ResearchPad - immunofluorescence https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Characterization of limbal explant sites: Optimization of stem cell outgrowth in <i>in vitro</i> culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14624 Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) are proven techniques for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). However, the precise regions that are most suitable for preparing explants for transplantation have not been identified conclusively. Accordingly, this in vitro study aimed at determining ideal sites to be selected for tissue harvest for limbal stem cell culture and transplantation. We evaluated cell outgrowth potential and the expression of stem cell markers in cultures from 48 limbal explants from five cadaveric donors. The limbal explants were generated from the three specific sites: Lcor (located innermost and adjacent to the cornea), Lm (middle limbus), and Lconj (located outermost adjacent to the conjunctiva). We found that explants from the Lconj and Lm sites exhibited higher growth potential than those from the Lcor site. Transcript encoding the stem cell marker and p63 isoform, ΔNp63, was detected in cells from Lm and Lconj explants; expression levels were slightly, though significantly (p-value < 0.05), higher in Lm than in Lconj, although expression of ΔNp63α protein was similar in cells from all explants. Differential expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2 (ABCG2) did not reach statistical significance. Immunohistochemistry by indirect immunofluorescence analysis of limbus tissue revealed that the basal layer in explant tissue from Lconj and Lm contained markedly more stem cells than found in Lcor explant tissue; these findings correlate with a higher capacity for growth. Collectively, our findings suggest that explants from the Lconj and Lm sites should be selected for limbal cell expansion for both CLET and SLET procedures. These new insights may guide surgeons toward specific limbal sites that are most suitable for stem cell culture and transplantation and may ultimately improve treatment outcomes in the patients with LSCD.

]]>
<![CDATA[RPGRIP1L is required for stabilizing epidermal keratinocyte adhesion through regulating desmoglein endocytosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d63dd5eed0c48403195b

Cilia-related proteins are believed to be involved in a broad range of cellular processes. Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein 1-like (RPGRIP1L) is a ciliary protein required for ciliogenesis in many cell types, including epidermal keratinocytes. Here we report that RPGRIP1L is also involved in the maintenance of desmosomal junctions between keratinocytes. Genetically disrupting the Rpgrip1l gene in mice caused intraepidermal blistering, primarily between basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. This blistering phenotype was associated with aberrant expression patterns of desmosomal proteins, impaired desmosome ultrastructure, and compromised cell-cell adhesion in vivo and in vitro. We found that disrupting the RPGRIP1L gene in HaCaT cells, which do not form primary cilia, resulted in mislocalization of desmosomal proteins to the cytoplasm, suggesting a cilia-independent function of RPGRIP1L. Mechanistically, we found that RPGRIP1L regulates the endocytosis of desmogleins such that RPGRIP1L-knockdown not only induced spontaneous desmoglein endocytosis, as determined by AK23 labeling and biotinylation assays, but also exacerbated EGTA- or pemphigus vulgaris IgG-induced desmoglein endocytosis. Accordingly, inhibiting endocytosis with dynasore or sucrose rescued these desmosomal phenotypes. Biotinylation assays on cell surface proteins not only reinforced the role of RPGRIP1L in desmoglein endocytosis, but also suggested that RPGRIP1L may be more broadly involved in endocytosis. Thus, data obtained from this study advanced our understanding of the biological functions of RPGRIP1L by identifying its role in the cellular endocytic pathway.

]]>
<![CDATA[A localized surface plasmon resonance-amplified immunofluorescence biosensor for ultrasensitive and rapid detection of nonstructural protein 1 of Zika virus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca293d5eed0c48441e69d

Among the members of flaviviruses, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a potent infectious disease agent, with its associated pandemic prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare it a global public health concern. Thus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of the ZIKV is needed. In this study, we report a new immunofluorescence biosensor for the detection of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the ZIKV, which operates using the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) signal from plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to amplify the fluorescence intensity signal of quantum dots (QDs) within an antigen-antibody detection process. The LSPR signal from the AuNPs was used to amplify the fluorescence intensity of the QDs. For ultrasensitive, rapid, and quantitative detection of NS1 of the ZIKV, four different thiol-capped AuNPs were investigated. Our biosensor could detect the ZIKV in a wide concentration range from 10–107 RNA copies/mL, and we found that the limit of detection (LOD) for the ZIKV followed the order Ab-L-cysteine-AuNPs (LOD = 8.2 copies/mL) > Ab-3-mercaptopropionic acid-AuNPs (LOD = 35.0 copies/mL). Immunofluorescence biosensor for NS1 exhibited excellent specificity against other negative control targets and could also detect the ZIKV in human serum.

