes, and (iii) his selection of principal ingredients, which were within the reach of the household cook and which reflected the availability of foods at the time of writing. Furthermore, because Le Cuisinier Francois was laid out according to widely observed religious practices, finding the best options for the appropriate day of the month became an easy task for the user. La Varenne initiated a departure from an earlier style of heavily spiced cooking to one that was based on natural flavors, a limited use of spices, and uncomplicated cooking methods. Thus, rather than assuming that the enduring popularity of the book was due to its widespread use by culinary professionals, it is argued that its style and substance must have imparted a sense of empowerment and confidence in the home cook and that, in these terms, La Varenne's influence on culinary practice was far more widespread and truly transformative, accounting for the remarkable success of Le Cuisinier Francois.

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<![CDATA[Sport Practitioners as Sport Ecology Designers: How Ecological Dynamics Has Progressively Changed Perceptions of Skill “Acquisition” in the Sporting Habitat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12877 Over two decades ago, Davids et al. (1994) and Handford et al. (1997) raised theoretical concerns associated with traditional, reductionist, and mechanistic perspectives of movement coordination and skill acquisition for sport scientists interested in practical applications for training designs. These seminal papers advocated an emerging consciousness grounded in an ecological approach, signaling the need for sports practitioners to appreciate the constraints-led, deeply entangled, and non-linear reciprocity between the organism (performer), task, and environment subsystems. Over two decades later, the areas of skill acquisition, practice and training design, performance analysis and preparation, and talent development in sport science have never been so vibrant in terms of theoretical modeling, knowledge generation and innovation, and technological deployment. Viewed at an ecological level of analysis, the work of sports practitioners has progressively transitioned toward the facilitation of an evolving relationship between an organism (athlete and team) and its environment (sports competition). This commentary sets out to explore how these original ideas from Davids et al. (1994) and Handford et al. (1997) have been advanced through the theoretical lens of ecological dynamics. Concurrently, we provide case study exemplars, from applied practice in high-performance sports organizations, to illustrate how these contemporary perspectives are shaping the work of sports practitioners (sport ecology designers) in practice and in performance preparation.

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<![CDATA[The Social Origin of the Concept of Truth – How Statements Are Built on Disagreements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7847 This paper proposes a social account for the origin of the truth value and the emergence of the first declarative sentence. Such a proposal is based on two assumptions. The first is known as the social intelligence hypothesis: that the cognitive evolution of humans is first and foremost an adaptation to social demands. The second is the function-first approach to explaining the evolution of traits: before a prototype of a new trait develops and the adaptation process begins, something already existing is used for a new purpose. Applied to the emergence of declarative sentences, this suggests something already existing—natural signs (which have a logical or causal relation to what they denote)—were used for the declarative function and thereby integrated (in the form of indexical objects implying a past action) into communication. I show that the display of an indexical object (such as the display of hunting trophies) can imply a conceptual structure similar to that informing the syntax of sentences. The view developed in this paper is broadly consistent with the argumentative theory of Mercier and Sperber, which suggests that reasoning is less adapted to decision making than to social purposes such as winning disputes or justifying one’s actions. In this paper I extend this view to the origin of the concept of truth. According to my proposal, the first declarative sentence (articulated in a simple sign language) emerged as a negation of a negation of an implicit statement expressed by the display of an indexical object referring to a past action. Thereby, I suggest that the binary structure of the truth value underlying any declarative sentence is founded on disagreements based on conflicts of interest. Thus, I deny that the concept of truth could have evolved for instrumental reasons such as solving problems, or through self-questioning about what one ought to believe.

