ResearchPad - immune-response https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Betanin purification from red beetroots and evaluation of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-activated microglial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13861 Microglial activation can release free radicals and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which implicates the progress of a neurodegenerative disease. Therefore suppression of microglial activation can be an appropriate strategy for combating neurodegenerative diseases. Betanin is a red food dye that acts as free radical scavenger and can be a promising candidate for this purpose. In this study, purification of betanin from red beetroots was carried out by normal phase colum chromatography, yielding 500 mg of betanin from 100 g of red beetroot. The purified betanin was evaluated by TLC, UV-visible, HPLC, ESI-MASS, FT-IR spectroscopy. Investigation on the inhibitory effect of betanin on activated microglia was performed using primary microglial culture. The results showed that betanin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced microglial function including the production of nitric oxide free radicals, reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Moreover, betanin modulated mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and adenosine triphosphate. We further investigated the interaction of betanin with TNF-α, IL-6 and Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) using in silico molecular docking analysis. The docking results demonstrated that betanin have significant negative binding energy against active sites of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS.

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<![CDATA[Active Notch signaling is required for arm regeneration in a brittle star]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7845 Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.

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<![CDATA[Inferring the immune response from repertoire sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7765 High-throughput immune repertoire sequencing (RepSeq) experiments are becoming a common way to study the diversity, structure and composition of lymphocyte repertoires, promising to yield unique insight into individuals’ past infection history. However, the analysis of these sequences remains challenging, especially when comparing two different temporal or tissue samples. Here we develop a new theoretical approach and methodology to extract the characteristics of the lymphocyte repertoire response from different samples. The method is specifically tailored to RepSeq experiments and accounts for the multiple sources of noise present in these experiments. Its output provides expansion parameters, as well as a list of potentially responding clonotypes. We apply the method to describe the response to yellow fever vaccine obtained from samples taken at different time points. We also use our results to estimate the diversity and clone size statistics from data.

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<![CDATA[ICOS signaling promotes a secondary humoral response after re-challenge with <i>Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi</i> AS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7745 Malaria, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, remains a major global health problem, as over 400,000 people die from this disease every year. Further understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to protective immunity against this parasite will serve to promote the development of an effective vaccine. Here, we describe the importance of the co-stimulatory molecule ICOS during secondary infection with the rodent parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. We show that ICOS promotes the expansion of memory T cells, their acquisition of a secondary follicular helper T (Tfh) cell phenotype, and their ability to provide help to MBCs after reinfection. While ICOS deficient mice control the initial parasite load after re-challenge, the absence of ICOS leads to higher relapsing parasitemia compared to wild-type mice. We establish that the lack of expansion of effector cells with a Tfh cell phenotype in Icos-/- mice prevents germinal center formation after secondary infection. Thus, we show that ICOS signaling in T cells promotes an effective memory T cell response and suggests that the enhancement of this co-stimulatory pathway during vaccination may enhance protective immunity to blood-stage Plasmodium infection.

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<![CDATA[Oral administration with a traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage modulates non-specific and antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7730 Fruits have been widely considered as the default “health foods” because they contain numerous vitamins and minerals needed to sustain human health. Fermentation strategies have been utilized to enhance the nutritive and flavor features of healthy and readily consumable fruit products while extending their shelf lives. A traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage was made from five fruits including kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, and grape fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae along with lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The immunomodulatory properties of the fermented multi-fruit beverage, in vivo nonspecific and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune response experiments using female BALB/c mice were performed. Administration of the fermented multi-fruit beverage reduced the calorie intake, thus resulting in a less weight gain in mice compared to the water (placebo)-fed mice. In the nonspecific immune study model, the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced phagocytosis and T cell proliferation but did not affect B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Analysis of cytokine secretion profile also revealed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and T helper (Th)1-related cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ production, thus creating an immunostimulatory effect. Nonetheless, in the specific immune study model, the results showed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α production in OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, it also caused a decrease in the production of anti-OVA IgG1, which was accompanied by a decrease in Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 production and an increase in Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ production, indicating that it may have the potential to shift the immune system from the allergen‐specific Th2 responses toward Th1-type responses. The results indicate that fermented multi-fruit beverage has the potential to modulate immune responses both in a nonspecific and specific manners.