]]>
<![CDATA[The investigation of transcriptional repression mediated by ZEB2 in canine invasive micropapillary carcinoma in mammary gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478cacd5eed0c484bd3d4d

The E-cadherin loss has frequently been associated with transcriptional repression mediated by transcription factors, such as the Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox-2 (ZEB2). Invasive micropapillary carcinomas (IMPCs) of the breast are aggressive neoplasms frequently related to lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival. In the canine mammary gland, IMPCs has just been reported and, based on its behavioral similarity with the human IMPCs, appears to be a good spontaneous model to this human entity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2 in a spontaneous canine model of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland. The correlation among gene expression (ZEB2 and CDH1) and clinicopathological findings was also explored. Nineteen cases of IMPC of the canine mammary gland were obtained, protein and mRNA expression were investigated through immunohistochemistry and RNA In Situ Hybridization, respectively. To better understand the relationship between E-cadherin and ZEB2, immunofluorescence was performed in canine IMPCs. Immunohistochemically, most of IMPCs showed 1+ (14/19, 73.7%) for E-cadherin; and positivity for ZEB2 was diagnosed in 47.4% of the IMPCs. Regarding the RNA In Situ Hybridization (ISH), most of IMPCs showed 4+ and 0+ for E-cadherin (CDH1) and ZEB2 respectively. Through immunofluorescence, the first and second more frequent combinatorial group were E-cadherin+ZEB2- and E-cadherin+ZEB2+; neoplastic cells showing concomitantly weak expression for E-cadherin and positivity for ZEB2 were frequently observed. A negative correlation was observed between E-cadherin and progesterone receptor expression in IMPCs. Based on these results, canine mammary IMPCs show E-cadherin lost and, at times reveals nuclear positivity for the transcription factor ZEB2 that seems to exert transcriptional repression of the CDH1.

]]>
<![CDATA[Generating Vegfr3 reporter transgenic mouse expressing membrane-tagged Venus for visualization of VEGFR3 expression in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c366797d5eed0c4841a5c74

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (Vegfr3) has been widely used as a marker for lymphatic and vascular endothelial cells during mouse embryonic development and in adult mouse, making it valuable for studying angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. Here, we report the generation of a novel transgenic (Tg) mouse that expresses a membrane-localized fluorescent reporter protein, Gap43-Venus, under the control of the Vegfr3 regulatory sequence. Vegfr3-Gap43-Venus BAC Tg recapitulated endogenous Vegfr3 expression in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells during embryonic development and tumor development. Thus, this Tg mouse line contributes a valuable model to study angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in physiological and pathological contexts.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha and beta subunits and their roles in cytoadherence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813bad5eed0c484775ac6

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a causative agent of chronic respiratory disease in chickens, typically causing great economic losses. Cytoadherence is the critical stage for mycoplasma infection, and the associated proteins are important for mycoplasma pathogenesis. Many glycolytic enzymes are localized on the cell surface and can bind the extracellular matrix of host cells. In this study, the M. gallisepticum pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit (PDHA) and beta subunit (PDHB) were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their enzymatic activities were identified based on 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction. When recombinant PDHA (rPDHA) and recombinant PDHB (rPDHB) were mixed at a 1:1 molar ratio, they exhibited strong enzymatic activity. Alone, rPDHA and rPDHB exhibited no or weak enzymatic activity. Further experiments indicated that both PDHA and PDHB were surface-exposed immunogenic proteins of M. gallisepticum. Bactericidal assays showed that the mouse anti-rPDHA and anti-rPDHB sera killed 48.0% and 75.1% of mycoplasmas respectively. A combination of rPDHA and rPDHB antisera had a mean bactericidal rate of 65.2%, indicating that rPDHA and rPDHB were protective antigens, and combining the two sera did not interfere with bactericidal activity. Indirect immunofluorescence and surface display assays showed that both PDHA and PDHB adhered to DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cells and adherence was significantly inhibited by antisera against PDHA and PDHB. Adherence inhibition of M. gallisepticum to DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblast cells was 30.2% for mouse anti-rPDHA serum, 45.1% for mouse anti-rPDHB serum and 72.5% for a combination of rPDHA and rPDHB antisera, suggesting that rPDHA and rPDHB antisera may have synergistically interfered with M. gallisepticum cytoadherence. Plasminogen (Plg)-binding assays further demonstrated that both PDHA and PDHB were Plg-binding proteins, which may have contributed to bacterial colonization. Our results clarified the enzymatic activity of M. gallisepticum PDHA and PDHB and demonstrated these compounds as Plg-binding proteins involved in cytoadherence.