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<![CDATA[Cardiovascular Impairment in COVID-19: Learning From Current Options for Cardiovascular Anti-Inflammatory Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7614 In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, occurred in China and has currently led to a global pandemic. In addition to respiratory involvement, COVID-19 was also associated with significant multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Cardiovascular impairment has been observed and is now drawing growing attention. Cardiovascular protective strategies are urgent and of great significance to the overall prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Direct viral infection, cytokine storm, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases were recognized as possible mechanisms of cardiovascular impairment in COVID-19. Hyperactivated inflammation plays an important role in all three mechanisms and is considered to be fundamental in the development of cardiovascular impairment and MODS in COVID-19. Therefore, in addition to conventional cardiovascular treatment, anti-inflammatory therapy is a reasonable strategy for severe cases to further enhance cardiovascular protection and potentially mitigate MODS. We reviewed the inflammatory features and current promising treatments of COVID-19 as well as cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies that have been verified in previous clinical trials with positive outcomes. We believe that targeting the central pathway (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6), balancing the Th1 and Th2 response, and administering long-term anti-inflammatory therapy might be promising prospects to reduce cardiovascular impairment and even MODS during the acute and recovery phases of COVID-19. The cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapies might be of great application value to the management of COVID-19 patients and we further propose an algorithm for the selection of anti-inflammatory therapy for COVID-19 patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular impairment. We recommend to take the experiences in cardiovascular anti-inflammatory therapy as references in the management of COVID-19 and conduct related clinical trials, while the clinical translation of novel treatments from preclinical studies or in vitro drug screening should proceed with caution due to unguaranteed efficacy and safety profiles.

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<![CDATA[The role of growth factor receptors in viral infections: An opportunity for drug repurposing against emerging viral diseases such as COVID‐19?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea262a52-5a20-4c90-98ab-ff40f4033e4c Growth factor receptors are known to be involved in the process of viral infection. Many viruses not only use growth factor receptors to physically attach to the cell surface and internalize, but also divert receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in order to replicate. Thus, repurposing drugs that have initially been developed to target growth factor receptors and their signaling in cancer may prove to be a fast track to effective therapies against emerging new viral infections, including the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID‐19).

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<![CDATA[Glucolipotoxicity: A Proposed Etiology for Wooden Breast and Related Myopathies in Commercial Broiler Chickens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N650c7464-fabb-483c-8a52-5a260bd67f7d

Wooden breast is one of several myopathies of fast-growing commercial broilers that has emerged as a consequence of intensive selection practices in the poultry breeding industry. Despite the substantial economic burden presented to broiler producers worldwide by wooden breast and related muscle disorders such as white striping, the genetic and etiological underpinnings of these diseases are still poorly understood. Here we propose a new hypothesis on the primary causes of wooden breast that implicates dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Our hypothesis addresses recent findings that have suggested etiologic similarities between wooden breast and type 2 diabetes despite their phenotypic disparities. Unlike in mammals, dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism is not accompanied by an increase in plasma glucose levels but generates a unique skeletal muscle phenotype, i.e., wooden breast, in chickens. We hypothesize that these phenotypic disparities result from a major difference in skeletal muscle glucose transport between birds and mammals, and that the wooden breast phenotype most closely resembles complications of diabetes in smooth and cardiac muscle of mammals. Additional basic research on wooden breast and related muscle disorders in commercial broiler chickens is necessary and can be informative for poultry breeding and production as well as for human health and disease. To inform future studies, this paper reviews the current biological knowledge of wooden breast, outlines the major steps in its proposed pathogenesis, and examines how selection for production traits may have contributed to its prevalence.

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<![CDATA[Verbal Working Memory as Emergent from Language Comprehension and Production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N230dd3cf-1a21-44e2-8c8f-21a52746c15e

This article reviews current models of verbal working memory and considers the role of language comprehension and long-term memory in the ability to maintain and order verbal information for short periods of time. While all models of verbal working memory posit some interaction with long-term memory, few have considered the character of these long-term representations or how they might affect performance on verbal working memory tasks. Similarly, few models have considered how comprehension processes and production processes might affect performance in verbal working memory tasks. Modern theories of comprehension emphasize that people learn a vast web of correlated information about the language and the world and must activate that information from long-term memory to cope with the demands of language input. To date, there has been little consideration in theories of verbal working memory for how this rich input from comprehension would affect the nature of temporary memory. There has also been relatively little attention to the degree to which language production processes naturally manage serial order of verbal information. The authors argue for an emergent model of verbal working memory supported by a rich, distributed long-term memory for language. On this view, comprehension processes provide encoding in verbal working memory tasks, and production processes maintenance, serial ordering, and recall. Moreover, the computational capacity to maintain and order information varies with language experience. Implications for theories of working memory, comprehension, and production are considered.