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<![CDATA[A Novel HIV Vaccine Adjuvanted by IC31 Induces Robust and Persistent Humoral and Cellular Immunity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab9ab0ee8fa60badf30

The HIV vaccine strategy that, to date, generated immune protection consisted of a prime-boost regimen using a canarypox vector and an HIV envelope protein with alum, as shown in the RV144 trial. Since the efficacy was weak, and previous HIV vaccine trials designed to generate antibody responses failed, we hypothesized that generation of T cell responses would result in improved protection. Thus, we tested the immunogenicity of a similar envelope-based vaccine using a mouse model, with two modifications: a clade C CN54gp140 HIV envelope protein was adjuvanted by the TLR9 agonist IC31®, and the viral vector was the vaccinia strain NYVAC-CN54 expressing HIV envelope gp120. The use of IC31® facilitated immunoglobulin isotype switching, leading to the production of Env-specific IgG2a, as compared to protein with alum alone. Boosting with NYVAC-CN54 resulted in the generation of more robust Th1 T cell responses. Moreover, gp140 prime with IC31® and alum followed by NYVAC-CN54 boost resulted in the formation and persistence of central and effector memory populations in the spleen and an effector memory population in the gut. Our data suggest that this regimen is promising and could improve the protection rate by eliciting strong and long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses.

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<![CDATA[Clinical role, optimal timing and frequency of serum infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody level measurements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc1f4

Background

Serum infliximab (IFX) and antibody-to-infliximab (ATI) levels are objective parameters, that may have a great role in the therapeutic decisions during maintenance biological therapy.

Research design and methods

48 inflammatory bowel disease patients receiving maintenance IFX therapy were prospectively enrolled and divided into adequate (complete remission N = 20) and inadequate responder (partial response, loss of response, dose escalation; N = 28) groups. Blood samples were collected just before (trough level, TL) and two (W2aTL) and six weeks (W6aTL) after the administration of IFX.

Results

Single measurement of ATI titer was insufficient for predicting therapeutic response due to transient expression of ATI, however, using the three points’ measurements, significant difference has been detected between the adequate and inadequate responder group (5.0% vs 35.7%; p = 0.016). The mean value of TL was significantly higher in the adequate responder group (3.11±1.64 vs.1.19±1.11; p<0.001) without further difference on the second and sixth week. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting the therapeutic response were 85.0% and 71.4% based on the cut-off value of TL 2.0 μg/ml.

Conclusion

Simultaneous measurement of serum IFX level prior to administration of regular IFX infusion and ATI titers significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy for the therapeutic decision in patients uncertainly responding to the therapy. The measurement of W2aTL and W6aTL levels did not result in further improvement in the prediction of therapeutic response.

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<![CDATA[Highly efficient serum-free manipulation of miRNA in human NK cells without loss of viability or phenotypic alterations is accomplished with TransIT-TKO]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4e6e8e95-63ae-420d-a6d7-c2f1aa3d99e6

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes with functions that include target cell killing, inflammation and regulation. NK cells integrate incoming activating and inhibitory signals through an array of germline-encoded receptors to gauge the health of neighbouring cells. The reactive potential of NK cells is influenced by microRNA (miRNA), small non-coding sequences that interfere with mRNA expression. miRNAs are highly conserved between species, and a single miRNA can have hundreds to thousands of targets and influence entire cellular programs. Two miRNA species, miR-155-5p and miR-146a-5p are known to be important in controlling NK cell function, but research to best understand the impacts of miRNA species within NK cells has been bottlenecked by a lack of techniques for altering miRNA concentrations efficiently and without off-target effects. Here, we describe a non-viral and straightforward approach for increasing or decreasing expression of miRNA in primary human NK cells. We achieve >90% transfection efficiency without off-target impacts on NK cell viability, education, phenotype or function. This opens the opportunity to study and manipulate NK cell miRNA profiles and their impacts on NK cellular programs which may influence outcomes of cancer, inflammation and autoimmunity.

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<![CDATA[Exposure to dim light at night prior to conception attenuates offspring innate immune responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N231fece1-eb24-47b2-a00f-cbdce7a093c6

Functional circadian timekeeping is necessary for homeostatic control of the immune system and appropriate immune responsiveness. Disruption of natural light-dark cycles, through light at night (LAN), impairs innate and adaptive immune responses in nocturnal rodents. These altered immune responses are associated with disrupted endogenous gene transcriptional and endocrine cycles. However, few studies have addressed the multigenerational consequences of systemic circadian rhythm disruption. We hypothesized that parental exposure to dim LAN (dLAN) would alter innate immune and sickness responses to an endotoxin challenge in adult offspring gestated and reared in dark nights. Adult male and female Siberian hamsters were exposed to either dark nights (DARK) or dLAN (~5 lux) for 8 weeks, then paired, mated, and thereafter housed under dark nights. Maternal exposure to dLAN prior to conception impaired febrile responses and increased splenic il-1 production in response to LPS in male offspring. Paternal pre-conception dLAN dampened offspring tnf-α expression in the hypothalamus, reduced serum bactericidal capacity, and dark phase locomotor activity. These changes occurred despite offspring being conceived, gestated, and reared under standard dark night conditions. Overall, these data suggest that dLAN has intergenerational effects on innate immunity and sickness responses.

