ResearchPad - immunostaining https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SULF1 suppresses Wnt3A-driven growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer in perlecan-modified 3D cancer-stroma-macrophage triculture models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14741 Bone marrow stroma influences metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) progression, latency, and recurrence. At sites of PCa bone metastasis, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor-associated macrophages interact to establish a perlecan-rich desmoplastic stroma. As a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan (HSPG2) stores and stabilizes growth factors, including heparin-binding Wnt3A, a positive regulator of PCa cell growth. Because PCa cells alone do not induce CAF production of perlecan in the desmoplastic stroma, we sought to discover the sources of perlecan and its growth factor-releasing modifiers SULF1, SULF2, and heparanase in PCa cells and xenografts, bone marrow fibroblasts, and macrophages. SULF1, produced primarily by bone marrow fibroblasts, was the main glycosaminoglycanase present, a finding validated with primary tissue specimens of PCa metastases with desmoplastic bone stroma. Expression of both HSPG2 and SULF1 was concentrated in αSMA-rich stroma near PCa tumor nests, where infiltrating pro-tumor TAMs also were present. To decipher SULF1’s role in the reactive bone stroma, we created a bone marrow biomimetic hydrogel incorporating perlecan, PCa cells, macrophages, and fibroblastic bone marrow stromal cells. Finding that M2-like macrophages increased levels of SULF1 and HSPG2 produced by fibroblasts, we examined SULF1 function in Wnt3A-mediated PCa tumoroid growth in tricultures. Comparing control or SULF1 knockout fibroblastic cells, we showed that SULF1 reduces Wnt3A-driven growth, cellularity, and cluster number of PCa cells in our 3D model. We conclude that SULF1 can suppress Wnt3A-driven growth signals in the desmoplastic stroma of PCa bone metastases, and SULF1 loss favors PCa progression, even in the presence of pro-tumorigenic TAMs.

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<![CDATA[Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of caveolin-1 and ATG4C expression in the epithelial ovarian cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14473 Altered expression of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and autophagy marker ATG4C is observed in various types of human cancers. However, the clinical significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains largely unknown. The present study aims to explore the clinicopathological value and prognostic significance of CAV1 and ATG4C expression in EOC.MethodsThe expression pattern and prognostic value of CAV1 and ATG4C mRNA in EOC were analyzed using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database (N = 373). In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis was performed to detect and assay the expression of CAV1 and ATG4C proteins in tissue microarray of EOC.ResultsBased on TCGA data, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with low CAV1 mRNA (p = 0.021) and high ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.018) expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS). Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of CAV1 (p = 0.023) and ATG4C mRNA (p = 0.040) were independent prognostic factors for OS in EOC. In addition, the Concordance Index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.660. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression levels of stromal CAV1 and cancerous ATG4C proteins, and high expression of both CAV1 and ATG4C protein in the stroma were found to significantly correlate with the histologic subtypes of EOC, especially with serous subtype.ConclusionsDecreased expression of CAV1 mRNA and increased expression of ATG4C mRNA in EOC can predict poor overall survival. The expression levels of CAV1 protein in stromal cells and ATG4C protein in cancer cells are significantly associated with histologic subtypes of EOC. These findings suggest that CAV1 and ATG4C serve as useful prognostic biomarkers and candidate therapeutic targets in EOC. ]]> <![CDATA[VGLL4 plays a critical role in heart valve development and homeostasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fb6d5eed0c4840073d9

Heart valve disease is a major clinical problem worldwide. Cardiac valve development and homeostasis need to be precisely controlled. Hippo signaling is essential for organ development and tissue homeostasis, while its role in valve formation and morphology maintenance remains unknown. VGLL4 is a transcription cofactor in vertebrates and we found it was mainly expressed in valve interstitial cells at the post-EMT stage and was maintained till the adult stage. Tissue specific knockout of VGLL4 in different cell lineages revealed that only loss of VGLL4 in endothelial cell lineage led to valve malformation with expanded expression of YAP targets. We further semi-knockout YAP in VGLL4 ablated hearts, and found hyper proliferation of arterial valve interstitial cells was significantly constrained. These findings suggest that VGLL4 is important for valve development and manipulation of Hippo components would be a potential therapy for preventing the progression of congenital valve disease.