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<![CDATA[The Gut-Brain-Axis on the Manifestation of Depressive Symptoms in Epilepsy: An Evidence-Driven Hypothesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1f35b6ce-b5f6-41fc-a67f-bec7e79ee6f3

Epilepsy is a severe neurological disorder involving 70 million people around the globe. Epilepsy-related neuropsychiatric comorbidities such as depression, which is the most common, is an additional factor that negatively impacts the living quality of epilepsy patients. There are many theories and complexities associated with both epilepsy and associated comorbidities, one of which is the gut-brain-axis influence. The gut microbiome is hypothesized to be linked with many neurological disorders; however, little conclusive evidence is available in this area. Thus, highlighting the role will create interest in researchers to conduct detailed research in comprehending the influence of gut-brain-axis in the manifestation of depressive symptoms in epilepsy. The hypothesis which is explored in this review is that the gut-brain-axis do play an important role in the genesis of epilepsy and associated depression. The correction of this dysbiosis might be beneficial in treating both epilepsy and related depression. This hypothesis is illustrated through extensive literature discussion, proposed experimental models, and its applicability in the field. There is indirect evidence which revealed some specific bacterial strains that might cause depression in epilepsy.

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<![CDATA[Repurposing Didanosine as a Potential Treatment for COVID-19 Using Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0e73f668-a186-40b6-bda0-b7802cb37728

As of today (7 April 2020), more than 81,000 people around the world have died from the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. There is no approved drug or vaccine for COVID-19, although more than 10 clinical trials have been launched to test potential drugs. In an urgent response to this pandemic, I developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify compounds and drug candidates to potentially treat COVID-19. This pipeline is based on publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data and the drug perturbation database “Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures” (LINCS).

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<![CDATA[Action Potential: A Vortex Phenomena; Driving Membrane Oscillations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N403c7e66-dce0-4028-928f-6077fb1fa546

Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model has been one of the most successful electrical interpretation of nerve membrane which led to revolutions in the field of computational neuroscience. On the contrary, experimental observations indicate that, an Action Potential (AP) is accompanied with certain physiological changes in the nerve membrane such as, production and absorption of heat; variation of axon diameter, pressure and length. Although, in the early 1900's a Pressure Wave Theory was proposed by E. Wilke, but, due to lack of sophisticated experimental techniques it was left uncharted. Until recently, when Heimburg-Jackson, Hady-Machta and Rvachev, independently proposed Soliton Theory (thermodynamic interpretation of nerve membrane), Mechanical Surface Waves theory (electro-mechanical interpretation) and Rvachev Model (mechano-electrical activation of voltage gated sodium ion channels) respectively; encouraging a deviation from the traditional HH interpretation with justification for the physical changes in the nerve membrane observed experimentally. But, these theories lead to a “hit and miss” scenario because, they do explain certain features (increase/decrease in axon diameter) but miss to explain, correlation between the strength of stimuli and spike rate of AP. Bio-physical models of nerve membrane are thus important for enhancing our understanding regarding the governing dynamics of neural activities encompassing the experimental observations. A novel theory is proposed here which, unravels vortex ring formation due to ion currents in the intracellular and extracellular region leading to variation of pressure causing the increment/decrement in axon diameter. These formations manifest as membrane oscillations which are used to establish a correlation between the strength of stimuli and spike rate of AP. The theory proposed in this paper, brings a paradigm shift in our understanding of neural dynamics from a thorough bio-physical and physiological perspective with promising applications.

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<![CDATA[Immunogenicity and Immune Silence in Human Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7f9d4086-6a33-49b7-944e-6eaae36879b1

Despite recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, the process of immunoediting early in tumorigenesis remains obscure. Here, we employ a mathematical model that utilizes the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data to elucidate the contribution of individual mutations and HLA alleles to the immunoediting process. We find that common cancer mutations including BRAF-V600E and KRAS-G12D are predicted to bind none of the common HLA alleles, and are thus “immunogenically silent” in the human population. We identify regions of proteins that are not presented by HLA at a population scale, coinciding with frequently mutated hotspots in cancer, and other protein regions broadly presented across the population in which few mutations occur. We also find that 9/29 common HLA alleles contribute disproportionately to the immunoediting of early oncogenic mutations. These data provide insights into immune evasion of common driver mutations and a molecular basis for the association of particular HLA genotypes with cancer susceptibility.

