ResearchPad - immunology-inflammation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Commentary on: The potency of lncRNA MALAT1/miR-155 in altering asthmatic Th1/Th2 balance by modulation of CTLA4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9234 Asthma is a common, allergic respiratory disorder affecting over 350 million people worldwide. One of the key features of asthma is skewing of CD4+ cells toward Th2 responses. This promotes the production of cytokines like IL-4 that induce IgE production resulting in the hypersecretion of mucus and airway smooth muscle contraction. Understanding the factors that favor Th2 expansion in asthma would provide important insights into the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder. Asthma research has focused on signaling pathways that control the transcription of key asthma-related genes. However, increasing evidence shows that post-transcriptional factors also determine CD4+ cell fate and the enhancement of allergic airway responses. A recent paper published by Liang et al. (Bioscience Reports (2020) 40, https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20190397) highlights a novel role for the long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) in Th2 development in asthma. MALAT1 modulates several biological processes including alternative splicing, epigenetic modification and gene expression. It is one of the most highly expressed lncRNAs in normal tissues and MALAT1 levels correlate with poor clinical outcomes in cancer. The mechanisms of action of MALAT1 in tumor progression and metastasis remain unclear and even less is known about its effects in inflammatory disease states like asthma. The work of Liang et al. demonstrates heightened MALAT1 expression in asthma and further shows that this lncRNA targets miR-155 to promote Th2 differentiation in this disease. This insight sets the stage for future studies to examine how MALAT1 manipulation could deter allergic immune responses in asthmatic airways.

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<![CDATA[Silencing of LncRNA PVT1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of high glucose-induced mouse mesangial cells via targeting microRNA-93-5p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9222 Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on high glucose (HG)-induced mouse mesangial cells (MMCs).

Methods: PVT1 expression in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice and HG-induced MMCs was detected by qRT-PCR. EdU and Colony formation, Annexin V-PI staining, Muse cell cycle, Scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, respectively. The contents of fibrosis factors in cell-culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of factors involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion, fibrosis, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The targeting relation between miR-93-5p and PVT1 was predicted by StarBase3.0 (an online software for analyzing the targeting relationship) and identified by Dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay.

Results: PVT1 was overexpressed in DN kidney tissues and HG-induced MMCs. HG-induced MMCs exhibited significantly increased EdU-positive cells, cell colonies, S and G2/M phase cells, migration and invasion ability, and contents of fibrosis factors, as well as significantly decreased apoptosis rate compared with NG-induced MMCs. HG significantly up-regulated Bcl-2, CyclinD1, CDK4, N-cadherin, vimentin, Col. IV, FN, TGF-β1 and PAI-1, and down-regulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and E-cadherin in MMCs. Silencing of PVT1 eliminated the effects of HG in MMCs and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-93-5p was a target of PVT1, which eliminated the effects of PVT1 on HG-induced MMCs.

Conclusions: PVT1 silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and fibrosis, promoted the apoptosis, and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in HG-induced MMCs via up-regulating miR-93-5p.

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<![CDATA[TLR4-mediated pyroptosis in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 cells induced by a branched-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, geranylgeranoic acid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Naaa91242-214d-4bc8-ab54-61394756d852 A branched-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, geranylgeranoic acid (GGA; C20:4), which is an endogenous metabolite derived from the mevalonate pathway in mammals, has been reported to induce cell death in human hepatoma cells. We have previously shown that the lipid-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) is an upstream cellular process for an incomplete autophagic response that might be involved in GGA-induced cell death. Here, we found that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated pyroptosis in HuH-7 cells occurred by GGA treatment. The TLR4-specific inhibitor VIPER prevented both GGA-induced cell death and UPR. Knockdown of the TLR4 gene attenuated GGA-induced cell death significantly. Upon GGA-induced UPR, caspase (CASP) 4 (CASP4) was activated immediately and gasdermin D (GSDMD) was translocated concomitantly to the plasma membrane after production of the N-terminal fragment of GSDMD. Then, cellular CASP1 activation occurred following a second gradual up-regulation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, suggesting that GGA activated the inflammasome. Indeed, the mRNA levels of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and interleukin-1 β (IL1B) genes were up-regulated dramatically with translocation of cytoplasmic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to nuclei after GGA treatment, indicating that GGA induced priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome through NF-κB activation. GGA-induced up-regulation of CASP1 activity was blocked by either oleic acid, VIPER, MCC950 (a selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome), or CASP4-specific inhibitor peptide cotreatment. Pyroptotic cell death was also confirmed morphologically by bleb formation in time-series live cell imaging of GGA-treated cells. Taken together, the present results strongly indicate that GGA causes pyroptotic cell death in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7 via TLR4 signalling.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N989d694b-b69d-4ab6-aae7-85f9ffa2db63