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<![CDATA[Toxin-neutralizing antibodies elicited by naturally acquired cutaneous anthrax are elevated following severe disease and appear to target conformational epitopes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0733fdcc-4c39-44e4-82cd-032e69d54dbc

Understanding immune responses to native antigens in response to natural infections can lead to improved approaches to vaccination. This study sought to characterize the humoral immune response to anthrax toxin components, capsule and spore antigens in individuals (n = 46) from the Kayseri and Malatya regions of Turkey who had recovered from mild or severe forms of cutaneous anthrax infection, compared to regional healthy controls (n = 20). IgG antibodies to each toxin component, the poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule, the Bacillus collagen-like protein of anthracis (BclA) spore antigen, and the spore carbohydrate anthrose, were detected in the cases, with anthrax toxin neutralization and responses to Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF) being higher following severe forms of the disease. Significant correlative relationships among responses to PA, LF, Edema Factor (EF) and capsule were observed among the cases. Though some regional control sera exhibited binding to a subset of the tested antigens, these samples did not neutralize anthrax toxins and lacked correlative relationships among antigen binding specificities observed in the cases. Comparison of serum binding to overlapping decapeptides covering the entire length of PA, LF and EF proteins in 26 cases compared to 8 regional controls revealed that anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody responses elicited following natural cutaneous anthrax infection are directed to conformational epitopes. These studies support the concept of vaccination approaches that preserve conformational epitopes.

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<![CDATA[Host immune responses during Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis infection and treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc0d0d75e-fba6-45d6-a2e4-1505f9de6f1c

Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis (TSCT), caused by the tapeworm T. solium, is a foodborne and zoonotic disease classified since 2010 by WHO as a neglected tropical isease. It causes considerable impact on health and economy and is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy in most endemic countries of Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia. There is some evidence that the prevalence of TSCT in high-income countries has recently increased, mainly due to immigration from endemic areas. In regions endemic for TSCT, human cysticercosis can manifest clinically as neurocysticercosis (NCC), resulting in epileptic seizures and severe progressive headaches, amongst other neurological signs and/or symptoms. The development of these symptoms results from a complex interplay between anatomical cyst localization, environmental factors, parasite’s infective potential, host genetics, and, especially, host immune responses. Treatment of individuals with active NCC (presence of viable cerebral cysts) with anthelmintic drugs together with steroids is usually effective and, in the majority, reduces the number and/or size of cerebral lesions as well as the neurological symptoms. However, in some cases, treatment may profoundly enhance anthelmintic inflammatory responses with ensuing symptoms, which, otherwise, would have remained silent as long as the cysts are viable. This intriguing silencing process is not yet fully understood but may involve active modulation of host responses by cyst-derived immunomodulatory components released directly into the surrounding brain tissue or by the induction of regulatory networks including regulatory T cells (Treg) or regulatory B cells (Breg). These processes might be disturbed once the cysts undergo treatment-induced apoptosis and necrosis or in a coinfection setting such as HIV. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the immunology and pathogenesis of NCC with a highlight on the mobilization of immune cells during human NCC and their interaction with viable and degenerating cysticerci. Moreover, the immunological parameters associated with NCC in people living with HIV/AIDS and treatments are discussed. Eventually, we propose open questions to understand the role of the immune system and its impact in this intriguing host–parasite crosstalk.

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<![CDATA[Accelerated brain aging towards transcriptional inversion in a zebrafish model of the K115fs mutation of human PSEN2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N35618ab8-cca5-47c4-ba7f-8d3941adbaaf

Background

The molecular changes involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression remain unclear since we cannot easily access antemortem human brains. Some non-mammalian vertebrates such as the zebrafish preserve AD-relevant transcript isoforms of the PRESENILIN genes lost from mice and rats. One example is PS2V, the alternative transcript isoform of the PSEN2 gene. PS2V is induced by hypoxia/oxidative stress and shows increased expression in late onset, sporadic AD brains. A unique, early onset familial AD mutation of PSEN2, K115fs, mimics the PS2V coding sequence suggesting that forced, early expression of PS2V-like isoforms may contribute to AD pathogenesis. Here we use zebrafish to model the K115fs mutation to investigate the effects of forced PS2V-like expression on the transcriptomes of young adult and aged adult brains.