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<![CDATA[The Broad Concept of “Spasticity-Plus Syndrome” in Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible New Concept in the Management of Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N28a86bbc-2efd-4773-8bc2-5421f2b3a812

Multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology progressively affects multiple central nervous system (CNS) areas. Due to this fact, MS produces a wide array of symptoms. Symptomatic therapy of one MS symptom can cause or worsen other unwanted symptoms (anticholinergics used for bladder dysfunction produce impairment of cognition, many MS drugs produce erectile dysfunction, etc.). Appropriate symptomatic therapy is an unmet need. Several important functions/symptoms (muscle tone, sleep, bladder, pain) are mediated, in great part, in the brainstem. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed throughout the CNS irregularly: There is an accumulation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the brainstem. Nabiximols (a combination of THC and CBD oromucosal spray) interact with both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In several clinical trials with Nabiximols for MS spasticity, the investigators report improvement not only in spasticity itself, but also in several functions/symptoms mentioned before (spasms, cramps, pain, gait, sleep, bladder function, fatigue, and possibly tremor). We can conceptualize and, therefore, hypothesize, through this indirect information, that it could be considered the existence of a broad “Spasticity-Plus Syndrome” that involves, a cluster of symptoms apart from spasticity itself, the rest of the mentioned functions/symptoms, probably because they are interlinked after the increase of muscle tone and mediated, at least in part, in the same or close areas of the brainstem. If this holds true, there exists the possibility to treat several spasticity-related symptoms induced by MS pathology with a single therapy, which would permit to avoid the unnecessary adverse effects produced by polytherapy. This would result in an important advance in the symptomatic management of MS.

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<![CDATA[A Mechanistic Model of Macromolecular Allocation, Elemental Stoichiometry, and Growth Rate in Phytoplankton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfaf9fc5e-467e-425b-aa73-7905c84efd08

We present a model of the growth rate and elemental stoichiometry of phytoplankton as a function of resource allocation between and within broad macromolecular pools under a variety of resource supply conditions. The model is based on four, empirically-supported, cornerstone assumptions: that there is a saturating relationship between light and photosynthesis, a linear relationship between RNA/protein and growth rate, a linear relationship between biosynthetic proteins and growth rate, and a constant macromolecular composition of the light-harvesting machinery. We combine these assumptions with statements of conservation of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and energy. The model can be solved algebraically for steady state conditions and constrained with data on elemental stoichiometry from published laboratory chemostat studies. It interprets the relationships between macromolecular and elemental stoichiometry and also provides quantitative predictions of the maximum growth rate at given light intensity and nutrient supply rates. The model is compatible with data sets from several laboratory studies characterizing both prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton from marine and freshwater environments. It is conceptually simple, yet mechanistic and quantitative. Here, the model is constrained only by elemental stoichiometry, but makes predictions about allocation to measurable macromolecular pools, which could be tested in the laboratory.

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<![CDATA[Clustering of Neural Activity: A Design Principle for Population Codes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndfb6f374-8047-4a6c-8152-f1516ba3714b

We propose that correlations among neurons are generically strong enough to organize neural activity patterns into a discrete set of clusters, which can each be viewed as a population codeword. Our reasoning starts with the analysis of retinal ganglion cell data using maximum entropy models, showing that the population is robustly in a frustrated, marginally sub-critical, or glassy, state. This leads to an argument that neural populations in many other brain areas might share this structure. Next, we use latent variable models to show that this glassy state possesses well-defined clusters of neural activity. Clusters have three appealing properties: (i) clusters exhibit error correction, i.e., they are reproducibly elicited by the same stimulus despite variability at the level of constituent neurons; (ii) clusters encode qualitatively different visual features than their constituent neurons; and (iii) clusters can be learned by downstream neural circuits in an unsupervised fashion. We hypothesize that these properties give rise to a “learnable” neural code which the cortical hierarchy uses to extract increasingly complex features without supervision or reinforcement.