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<![CDATA[Single-cell transcriptomics reveals gene expression dynamics of human fetal kidney development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c784fb4d5eed0c4840073c4

The current understanding of mammalian kidney development is largely based on mouse models. Recent landmark studies revealed pervasive differences in renal embryogenesis between mouse and human. The scarcity of detailed gene expression data in humans therefore hampers a thorough understanding of human kidney development and the possible developmental origin of kidney diseases. In this paper, we present a single-cell transcriptomics study of the human fetal kidney. We identified 22 cell types and a host of marker genes. Comparison of samples from different developmental ages revealed continuous gene expression changes in podocytes. To demonstrate the usefulness of our data set, we explored the heterogeneity of the nephrogenic niche, localized podocyte precursors, and confirmed disease-associated marker genes. With close to 18,000 renal cells from five different developmental ages, this study provides a rich resource for the elucidation of human kidney development, easily accessible through an interactive web application.

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<![CDATA[Serum amyloid A and Janus kinase 2 in a mouse model of diabetic kidney disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f149fd5eed0c48467a449

Background

Serum amyloid A (SAA), a potent inflammatory mediator, and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), an intracellular signaling kinase, are increased by diabetes. The aims were to elucidate: 1) a JAK2-mediated pathway for increased SAA in the kidneys of diabetic mice; 2) a JAK2-SAA pathway for inflammation in podocytes.

Methods

Akita diabetic mice (129S6) with podocyte JAK2 overexpression and angiotensin II infusion (4 weeks) were given a JAK1,2 inhibitor (LY03103801, 3 mg/kg/day orally for the last two weeks). Kidneys were immunostained for SAA isoform 3 (SAA3). SAA3 knockout and control mouse podocytes were exposed to advanced glycation end products (AGE) or exogenous SAA with JAK2 inhibition (Tyrphostin AG 490, 50μM). JAK2 activity (phosphorylation, Western blot, 1 hour) and mRNA for SAA3 and associated inflammatory genes (Cxcl5, Ccl2, and Ccl5) were measured by RT-PCR (20 hours).

Results

SAA3 protein was present throughout the diabetic kidney, and podocyte JAK2 overexpression increased tubulointerstitial SAA3 compared to wild type diabetic controls, 43% versus 14% (p = 0.007); JAK1,2 inhibition attenuated the increase in SAA3 to 15% (p = 0.003). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (r = 0.49, p = 0.03), mesangial index (r = 0.64, p = 0.001), and glomerulosclerosis score (r = 0.51, p = 0.02) were associated with SAA3 immunostaining scores across mouse groups. Exposing podocytes to AGE or exogenous SAA increased JAK2 activity within one hour and mRNA for associated inflammatory genes after 20 hours. JAK2 inhibition reduced SAA3 mRNA expression in podocytes exposed to AGE or SAA. SAA3 knockout podocytes had >85% lower AGE-induced inflammatory genes.

Conclusion

JAK1,2 inhibition reduced SAA and histological features of DKD in podocyte JAK2-overexpressing mice. In podocytes exposed to a diabetes-like condition, JAK2 inhibition reduced expression of SAA, while SAA knockout blocked expression of associated pro-inflammatory mediators. SAA may promote JAK2-dependent inflammation in the diabetic kidney.

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<![CDATA[Early-stage serrated adenocarcinomas are divided into several molecularly distinct subtypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fdead5eed0c484e5b080

Serrated adenocarcinoma (SAC) is considered the end stage of the serrated neoplasia pathway. Although SAC prognosis is not widely recognized, the serrated pathway-associated subtype consistently exhibits unfavorable prognosis in genetic studies. Herein, we classified molecularly distinct subtypes of serrated adenocarcinomas and clarified their associated clinicopathological characteristics and genetic changes. We examined 38 early-stage colorectal SACs. Of these, 24 were classified into three molecularly distinct groups by colon cancer subtyping (CCS). The clinicopathological characteristics, Ki 67 labeling index (LI), and SAC epithelial serration were assessed. The DNA from carcinomas and normal tissue/adenoma was extracted by laser microdissection and sequenced by next-generation sequencing, and mutation numbers and patterns of a 15-oncogene panel were determined. The CCS groups included CCS1 (CDX2+, HTR2B-, FRMD6-, ZEB1-, and microsatellite instable-low [MSI-L]/microsatellite stable [MSS]; 14 cases), CCS2 (microsatellite instable-high [MSI-H], 5 cases), and CCS3 (CDX2-, HTR2B+, FRMD6+, ZEB1+, and MSI-L/MSS; 5 cases). Invasive cancer was significantly more frequent in CCS3 than in CCS1 (5/5 versus 3/14, respectively). Ki67 LI and epithelial serration were higher in CCS3 than in CCS1 (83.0 ± 5.8 versus 65.4 ± 4.0 and 5/5 versus 3/14, respectively; p = 0.031 and 0.0048). CCS2 showed the highest mutation number, whereas KRAS and BRAF mutation numbers were higher in CCS3 than in CCS1. Early-stage SACs were classified into three molecularly distinct subtypes with different clinicopathological and genetic characteristics.