Methods

We edited the zebrafish genome to model the K115fs mutation. To explore its effects at the molecular level, we analysed the brain transcriptome and proteome of young (6-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) wild type and heterozygous mutant female sibling zebrafish. Finally, we used gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to compare molecular changes in the brains of these fish to human AD.

Results

Young heterozygous mutant fish show transcriptional changes suggesting accelerated brain aging and increased glucocorticoid signalling. These early changes precede a transcriptional ‘inversion’ that leads to glucocorticoid resistance and other likely pathological changes in aged heterozygous mutant fish. Notably, microglia-associated immune responses regulated by the ETS transcription factor family are altered in both our zebrafish mutant model and in human AD. The molecular changes we observe in aged heterozygous mutant fish occur without obvious histopathology and possibly in the absence of Aβ.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that forced expression of a PS2V-like isoform contributes to immune and stress responses favouring AD pathogenesis. This highlights the value of our zebrafish genetic model for exploring molecular mechanisms involved in AD pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Extending the information content of the MALDI analysis of biological fluids via multi-million shot analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne38ffd74-9b00-41c1-8ae6-cb5565d3274c

Introduction

Reliable measurements of the protein content of biological fluids like serum or plasma can provide valuable input for the development of personalized medicine tests. Standard MALDI analysis typically only shows high abundance proteins, which limits its utility for test development. It also exhibits reproducibility issues with respect to quantitative measurements. In this paper we show how the sensitivity of MALDI profiling of intact proteins in unfractionated human serum can be substantially increased by exposing a sample to many more laser shots than are commonly used. Analytical reproducibility is also improved.

Methods

To assess what is theoretically achievable we utilized spectra from the same samples obtained over many years and combined them to generate MALDI spectral averages of up to 100,000,000 shots for a single sample, and up to 8,000,000 shots for a set of 40 different serum samples. Spectral attributes, such as number of peaks and spectral noise of such averaged spectra were investigated together with analytical reproducibility as a function of the number of shots. We confirmed that results were similar on MALDI instruments from different manufacturers.

Results

We observed an expected decrease of noise, roughly proportional to the square root of the number of shots, over the whole investigated range of the number of shots (5 orders of magnitude), resulting in an increase in the number of reliably detected peaks. The reproducibility of the amplitude of these peaks, measured by CV and concordance analysis also improves with very similar dependence on shot number, reaching median CVs below 2% for shot numbers > 4 million. Measures of analytical information content and association with biological processes increase with increasing number of shots.

Conclusions

We demonstrate that substantially increasing the number of laser shots in a MALDI-TOF analysis leads to more informative and reliable data on the protein content of unfractionated serum. This approach has already been used in the development of clinical tests in oncology.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of an intratracheal aerosol challenge model of Brucella melitensis in guinea pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823ccd5eed0c48463903c

B. melitensis is considered the most virulent of the Brucella species, and a need exists for an improved laboratory animal model of infection that mimics natural transmission and disease. Guinea pigs are highly susceptible to infection with Brucella spp. and develop a disease syndrome that mimics natural disease after aerosol inoculation. Intratracheal inoculation is a targeted means of generating aerosols that offer advantages over aerosol chamber delivery. To establish this delivery method, female, Hartley guinea pigs were infected via intratracheal inoculation with PBS or 16M B. melitensis at low dose (101 to 103) or high dose (106 to 108) and monitored for 30 days for signs of disease. Guinea pigs in the high dose groups developed fever between 12–17 days post-inoculation. Bacteria were recovered from the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lung, and uterus at 30-days post-inoculation and demonstrated dose dependent mean increases in colonization and pathologic changes consistent with human brucellosis. To study the kinetics of extrapulmonary dissemination, guinea pigs were inoculated with 107 CFU and euthanized at 2-hours post inoculation and at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. 5.8x105 to 4.2x106 CFU were recovered from the lung 2 hours post-inoculation indicating intratracheal inoculation is an efficient means of infecting guinea pigs. Starting at 1-week post inoculation bacteria were recovered from the aforementioned organs with time dependent mean increases in colonization. This data demonstrates that guinea pigs develop a disease syndrome that models the human manifestation of brucellosis, which makes the guinea pig a valuable model for pathogenesis studies.