Abstract

The prognostic role of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been widely studied but the results are controversial. In this comprehensive meta-analysis, we elucidated the clinical value of PD-L1 in HCC. Relevant studies were systematically searched in the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PubMed until June 27, 2019. Eligible studies were validated for the prognostic effect of PD-L1 on the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) in HCC using a hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Twenty-three studies with 3529 patients were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results revealed that high membrane-bound PD-L1 (mPD-L1) expression was associated with poor OS (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.12–1.80; P = 0.004) and had no significant correlation with RFS (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.85–1.54; P = 0.39), and DFS (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.81–2.28; P = 0.25). The results also indicated that high soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) levels were associated with worse OS (HR: 2.93; 95% CI: 2.20–3.91; P < 0.00001). In addition, high mPD-L1 expression was associated with high alpha-fetoprotein levels (AFP; OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16–1.84; P = 0.001), hepatitis (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54–0.98; P = 0.03), poor tumor differentiation (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.55–0.84; P = 0.03), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (OR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.06–10.91; P = 0.04). The mPD-L1 expression had no significant correlation with age, number of tumors, gender, tumor size, liver cirrhosis, vascular invasion, tumor encapsulation, or TNM stage. The study revealed that high mPD-L1 expression in the tumor tissue and high sPD-L1 levels were associated with shorter OS in HCC. Moreover, overexpression of mPD-L1 was significantly associated with poor tumor differentiation, hepatitis, AFP elevation, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

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<![CDATA[Early differential diagnosis model for acute radiation pneumonitis based on multiple parameters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2270efba-2cb3-4c3f-a022-8776357447a4

Abstract

Objective: The present study aimed to construct a diagnosis model for the early differentiation of acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) and infectious pneumonitis based on multiple parameters.

Methods: The present study included data of 152 patients admitted to the Department of Radiochemotherapy, Tangshan People’s Hospital, who developed ARP (91 patients) or infectious pneumonia (IP; 61 patients) after radiotherapy. The radiophysical parameters, imaging characteristics, serological indicators, and other data were collected as independent variables, and ARP was considered as a dependent variable. Logistics univariate analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used for selecting independent variables. Logistics multivariate analysis was used to fit the variables into the regression model to predict ARP.

Results: The univariate analysis showed that the positional relation between lesions and V20 area (PRLV), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), mean lung dose (MLD), and lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V20) correlated with ARP while the planning target volume (PTV) dose marginally correlated with ARP. The multivariate analysis showed that the PRLV, PCT, white blood cell (WBC), and MLD were independent diagnostic factors. The nomogram was drawn on the basis of the logistics regression model. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model was 0.849, which was significantly better than that of a single indicator and the sensitivity and specificity of the model were high (82.4 and 82.0%, respectively). These results predicted by the model were highly consistent with the actual diagnostic results. The decision curve analysis (DCA) demonstrated a satisfactory positive net benefit of the model.

Conclusion: The diagnosis model constructed in the present study is of certain value for the differential diagnosis of ARP and IP.

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<![CDATA[Low efficacy of vaccination against serogroup B meningococci in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N063b6d00-2073-4190-8d9a-fb913cdb54b6

Abstract

Background: The C5 complement inhibitor eculizumab is first-line treatment in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) going along with a highly increased risk of meningococcal infections. Serogroup B meningococci (MenB) are the most frequently encountered cause for meningococcal infections in Europe. Efficacy of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero in aHUS has not been determined and testing is only possible in patients off-treatment with eculizumab as a human complement source is required.

Methods: Patients with aHUS were vaccinated with two doses of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against factor H binding protein (fHbp) of MenB were determined in 14 patients with aHUS off-treatment with eculizumab.

Results: Only 50% of patients showed protective human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titers (≥1:4) against MenB following two vaccinations. Bactericidal antibody titers were relatively low (≤1:8) in three of seven patients with protective titers. While 71% of patients were on immunosuppressive treatment for either thrombotic microangiopathy or renal transplantation at either first or second vaccination, all four patients not receiving any immunosuppressive treatment showed protective bactericidal antibody response. Time between second vaccination and titer measurement was not significantly different between patients with protective titers compared with those with non-protective titers, while time between first and second vaccination was significantly longer in patients with protective titers going along with a tendency for reduction in immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusions: Efficacy of vaccination against MenB is insufficient in patients with aHUS. Response to vaccination seems to be hampered by immunosuppression. Therefore, implementation of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis seems pivotal.