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<![CDATA[Drosophila ZDHHC8 palmitoylates scribble and Ras64B and controls growth and viability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730b5d5eed0c484f37f58

Palmitoylation is an important posttranslational modification regulating diverse cellular functions. Consequently, aberrant palmitoylation can lead to diseases such as neuronal disorders or cancer. In humans there are roughly one hundred times more palmitoylated proteins than enzymes catalyzing palmitoylation (palmitoyltransferases). Therefore, it is an important challenge to establish the links between palmitoyltransferases and their targets. From publicly available data, we find that expression of human ZDHHC8 correlates significantly with cancer survival. To elucidate the organismal function of ZDHHC8, we study the Drosophila ortholog of hZDHHC8, CG34449/dZDHHC8. Knockdown of dZDHHC8 causes tissue overgrowth while dZDHHC8 mutants are larval lethal. We provide a list of 159 palmitoylated proteins in Drosophila and present data suggesting that scribble and Ras64B are targets of dZDHHC8.

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<![CDATA[Clinical significance of cancer specific methylation of the CDO1 gene in small bowel cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536ba8d5eed0c484a48f2d

Although small bowel cancer (SBC) is extremely rare, its prognosis is poor, and molecular mechanism of the SBC development remains unclear. The aim of our study is to elucidate whether DNA methylation of the promoter region of the cancer-specific methylation gene, cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1), contributes to the carcinogenic process in SBC. The study group comprised patients with 53 patients with SBC, 107 colorectal cancer (CRC), and other rare tumors of the small intestine such as 4 malignant lymphomas, 2 leiomyosarcomas, and 9 gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We analyzed the extent of methylation in each tissue using quantitative TaqMan methylation-specific PCR for CDO1. Significantly higher CDO1 methylation was observed in cancer tissues compared with non-cancerous mucosa of the small intestine (ROC = 0.96). Among the various clinicopathological factors, positive correlation of CDO1 methylation with tumor diameter was observed (R = 0.31, p = 0.03), and the CDO1 methylation level was a possible prognostic factor for relapse-free survival (p = 0.09). Compared with CRC, SBC had a significantly poorer prognosis (p = 0.007) and displayed a significantly higher CDO1 methylation level (p < 0.0001). Intriguingly, especially in pStage I/II, there were robust prognostic difference between SBC and CRC (p = 0.08 / p < 0.0001), which may reflect CDO1 methylation status (p = 0.02 / p = 0.001). Among small bowel tumors, CDO1 methylation in SBC was higher in order of malignant lymphoma, cancer, and leiomyosarcoma/GIST (p = 0.002) by ANOVA. The CDO1 gene shows extremely cancer-specific hypermethylation, and it can be a prognostic marker in SBC.

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<![CDATA[A transient DMSO treatment increases the differentiation potential of human pluripotent stem cells through the Rb family]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab82ed5eed0c484027053

The propensity for differentiation varies substantially across human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, greatly restricting the use of hPSCs for cell replacement therapy or disease modeling. Here, we investigate the underlying mechanisms and demonstrate that activation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway in a transient manner is important for differentiation. In prior work, we demonstrated that pre-treating hPSCs with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) before directed differentiation enhanced differentiation potential across all three germ layers. Here, we show that exposure to DMSO improves the efficiency of hPSC differentiation through Rb and by repressing downstream E2F-target genes. While transient inactivation of the Rb family members (including Rb, p107, and p130) suppresses DMSO’s capacity to enhance differentiation across all germ layers, transient expression of a constitutively active (non-phosphorylatable) form of Rb increases the differentiation efficiency similar to DMSO. Inhibition of downstream targets of Rb, such as E2F signaling, also promotes differentiation of hPSCs. More generally, we demonstrate that the duration of Rb activation plays an important role in regulating differentiation capacity.