]]>
<![CDATA[Theaflavins, polyphenols of black tea, inhibit entry of hepatitis C virus in cell culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0841ded5eed0c484fcafb4

The treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by combination of direct acting antivirals (DAA), with different mode of action, has made substantial progress in the past few years. However, appearance of resistance and high cost of the therapy is still an obstacle in the achievement of the therapy, more specifically in developing countries. In this context, search for affordable antivirals with new mechanisms of action is still needed. Tea, after water, is the most popular drink worldwide. Polyphenols extracted from green tea have already shown anti-HCV activity as entry inhibitors. Here, three different theaflavins, theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3’-monogallate (TF2), and theaflavin-3-3’-digallate (TF3), which are major polyphenols from black tea, were tested against HCV in cell culture. The results showed that all theaflavins inhibit HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner in an early step of infection. Results obtained with HCV pseudotyped virions confirmed their activity on HCV entry and demonstrated their pan-genotypic action. No effect on HCV replication was observed by using HCV replicon. Investigation on the mechanism of action of black tea theaflavins showed that they act directly on the virus particle and are able to inhibit cell-to-cell spread. Combination study with inhibitors most widely used in anti-HCV treatment regimen demonstrated that TF3 exerts additive effect. In conclusion, theaflavins, that are present in high quantity in black tea, are new inhibitors of HCV entry and hold promise for developing in therapeutic arsenal for HCV infection.

]]>
<![CDATA[Deletion of exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) causes defects in hippocampal signaling in female mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6945ba463d7e3867f4aca4

Previous studies demonstrate essential roles for the exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP 1 and 2 (Epac1 and Epac2; here collectively referred to as Epac) in the brain. In the hippocampus, Epac contributes to the control of neuronal growth and differentiation and has been implicated in memory and learning as well as in anxiety and depression. In the present study we address the hypothesis that Epac affects hippocampal cellular responses to acute restraint stress. Stress causes activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is essential for proper feedback regulation of the stress response, both in the brain and along the HPA axis. In the hippocampus, GR expression is regulated by cAMP and the brain enriched micro RNA miR-124. Epac has been associated with miR-124 expression in hippocampal neurons, but not in regulation of GR. We report that hippocampal expression of Epac1 and Epac2 increased in response to acute stress in female wild type mice. In female mice genetically deleted for Epac, nuclear translocation of GR in response to restraint stress was significantly delayed, and moreover, miR-124 expression was decreased in these mice. Male mice lacking Epac also showed abnormalities in miR-124 expression, but the phenotype was less profound than in females. Serum corticosterone levels were slightly altered immediately after stress in both male and female mice deleted for Epac. The presented data indicate that Epac1 and Epac2 are involved in controlling cellular responses to acute stress in the mouse hippocampus and provide novel insights into the underlying transcriptional and signaling networks. Interestingly, we observe sex specific differences when Epac is deleted. As the incidence and prevalence of stress-related diseases are higher in women than in men, the Epac knockout models might serve as genetic tools to further elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying differences between male and female with regard to regulation of stress.

]]>
<![CDATA[Deletion of Nkx2-5 in trabecular myocardium reveals the developmental origins of pathological heterogeneity associated with ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a28c7463d7e4513b8982a

Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare cardiomyopathy associated with a hypertrabeculated phenotype and a large spectrum of symptoms. It is still unclear whether LVNC results from a defect of ventricular trabeculae development and the mechanistic basis that underlies the varying severity of this pathology is unknown. To investigate these issues, we inactivated the cardiac transcription factor Nkx2-5 in trabecular myocardium at different stages of trabecular morphogenesis using an inducible Cx40-creERT2 allele. Conditional deletion of Nkx2-5 at embryonic stages, during trabecular formation, provokes a severe hypertrabeculated phenotype associated with subendocardial fibrosis and Purkinje fiber hypoplasia. A milder phenotype was observed after Nkx2-5 deletion at fetal stages, during trabecular compaction. A longitudinal study of cardiac function in adult Nkx2-5 conditional mutant mice demonstrates that excessive trabeculation is associated with complex ventricular conduction defects, progressively leading to strain defects, and, in 50% of mutant mice, to heart failure. Progressive impaired cardiac function correlates with conduction and strain defects independently of the degree of hypertrabeculation. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular pathways reflects myocardial remodeling with a larger number of differentially expressed genes in the severe versus mild phenotype and identifies Six1 as being upregulated in hypertrabeculated hearts. Our results provide insights into the etiology of LVNC and link its pathogenicity with compromised trabecular development including compaction defects and ventricular conduction system hypoplasia.

]]>
<![CDATA[Enhancement of bradykinin-induced relaxation by focal brain ischemia in the rat middle cerebral artery: Receptor expression upregulation and activation of multiple pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b498f9f463d7e0897c6e018

Focal brain ischemia markedly affects cerebrovascular reactivity. So far, these changes have mainly been related to alterations in the level of smooth muscle cell function while alterations of the endothelial lining have not yet been studied in detail. We have, therefore, investigated the effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury on bradykinin (BK)-induced relaxation since BK is an important mediator of tissue inflammation and affects vascular function in an endothelium-dependent manner. Focal brain ischemia was induced in rats by endovascular filament occlusion (2h) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). After 22h reperfusion, both MCAs were harvested and the response to BK studied in organ bath experiments. Expression of the BK receptor subtypes 1 and 2 (B1, B2) was determined by real-time semi-quantitative RT-qPCR methodology, and whole mount immunofluorescence staining was performed to show the B2 receptor protein expression. In control animals, BK did not induce significant vasomotor effects despite a functionally intact endothelium and robust expression of B2 mRNA. After ischemia/reperfusion injury, BK induced a concentration-related sustained relaxation in all arteries studied, more pronounced in the ipsilateral than in the contralateral MCA. The B2 mRNA was significantly upregulated and the B1 mRNA displayed de novo expression, again more pronounced ipsi- than contralaterally. Endothelial cells displaying B2 receptor immunofluorescence were observed scattered or clustered in previously occluded MCAs. Relaxation to BK was mediated by B2 receptor activation, abolished after endothelium denudation, and largely diminished by blocking nitric oxide (NO) release or soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Relaxation to BK was partially inhibited by charybdotoxin (ChTx), but not apamin or iberiotoxin suggesting activation of an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization pathway. When the NO-cGMP pathway was blocked, BK induced a transient relaxation which was suppressed by ChTx. After ischemia/reperfusion injury BK elicits endothelium-dependent relaxation which was not detectable in control MCAs. This gain of function is mediated by B2 receptor activation and involves the release of NO and activation of an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. It goes along with increased B2 mRNA and protein expression, leaving the functional role of the de novo B1 receptor expression still open.

]]>
<![CDATA[The SecA2 pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exports effectors that work in concert to arrest phagosome and autophagosome maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af106c6463d7e336df9e53f

To subvert host defenses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) avoids being delivered to degradative phagolysosomes in macrophages by arresting the normal host process of phagosome maturation. Phagosome maturation arrest by Mtb involves multiple effectors and much remains unknown about this important aspect of Mtb pathogenesis. The SecA2 dependent protein export system is required for phagosome maturation arrest and consequently growth of Mtb in macrophages. To better understand the role of the SecA2 pathway in phagosome maturation arrest, we identified two effectors exported by SecA2 that contribute to this process: the phosphatase SapM and the kinase PknG. Then, utilizing the secA2 mutant of Mtb as a platform to study effector functions, we identified specific steps in phagosome maturation inhibited by SapM and/or PknG. By identifying a histidine residue that is essential for SapM phosphatase activity, we confirmed for the first time that the phosphatase activity of SapM is required for its effects on phagosome maturation in macrophages. We further demonstrated that SecA2 export of SapM and PknG contributes to the ability of Mtb to replicate in macrophages. Finally, we extended our understanding of the SecA2 pathway, SapM, and PknG by revealing that their contribution goes beyond preventing Mtb delivery to mature phagolysosomes and includes inhibiting Mtb delivery to autophagolysosomes. Together, our results revealed SapM and PknG to be two effectors exported by the SecA2 pathway of Mtb with distinct as well as cumulative effects on phagosome and autophagosome maturation. Our results further reveal that Mtb must have additional mechanisms of limiting acidification of the phagosome, beyond inhibiting recruitment of the V-ATPase proton pump to the phagosome, and they indicate differences between effects of Mtb on phagosome and autophagosome maturation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry as Diagnostic Methods for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9daab0ee8fa60b6724a

Background

Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) positivity represents a novel molecular target in a subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers (NSCLC). We explore Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) as diagnostic methods for ALK positive patients and to describe its prevalence and outcomes in a population of NSCLC patients.