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<![CDATA[In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of the anti-Giardia duodenalis activity of the supernatant of Slab51 (SivoMixx)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acce0d5eed0c4849901f8

The effects on Giardia duodenalis of Slab51 probiotic supernatants were evaluated in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro, Slab51 (101 UFC) was cultured and the obtained supernatant was filtered, adjusted at pH 7, and added (100μl/ml) as such (Slab51 FS) or after heat-treatment, to G. duodenalis cultures to evaluate its effects on G. duodenalis trophozoites growth and adherence. For comparison, negative and metronidazole (20μg/ml) treated controls were used. The morphological and ultrastructural alterations of G. duodenals trophozoites following treatment with Slab51 FS supernatant were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Ex vivo, mice duodenal portions were cultivated in standard conditions with 5x105 G. duodenalis trophozoites/ml, while to further five duodenal portions similarly cultured and infected, Slab51 FS 200μl was added. After 12 and 18h, samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histologically processed to score Giardia infection and cell damage. Cell proliferation/apoptosis was scored by Ki67, TUNEL and Caspase–3 tests. All experiments were conducted in triplicate throughout the study. All data were statistically evaluated (P< 0.05). Results showed that Slab51 FS significantly reduced Giardia growth and adherence respect to negative controls, but its efficacy was overall lower than that of metronidazole. Moreover, the effects of Slab51 FS were significantly lowered by heat-treatment and this reduction was statistically higher at 90°C than at 56°C, indicating a heat-sensitive nature of active Slab51 FS compounds. At the ultrastructural level, Slab51 FS treated Giardia trophozoites were swelling, increased in size and showed alterations of their cellular membrane and vacuole patterns, loss of the nuclear envelope and nuclear architecture. In ex vivo trials, viable G. duodenalis trophozoites and enterocyte TUNEL+ and Caspase-3 expression were significantly reduced in intestinal sections added with Slab51 FS, while enterocyte Ki67 expression was significantly increased, confirming the anti-G. duodenalis activity of Slab51 FS observed in vitro. In conclusion, results from this study showed that the fresh culture supernatant of the commercial probiotic Slab51 has anti-G. duodenalis properties both in vitro and ex vivo in a mouse model.

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<![CDATA[Boosting subdominant neutralizing antibody responses with a computationally designed epitope-focused immunogen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fe8d5eed0c4840078de

Throughout the last several decades, vaccination has been key to prevent and eradicate infectious diseases. However, many pathogens (e.g., respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], influenza, dengue, and others) have resisted vaccine development efforts, largely because of the failure to induce potent antibody responses targeting conserved epitopes. Deep profiling of human B cells often reveals potent neutralizing antibodies that emerge from natural infection, but these specificities are generally subdominant (i.e., are present in low titers). A major challenge for next-generation vaccines is to overcome established immunodominance hierarchies and focus antibody responses on crucial neutralization epitopes. Here, we show that a computationally designed epitope-focused immunogen presenting a single RSV neutralization epitope elicits superior epitope-specific responses compared to the viral fusion protein. In addition, the epitope-focused immunogen efficiently boosts antibodies targeting the palivizumab epitope, resulting in enhanced neutralization. Overall, we show that epitope-focused immunogens can boost subdominant neutralizing antibody responses in vivo and reshape established antibody hierarchies.

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<![CDATA[Global transcriptional regulation of innate immunity by ATF-7 in C. elegans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784faad5eed0c4840072b2

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has emerged as a genetically tractable animal host in which to study evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of innate immune signaling. We previously showed that the PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates innate immunity of C. elegans through phosphorylation of the CREB/ATF bZIP transcription factor, ATF-7. Here, we have undertaken a genomic analysis of the transcriptional response of C. elegans to infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, combining genome-wide expression analysis by RNA-seq with ATF-7 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq). We observe that PMK-1-ATF-7 activity regulates a majority of all genes induced by pathogen infection, and observe ATF-7 occupancy in regulatory regions of pathogen-induced genes in a PMK-1-dependent manner. Moreover, functional analysis of a subset of these ATF-7-regulated pathogen-induced target genes supports a direct role for this transcriptional response in host defense. The genome-wide regulation through PMK-1– ATF-7 signaling reveals a striking level of control over the innate immune response to infection through a single transcriptional regulator.