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<![CDATA[Prognostic value of ErbB2/HER2 in human meningiomas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd2325740307c60de5e9974

Introduction

Among clinical challenges regarding human meningiomas is their propensity to recur even in cases with benign histology. Reliable biomarkers that can identify these cases are therefore highly desired. ErbB2/HER2 status is important in the medical management of patients with various human malignancies, whereas its clinical relevance in human meningiomas is ambiguous. For this reason, we wanted to investigate the expression of intra- and extracellular domains of ErbB2/HER2 as well as the level of activated receptor in these tumors. Further, we wanted to elucidate any clinicopathological associations to antibody expression and if gene amplification was present.

Methods

In total, 186 human meningiomas of all malignancy grades were included in the study, 163 of these were in tissue microarrays (TMA). Antibody expression was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

Results

All cases were immunoreactive with antibodies targeting the intracellular domain, whereas about 48% and 11% were positive with antibodies against the extracellular domain and against the activated receptor, respectively. Normal meninges were not immunoreactive. There were no relations to malignancy grade, and only the activated receptor was significantly correlated with increased risk for recurrence or death (time to recurrence: HR 1.568, CI (1.153 to 2.132), p = 0.004). No gene amplification was found.

Conclusion

ErbB2/HER2 is generally upregulated in human meningiomas, but in an activated state only in a few cases. Only the activated receptor is associated with poorer prognosis, a link that needs further investigations.

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<![CDATA[Requirement of the 3′-UTR-dependent suppression of DAZL in oocytes for pre-implantation mouse development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b28b933463d7e146ff345d1

Functional oocytes are produced through complex molecular and cellular processes. In particular, the contribution of post-transcriptional gene regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is crucial for controlling proper gene expression during this process. DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) is one of the RBPs required for the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells and for the progression of meiosis in ovulated oocytes. However, the involvement of DAZL in the development of follicular oocytes is still unknown. Here, we show that Dazl is translationally suppressed in a 3′-UTR-dependent manner in follicular oocytes, and this suppression is required for normal pre-implantation development. We found that suppression of DAZL occurred in postnatal oocytes concomitant with the formation of primordial follicles, whereas Dazl mRNA was continuously expressed throughout oocyte development, raising the possibility that DAZL is dispensable for the survival and growth of follicular oocytes. Indeed, follicular oocyte-specific knockout of Dazl resulted in the production of normal number of pups. On the other hand, genetically modified female mice that overexpress DAZL produced fewer numbers of pups than the control due to defective pre-implantation development. Our data suggest that post-transcriptional suppression of DAZL in oocytes is an important mechanism controlling gene expression in the development of functional oocytes.

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<![CDATA[Loss of connexin43 in murine Sertoli cells and its effect on blood-testis barrier formation and dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5acfc8463d7e11b9cf6300

Connexin43 (Cx43) is the predominant testicular gap junction protein and in cases of impaired spermatogenesis, Cx43 expression has been shown to be altered in several mammals. Amongst other functions, Cx43 is supposed to regulate junction formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern of different tight junction (TJ) proteins of the murine BTB using SC-specific Cx43 knockout mice (SCCx43KO). Adult homozygous male SCCx43KO mice (SCCx43KO-/-) predominantly show an arrest of spermatogenesis and SC-only tubules that might have been caused by an altered BTB assembly, composition or regulation. TJ molecules claudin-3, -5 and -11 were examined in adult wild type (WT) and SCCx43KO-/- mice using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In this context, investigation of single tubules with residual spermatogenesis in SCCx43KO-/- mice was particularly interesting to identify a potential Cx43-independent influence of germ cells (GC) on BTB composition and dynamics. In tubules without residual spermatogenesis, a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution pattern for claudin-11 protein could be demonstrated in mutant mice. Nevertheless, claudin-11 seems to form functional TJ. Claudin-3 and -5 could not be detected immunohistochemically in the seminiferous epithelium of those tubules. Correspondingly, claudin-3 and -5 mRNA expression was decreased, providing evidence of generally impaired BTB dynamics in adult KO mice. Observations of tubules with residual spermatogenesis suggested a Cx43-independent regulation of TJ proteins by GC populations. To determine initial BTB formation in peripubertal SCCx43KO-/- mice, immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR of claudin-11 were carried out in adolescent SCCx43KO-/- and WT mice. Additionally, BTB integrity was functionally analysed using a hypertonic glucose fixative. These analyses revealed that SCCx43KO-/- mice formed an intact BTB during puberty in the same time period as WT mice, which however seemed to be accelerated.