Methods

NSCLC patients previously screened for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) at our institution were selected. ALK positive patients were identified by FISH and the value of IHC (D5F3) was explored.

Results

ninety-nine patients were identified. Median age was 61.5 years (range 35–83), all were caucasians, eighty percent were adenocarcinomas, fifty-one percent were male and thirty-eight percent were current smokers. Seven (7.1%) patients were ALK positive by FISH, thirteen (13.1%) were EGFR mutant, and 65 (65.6%) were negative/Wild Type (WT) for both ALK and EGFR. ALK positivity and EGFR mutations were mutually exclusive. ALK positive patients tend to be younger than EGFR mutated or wt patients. ALK positive patients were predominantly never smokers (71.4%) and adenocarcinoma (71.4%). ALK positive and EGFR mutant patients have a better outcome than negative/WT. All patients with ALK FISH negative tumours were negative for ALK IHC. Out of 6 patients positive for ALK FISH with more tissue available, 5 were positive for ALK IHC and 1 negative.

Conclusions

ALK positive patients represent 7.1% of a population of selected NSCLC. ALK positive patients have different clinical features and a better outcome than EGFR WT and ALK negative patients. IHC is a promising method for detecting ALK positive NSCLC patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Dynamic Processing of CD46 Intracellular Domains Provides a Molecular Rheostat for T Cell Activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daebab0ee8fa60bbf199

Background

Adequate termination of an immune response is as important as the induction of an appropriate response. CD46, a regulator of complement activity, promotes T cell activation and differentiation towards a regulatory Tr1 phenotype. This Tr1 differentiation pathway is defective in patients with MS, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, underlying its importance in controlling T cell function and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms. CD46 has two cytoplasmic tails, Cyt1 and Cyt2, derived from alternative splicing, which are co-expressed in all nucleated human cells. The regulation of their expression and precise functions in regulating human T cell activation has not been fully elucidated.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Here, we first report the novel role of CD46 in terminating T cell activation. Second, we demonstrate that its functions as an activator and inhibitor of T cell responses are mediated through the temporal processing of its cytoplasmic tails. Cyt1 processing is required to turn T cell activation on, while processing of Cyt2 switches T cell activation off, as demonstrated by proliferation, CD25 expression and cytokine secretion. Both tails require processing by Presenilin/γSecretase (P/γS) to exert these functions. This was confirmed by expressing wild-type Cyt1 and Cyt2 tails and uncleavable mutant tails in primary T cells. The role of CD46 tails was also demonstrated with T cells expressing CD19 ectodomain-CD46 C-Terminal Fragment (CTF) fusions, which allowed specific triggering of each tail individually.

Conclusions/Significance

We conclude that CD46 acts as a molecular rheostat to control human T cell activation through the regulation of processing of its cytoplasmic tails.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Proteomic View at T Cell Costimulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db16ab0ee8fa60bcd2fb

The “two-signal paradigm” in T cell activation predicts that the cooperation of “signal 1,” provided by the T cell receptor (TCR) through engagement of major histocompatility complex (MHC)-presented peptide, with “signal 2″ provided by costimulatory molecules, the prototype of which is CD28, is required to induce T cell effector functions. While the individual signalling pathways are well understood, little is known about global changes in the proteome pattern during TCR/CD28-mediated activation. Therefore, comparative 2-DE-based proteome analyses of CD3+ CD69- resting T cells versus cells incubated with (i) the agonistic anti-CD3 antibody OKT3 mimicking signal 1 in absence or presence of IL-2 and/or with (ii) the agonistic antibody 15E8 triggering CD28-mediated signaling were performed. Differentially regulated spots were defined leading to the identification of proteins involved in the regulation of the metabolism, shaping and maintenance of the cytoskeleton and signal transduction. Representative members of the differentially expressed protein families, such as calmodulin (CALM), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (GDIR2), and platelet basic protein (CXCL7), were independently verified by flow cytometry. Data provide a detailed map of individual protein alterations at the global proteome level in response to TCR/CD28-mediated T cell activation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effects of Latanoprost and Bimatoprost on the Expression of Molecules Relevant to Ocular Inflow and Outflow Pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b703e5

Background and Purpose

The intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering and side effects in response to different prostaglandin F2α analogues can be variable, but, the underlying basis for this difference remains unknown. This study investigated the differential changes of cellular proteins relevant to IOP-lowering effects of latanoprost and bimatoprost.