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<![CDATA[Association between MGMT status and response to alkylating agents in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2b7d2b50-b61b-4b3f-9939-ff44dbf6b645

Abstract

Background: O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a specific DNA damage reversal repair protein. The influence of MGMT status on alkylating agent sensitivity in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the influence of MGMT status on the therapeutic sensitivity of alkylating agents in patients with NENs.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane library public databases through 3 July 2019. The objective response rate (ORR) was the outcome data of interest. Subgroup analysis was performed according based on MGMT methylation and expression of MGMT protein.

Results: Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The proportion of patients with NENs that achieved an ORR after alkylating agent treatment was higher in the MGMT-deficient group than the non-deficient group (OR: 5.00; 95% CI: 3.04–8.22; P < 0.001; I2: 3%). Similar results were noted in the MGMT methylation and MGMT protein expression subgroups.

Conclusion: Patients with NENs and MGMT methylation or low protein expression had a higher ORR proportion than patients without MGMT methylation or high protein expression. The MGMT status can be used as a biological indicator of the response to alkylating agent treatment in patients with NENs.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular DNA in blood products and its potential effects on transfusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c43a6d9-b325-4827-8d79-69a6ffb5c163

Abstract

Blood transfusions are sometimes necessary after a high loss of blood due to injury or surgery. Some people need regular transfusions due to medical conditions such as haemophilia or cancer. Studies have suggested that extracellular DNA including mitochondrial DNA present in the extracellular milieu of transfused blood products has biological actions that are capable of activating the innate immune systems and potentially contribute to some adverse reactions in transfusion. From the present work, it becomes increasingly clear that extracellular DNA encompassed mitochondrial DNA is far from being biologically inert in blood products. It has been demonstrated to be present in eligible blood products and thus can be transfused to blood recipients. Although the presence of extracellular DNA in human plasma was initially detected in 1948, some aspects have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize the potential origins, clearance mechanisms, relevant structures, and potential role of extracellular DNA in the innate immune responses and its relationship with individual adverse reactions in transfusion.

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<![CDATA[Overexpression of TGR5 alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via AKT/GSK-3β mediated inflammation and mitochondrial pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01073ce1-7e39-474b-be02-57a1e4763f59

Abstract

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury reduces cell proliferation, triggers inflammation, promotes cell apoptosis and necrosis, which are the leading reasons of morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiac disease. TGR5 is shown to express in hearts, but its functional role in I/R-induced myocardial injury is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of TGR5 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte injury in vitro. The results showed that TGR5 was significantly up-regulated in H9C2 (rat cardiomyocyte cells) and human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) after H/R. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly improved cell proliferation, alleviated apoptosis rate, the activities of caspase-3, cleaved caspases-3 and Bax protein expression levels, and increased Bcl-2 level. Overexpression of TGR5 significantly up-regulated ROS generation, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and reduced the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ as well as cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyto-c). Meanwhile, overexpressed TGR5 also enhanced the mRNA and protein levels of interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased the mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The shTGR5+H/R group followed opposite trends. In addition, overexpressed TGR5 induced an increase in the levels of p-AKT and p-GSK-3β. The protective effects of TGR5 were partially reversed by AKT inhibitor MK-2206. Taken together, these results suggest that TGR5 attenuates I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis as well as inflammation, and these protections may through AKT/GSK-3β pathway.

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<![CDATA[Specific panallergen peptide of Sorghum Polcalcin showing IgE response identified based on in silico and in vivo peptide mapping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c2b29c4-1360-4e8b-b5c8-20b9f605cd7f

Abstract

In India, Sorghum plant allergenicity was reported to be approximately 54.9%. Sorghum bicolor Polcalcin (Sorb PC) was identified as the panallergen but the specificity of this allergen is yet to be characterized. The present study was aimed to characterize the antigenic determinants of Sorb PC that are responsible for eliciting the IgE response. In silico modeling, simulation studies and docking of Sorb PC peptides (PC1–11) against IgG and IgE followed by in vivo evaluation was adopted. Peptide docking studies revealed PC 6 with highest G-score −12.85 against IgE followed by PC-11, 5, 1 and 7 (−10.91) peptides. The mice sensitized with PC7 peptide showed interleukin (IL) 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-12, TNF-α and GMCSF levels increased when compared with other peptides and controls, signifying a strong T helper type 2 (Th2)-based response. In tandem, the T helper type 1 (Th1) pathway was inhibited by low levels of cytokine IL-2, interferon γ (IFN-γ) and increased IL-10 levels justifying the role of PC7 in allergic IgE response. Considering the above data of overlapping peptides of PC6 and PC7, N-terminal part of the PC7 peptide (DEVQRMM) is found to play a crucial role in Sorghum Polcalcin allergenic response.

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