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<![CDATA[Stop and Flip: A Simple and Safe Phacoemulsification Technique]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na53e0fa3-4488-47b5-93e2-97ae8cc44bb4

Abstract

We introduce a simple, easy to learn, fast and safe technique to facilitate nucleus management in patients with zonular weakening in uncomplicated cases. The surgery begins with a temporal 3.2 mm clear corneal incision under topical anesthesia. Two side-port incisions are made on the inferior and superior sides. Anterior continuous curvilinear 5–6 mm diameter capsulorhexis and hydrodissection are performed to loosen capsule cortical attachments. The nucleus is not rotated, and an appropriated groove (80–90% depth) is sculpted using phaco machine. The groove is cracked into two hemispheres; lateral pressure and a side port manipulator. Then, 15–30 degree phaco tip is introduced and embedded into one hemisphere of nucleus beside the capsulorhexis edge at temporal or nasal part. After complete removal of the first hemisphere, the second is flipped again from bag into iris plane and phacoemulsified in the same manner.

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<![CDATA[Sequestration of Exogenous Volatiles by Plant Cuticular Waxes as a Mechanism of Passive Associational Resistance: A Proof of Concept]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0f2570db-bf9e-486e-adf8-21811d146422

Numerous plant-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) induce the expression of resistance-related genes and thereby cause an “associational resistance” in neighbouring plants. However, VOCs can also be sequestered by plant cuticular waxes. In case that they maintain their biological activity, such sequestered VOCs could generate a “passive” associational resistance that is independent of any gene expression in the receiver. As a proof of concept, we used major components of the cuticular wax layers of the tree, Parkinsonia praecox, and conidia of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, a fungal pathogen that has not been reported to infect P. praecox. Wax layers were re-constituted on glass slides and exposed to each of 20 pure VOCs for 1 d and then to ambient air for 1 d or 15 d. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses showed that all 20 VOCs were sequestered by the re-constituted wax layers. Exposure to 18 of the VOCs significantly inhibited the germination of C. lindemuthianum conidia on these wax layers after 1 day of exposure to ambient air. Four of the VOCs: 4Z-heptenol, farnesene, limonene, and 2E-decenal, inhibited germination rates to less than 25% of the controls. After 15 d, all VOCs were still detectable, although at strongly reduced concentrations, and no significant inhibition of conidial germination could be detected anymore. Exogenous VOCs can be sequestered by the components of plant cuticular waxes and maintain their biological activity, at least over a certain time span: an effect that could generate a transient “passive associational resistance” to pathogens.

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<![CDATA[Breast Cancer and Nutrition: A Paradigm for Prevention in 3D Across the Life Course]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne46622ec-3dea-4523-b4a2-68de6afeb059

Breast cancer, the most common cancer in women worldwide, has recognized reproductive and anthropometric risk factors including age at menarche and adult height. Yet the age when a woman attains her adult height or experiences menarche for example is simply the timing of the major life event at the end of a long trail of exposures that began in utero. The objective of this article is to investigate through a review of the literature the role of nutrition in breast cancer prevention through three dimensions (D). Each D offers a different lens. The First D identifies windows/ages of exposures or conditions that convey vulnerability or protection from breast cancer. The Second D addresses the intensity and duration of the exposure; and the (Third D) examines the pace, i.e., how rapid or slow the young woman experiences her growth and development. Birthweight illustrative of the First D reveals a strong signal across the life course on BC risk, but the risk group varies from low to high birthweight. Stressful life events like being a pubertal aged girl living in a household with an unemployed father during the Great Depression or high levels of environmental contaminants exposure are representative of the Second D. Height velocity at specific ages and weight loss in postmenopausal years are illustrative of anthropometric trajectories that reveal an adaptive biosystem that provides a contextual state to interact with the other two Ds. This article presents a new paradigm of nutrition and breast cancer prevention through the lens of three very different dimensions. It is the premise of this article that all three dimensions are essential tasks to tease apart the life course and identify windows for preventive strategies.