Methods

The human T lymphoblast (MOLT-3) cell line and immortalized human trabecular meshwork (iHTM) cells were studied by quantitative PCR and by immunofluorescence after treatment with either latanoprost or bimatoprost. New Zealand white rabbit eyes were treated topically with each agent and, following euthanasia, anterior segment tissues were studied with immunostaining.

Results

In cultured MOLT-3 cells, mRNA expression of both c-fos and matrix metalloproteinase 9 increased significantly in response to each agent. In addition, there was little change in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 mRNA, but a significant decrease in TIMP-4. Fibronectin mRNA in MOLT-3 cells was down-regulated with bimatoprost, but was up-regulated with latanoprost. Immunofluorescence analysis of iHTM cells showed that intracellular fibronectin was significantly decreased by bimatoprost, but was increased by latanoprost. Both latanoprost and bimatoprost increased mRNA expression of NF-кB p65 and decreased that of IкBα. Aquaporin-1 mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated by bimatoprost. Immunostaining also revealed a significant decrease of aquaporin-1 in the ciliary epithelium of New Zealand white rabbits after bimatoprost treatment.

Conclusions

Similarities in protein expression produced by latanoprost and bimatoprost in vitro may be relevant to the mechanism for their IOP-lowering effects in vivo. Differences in fibronectin expression and in aquaporin-1 expression in response to each agent may contribute to variability in the IOP-lowering efficacy in some studies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Hyperforin Inhibits Akt1 Kinase Activity and Promotes Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis Involving Bad and Noxa Activation in Human Myeloid Tumor Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7aab0ee8fa60b98486

Background

The natural phloroglucinol hyperforin HF displays anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties of potential pharmacological interest. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells abnormally proliferate and escape apoptosis. Herein, the effects and mechanisms of purified HF on AML cell dysfunction were investigated in AML cell lines defining distinct AML subfamilies and primary AML cells cultured ex vivo.

Methodology and Results

HF inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner the growth of AML cell lines (U937, OCI-AML3, NB4, HL-60) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 population, phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation. HF also induced apoptosis in primary AML blasts, whereas normal blood cells were not affected. The apoptotic process in U937 cells was accompanied by downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Noxa, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, activation of procaspases and cleavage of the caspase substrate PARP-1. The general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the caspase-9- and -3-specific inhibitors, but not caspase-8 inhibitor, significantly attenuated apoptosis. HF-mediated apoptosis was associated with dephosphorylation of active Akt1 (at Ser473) and Akt1 substrate Bad (at Ser136) which activates Bad pro-apoptotic function. HF supppressed the kinase activity of Akt1, and combined treatment with the allosteric Akt1 inhibitor Akt-I-VIII significantly enhanced apoptosis of U937 cells.

Significance

Our data provide new evidence that HF's pro-apoptotic effect in AML cells involved inhibition of Akt1 signaling, mitochondria and Bcl-2 members dysfunctions, and activation of procaspases -9/-3. Combined interruption of mitochondrial and Akt1 pathways by HF may have implications for AML treatment.

]]>
<![CDATA[Negative Selection Assay Based on Stimulation of T Cell Receptor Transgenic Thymocytes with Peptide-MHC Tetramers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7fd4

Thymocyte negative selection is a requirement for the development of self tolerance. Although it is possible to assay the induction of cell death in thymocytes in vitro using antibody cross-linking, this stimulus is much stronger than the normal range of T cell receptor ligands that could be encountered during normal development. Signaling in thymocytes is finely balanced between positive and negative selection stimuli, where a negative selecting ligand can be only marginally higher affinity than a positive selecting ligand. We have therefore developed an assay for the induction of negative selection that can distinguish such cases, and that is amenable to high-throughput analysis. The assay is based on the induction of activated caspase 3 in thymocytes expressing a defined T cell receptor, after stimulation with MHC-peptide tetramers in vitro for 24 hours or less.