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<![CDATA[Distinct transcriptional modules in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells response to human respiratory syncytial virus or to human rhinovirus in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9902b2d5eed0c484b983fb

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main cause of bronchiolitis during the first year of life, when infections by other viruses, such as rhinovirus, also occur and are clinically indistinguishable from those caused by HRSV. In hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis, the analysis of gene expression profiles from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) may be useful for the rapid identification of etiological factors, as well as for developing diagnostic tests, and elucidating pathogenic mechanisms triggered by different viral agents. In this study we conducted a comparative global gene expression analysis of PBMC obtained from two groups of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis who were infected by HRSV (HRSV group) or by HRV (HRV group). We employed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) which allows the identification of transcriptional modules and their correlations with HRSV or HRV groups. This approach permitted the identification of distinct transcription modules for the HRSV and HRV groups. According to these data, the immune response to HRSV infection—comparatively to HRV infection—was more associated to the activation of the interferon gamma signaling pathways and less related to neutrophil activation mechanisms. Moreover, we also identified host-response molecular markers that could be used for etiopathogenic diagnosis. These results may contribute to the development of new tests for respiratory virus identification. The finding that distinct transcriptional profiles are associated to specific host responses to HRSV or to HRV may also contribute to the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms triggered by different respiratory viruses, paving the way for new therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[Coincident airway exposure to low-potency allergen and cytomegalovirus sensitizes for allergic airway disease by viral activation of migratory dendritic cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc7ed5eed0c48498f892

Despite a broad cell-type tropism, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an evidentially pulmonary pathogen. Predilection for the lungs is of medical relevance in immunocompromised recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation, in whom interstitial CMV pneumonia is a frequent and, if left untreated, fatal clinical manifestation of human CMV infection. A conceivable contribution of CMV to airway diseases of other etiology is an issue that so far attracted little medical attention. As the route of primary CMV infection upon host-to-host transmission in early childhood involves airway mucosa, coincidence of CMV airway infection and exposure to airborne environmental antigens is almost unavoidable. For investigating possible consequences of such a coincidence, we established a mouse model of airway co-exposure to CMV and ovalbumin (OVA) representing a protein antigen of an inherently low allergenic potential. Accordingly, intratracheal OVA exposure alone failed to sensitize for allergic airway disease (AAD) upon OVA aerosol challenge. In contrast, airway infection at the time of OVA sensitization predisposed for AAD that was characterized by airway inflammation, IgE secretion, thickening of airway epithelia, and goblet cell hyperplasia. This AAD histopathology was associated with a T helper type 2 (Th2) transcription profile in the lungs, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-25, known inducers of Th2-driven AAD. These symptoms were all prevented by a pre-challenge depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not of CD8+ T cells. As to the underlying mechanism, murine CMV activated migratory CD11b+ as well as CD103+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), which have been associated with Th2 cytokine-driven AAD and with antigen cross-presentation, respectively. This resulted in an enhanced OVA uptake and recruitment of the OVA-laden cDCs selectively to the draining tracheal lymph nodes for antigen presentation. We thus propose that CMV, through activation of migratory cDCs in the airway mucosa, can enhance the allergenic potential of otherwise poorly allergenic environmental protein antigens.

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<![CDATA[Cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis BCG enhances the vaccine potential of antigen 85B against tuberculosis by inducing Th1 and Th17 responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c191fd5eed0c484b4cf58

A safe and effective adjuvant is necessary to induce reliable protective efficacy of the protein-based vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Mycobacterial components, such as synthetic cord factor and arabinogalactan, have been used as one of the adjuvant components. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette- Guérin cell-wall skeleton (BCG-CWS) has been used as an effective immune-stimulator. However, it is not proven whether BCG-CWS can be an effective adjuvant for the subunit protein vaccine of TB. In this study, we demonstrated that the BCG-CWS effectively coupled with Ag85B and enhanced the conjugated Ag85B activity on the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). Ag85B-BCG-CWS-matured DCs induced significant Th1 and Th17 responses when compared to BCG-CWS or Ag85B alone. In addition, significant Ag85B-specific Th1 and Th17 responses were induced in Ag85B-BCG-CWS-immunized mice before infection with M. tuberculosis and maintained after infection. Moreover, Ag85B-BCG-CWS showed significant protective effect comparable to live BCG at 6 weeks after infection and maintained its protective efficacy at 32 weeks post-challenge, whereas live BCG did not. These results suggest that the BCG-CWS may be an effective adjuvant candidate for a protein-based vaccine against TB.

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