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<![CDATA[Using the General Linear Model to Improve Performance in fNIRS Single Trial Analysis and Classification: A Perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf1a5d3b3-43d5-4910-af20-77f19b28f398

Within a decade, single trial analysis of functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals has gained significant momentum, and fNIRS joined the set of modalities frequently used for active and passive Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). A great variety of methods for feature extraction and classification have been explored using state-of-the-art Machine Learning methods. In contrast, signal preprocessing and cleaning pipelines for fNIRS often follow simple recipes and so far rarely incorporate the available state-of-the-art in adjacent fields. In neuroscience, where fMRI and fNIRS are established neuroimaging tools, evoked hemodynamic brain activity is typically estimated across multiple trials using a General Linear Model (GLM). With the help of the GLM, subject, channel, and task specific evoked hemodynamic responses are estimated, and the evoked brain activity is more robustly separated from systemic physiological interference using independent measures of nuisance regressors, such as short-separation fNIRS measurements. When correctly applied in single trial analysis, e.g., in BCI, this approach can significantly enhance contrast to noise ratio of the brain signal, improve feature separability and ultimately lead to better classification accuracy. In this manuscript, we provide a brief introduction into the GLM and show how to incorporate it into a typical BCI preprocessing pipeline and cross-validation. Using a resting state fNIRS data set augmented with synthetic hemodynamic responses that provide ground truth brain activity, we compare the quality of commonly used fNIRS features for BCI that are extracted from (1) conventionally preprocessed signals, and (2) signals preprocessed with the GLM and physiological nuisance regressors. We show that the GLM-based approach can provide better single trial estimates of brain activity as well as a new feature type, i.e., the weight of the individual and channel-specific hemodynamic response function (HRF) regressor. The improved estimates yield features with higher separability, that significantly enhance accuracy in a binary classification task when compared to conventional preprocessing—on average +7.4% across subjects and feature types. We propose to adapt this well-established approach from neuroscience to the domain of single-trial analysis and preprocessing wherever the classification of evoked brain activity is of concern, for instance in BCI.

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<![CDATA[The Natural Selection of Private and Inner Speech]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8df38383-c71b-43a1-8da0-ef929d34a960

This article analyzes the emergence of private and inner speech from the perspective of natural selection, arguing that social speech acts as a selection pressure for the emergence of private speech, that private speech acts as a selection pressure that leads to the emergence of inner speech, and that this view of private and inner speech may help to explain the natural selection of a variety of other traits of the human mind in an asymmetric intraspecific evolutionary arms race.

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<![CDATA[The Overlooked Tradition of “Personal Music” and Its Place in the Evolution of Music]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N50c965cf-e584-48dd-80c6-d139c1056948

This is an attempt to describe and explain so-called timbre-based music as a special system of musicking, communication, and psychological and social usage, which along with its corresponding beliefs constitutes a viable alternative to “frequency-based” music. Unfortunately, the current scientific research into music has been skewed almost entirely in favor of the frequency-based music prevalent in the West. Subsequently, whenever samples of timbre-based music attract the attention of Western researchers, these are usually interpreted as “defective” implementations of frequency-based music. The presence of discrete pitch is often regarded as the structural criterion that distinguishes music from non-music. We would like to present evidence to the contrary—in support of the existence of indigenous music systems based on the discretization and patterning of aspects of timbre, rather than pitch. This evidence comes mainly from extensive ethnographic research systematically conducted in eastern European and Asian parts of Russia from the 1890s. It involved the efforts of thousands of specialists and was coordinated by dozens of research institutions, and it has included not just ethnomusicology but linguistics, philology, organology, archaeology, anthropology, geography, and religious, and social studies. Much of the data has not been translated into Western languages. Although some Soviet-era publications were tainted by Marxist ideology, many researchers strove to provide accurate information (despite at times having been prosecuted for their work), and post-1990 research undertook a substantial revision of ideologically compromised concepts. Timbre-based tonal organization (TO) differs from that based on frequency in its personal orientation: musicking here occurs primarily for oneself and/or for close relatives/friends. Collective music-making is rare and exceptional. The foundation of timbre-based music seems to have vocal roots and rests on “personal song”—a system of personal identification through individualized patterns of rhythm, timbre, and pitch contour, utilized like a “human voice”—whose sound enables the recognition of a particular individual. The instrumental counterpart of the personalized singing tradition is the jaw harp tradition. The jaw harp is the principal musical instrument for at least 21 ethnicities in Russia, who occupy over half the territory of the country. The evolution of its TO forms the backbone for the development of timbre-based music art. Here, we provide the acoustic, socio-cultural, geographic, and chronological overview of timbre-based music.

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