]]>
<![CDATA[Age-Dependent Oxidative DNA Damage Does Not Correlate with Reduced Proliferation of Cardiomyocytes in Humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbb137

Background

Postnatal human cardiomyocyte proliferation declines rapidly with age, which has been suggested to be correlated with increases in oxidative DNA damage in mice and plays an important role in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. However, the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and age in humans is unclear.

Methods

Sixty right ventricular outflow myocardial tissue specimens were obtained from ventricular septal defect infant patients during routine congenital cardiac surgery. These specimens were divided into three groups based on age: group A (age 0–6 months), group B (age, 7–12 months), and group C (>12 months). Each tissue specimen was subjected to DNA extraction, RNA extraction, and immunofluorescence.

Results

Immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that DNA damage markers—mitochondrial DNA copy number, oxoguanine 8, and phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated—were highest in Group B. However immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR demonstrated that two cell proliferation markers, Ki67 and cyclin D2, were decreased with age. In addition, wheat germ agglutinin-staining indicated that the average size of cardiomyocytes increased with age.

Conclusions

Oxidative DNA damage of cardiomyocytes was not correlated positively with age in human beings. Oxidative DNA damage is unable to fully explain the reduced proliferation of human cardiomyocytes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Expression of Cell Competition Markers at the Interface between p53 Signature and Normal Epithelium in the Human Fallopian Tube]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad4ab0ee8fa60bb73da

There is a growing body of evidence regarding cell competition between normal and mutant mammalian cells, which suggest that it may play a defensive role in the early phase of carcinogenesis. In vitro study in the past has shown that overexpression of vimentin in normal epithelial cells at the contact surface with transformed cells is essential for the cell competition involved in epithelial defense against cancer. In this study, we attempted to examine cell competition in human tissue in vivo by investigating surgically resected human fallopian tubes that contain p53 signatures and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs), a linear expansion of p53-immunopositive/TP53 mutant tubal epithelial cells that are considered as precursors of pelvic high grade serous carcinoma. Immunofluorescence double staining for p53 and the cell competition marker vimentin was performed in 21 sections of human fallopian tube tissue containing 17 p53 signatures and 4 STILs. The intensities of vimentin expression at the interface between p53-positive cells at the end of the p53 signature/STIL and adjacent p53-negative normal tubal epithelial cells were compared with the background tubal epithelium. As a result, the average vimentin intensity at the interfaces relative to the background intensity was 1.076 (95% CI, 0.9412 – 1.211 for p53 signature and 0.9790 (95% CI, 0.7206 – 1.237) for STIL. Thus, it can be concluded that overexpression of the cell competition marker vimentin are not observed in human tissue with TP53 alterations.

]]>
<![CDATA[Surface Localization of Glucosylceramide during Cryptococcus neoformans Infection Allows Targeting as a Potential Antifungal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae8ab0ee8fa60bbe2b5

Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) is a significant human pathogen that, despite current treatments, continues to have a high morbidity rate especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for more tolerable and specific therapies has been clearly shown. In the search for novel drug targets, the gene for glucosylceramide synthase (GCS1) was deleted in Cn, resulting in a strain (Δgcs1) that does not produce glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and is avirulent in mouse models of infection. To understand the biology behind the connection between virulence and GlcCer, the production and localization of GlcCer must be characterized in conditions that are prohibitive to the growth of Δgcs1 (neutral pH and high CO2). These prohibitive conditions are physiologically similar to those found in the extracellular spaces of the lung during infection. Here, using immunofluorescence, we have shown that GlcCer localization to the cell surface is significantly increased during growth in these conditions and during infection. We further seek to exploit this localization by treatment with Cerezyme (Cz), a recombinant enzyme that metabolizes GlcCer, as a potential treatment for Cn. Cz treatment was found to reduce the amount of GlcCer in vitro, in cultures, and in Cn cells inhabiting the mouse lung. Treatment with Cz induced a membrane integrity defect in wild type Cn cells similar to Δgcs1. Cz treatment also reduced the in vitro growth of Cn in a dose and condition dependent manner. Finally, Cz treatment was shown to have a protective effect on survival in mice infected with Cn. Taken together, these studies have established the legitimacy of targeting the GlcCer and other related sphingolipid systems in the development of novel therapeutics.

]]>