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<![CDATA[SHOC1 is a ERCC4-(HhH)2-like protein, integral to the formation of crossover recombination intermediates during mammalian meiosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afd69a3463d7e7322194039

Chromosome segregation errors during meiosis result in the formation of aneuploid gametes and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and birth defects in humans. Proper chromosome segregation requires pairwise associations of maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Chiasmata, which are the cytological manifestations of crossovers (COs), provide a physical link that holds the homologs together as a pair, facilitating their orientation on the spindle at meiosis I. Although CO-promoting activities ensure a balanced number and position of COs, their identity and mechanism of action in mammals remain understudied. Previous work in yeast and Arabidopsis has shown that Zip2 and Shoc1 are ortholog proteins with an important role in promoting the formation of COs. Our work is the first study in mammals showing the in vivo and in vitro function of mouse and human SHOC1. We show that purified recombinant human SHOC1, an XPF/MUS81 family member, preferentially binds branched DNA molecules but apparently lacks in vitro endonuclease activity, despite its conserved ERCC4-(HhH)2 core structure. Cytological observations suggest that initial steps of recombination are normal in a majority of spermatocytes from SHOC1 hypomorphic mice. However, late stages of recombination appear abnormal, as chromosomal localization of MLH1 is reduced. In agreement, chiasma formation is reduced, and cells arrest at metaphase I with a few lagging chromosomes and subsequent apoptosis. This analysis of SHOC1-deficient mice and the selective localization of SHOC1 to a subset of recombination sites show that SHOC1 acts at key mid-stage steps of the CO formation process. The formation of chromosome axial elements and homologous pairing are apparently normal, but synapsis is altered with SYCP1 frequently failing to extend the full length of the chromosome axes. Finally, we describe that SHOC1 interacts with TEX11, another protein important for the formation of COs, connecting SHOC1 to chromosome axis and structure.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Latanoprost and Bimatoprost on the Expression of Molecules Relevant to Ocular Inflow and Outflow Pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b703e5

Background and Purpose

The intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering and side effects in response to different prostaglandin F2α analogues can be variable, but, the underlying basis for this difference remains unknown. This study investigated the differential changes of cellular proteins relevant to IOP-lowering effects of latanoprost and bimatoprost.

Methods

The human T lymphoblast (MOLT-3) cell line and immortalized human trabecular meshwork (iHTM) cells were studied by quantitative PCR and by immunofluorescence after treatment with either latanoprost or bimatoprost. New Zealand white rabbit eyes were treated topically with each agent and, following euthanasia, anterior segment tissues were studied with immunostaining.

Results

In cultured MOLT-3 cells, mRNA expression of both c-fos and matrix metalloproteinase 9 increased significantly in response to each agent. In addition, there was little change in tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 mRNA, but a significant decrease in TIMP-4. Fibronectin mRNA in MOLT-3 cells was down-regulated with bimatoprost, but was up-regulated with latanoprost. Immunofluorescence analysis of iHTM cells showed that intracellular fibronectin was significantly decreased by bimatoprost, but was increased by latanoprost. Both latanoprost and bimatoprost increased mRNA expression of NF-кB p65 and decreased that of IкBα. Aquaporin-1 mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated by bimatoprost. Immunostaining also revealed a significant decrease of aquaporin-1 in the ciliary epithelium of New Zealand white rabbits after bimatoprost treatment.

Conclusions

Similarities in protein expression produced by latanoprost and bimatoprost in vitro may be relevant to the mechanism for their IOP-lowering effects in vivo. Differences in fibronectin expression and in aquaporin-1 expression in response to each agent may contribute to variability in the IOP-lowering efficacy in some studies.

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<![CDATA[Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) Peptide Is Expressed in Precursor Cells and Somatotropes of the Mouse Pituitary Gland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae7ab0ee8fa60bbdf7d

Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in the brain, endocrine and neuroendocrine systems and secreted into the serum. It is thought to play a role in regulation of hypothalamic pituitary functions. Here we report a spatial and temporal analysis of Cart expression in the pituitaries of adult and developing normal and mutant mice with hypopituitarism. We found that Prop1 is not necessary for initiation of Cart expression in the fetal pituitary at e14.5, but it is required indirectly for maintenance of Cart expression in the postnatal anterior pituitary gland. Pou1f1 deficiency has no effect on Cart expression before or after birth. There is no 1:1 correspondence between CART and any particular cell type. In neonates, CART is detected primarily in non-proliferating, POU1F1-positive cells. CART is also found in some cells that express TSH and GH suggesting a correspondence with committed progenitors of the POU1F1 lineage. In summary, we have characterized the normal temporal and cell specific expression of CART in mouse development and demonstrate that postnatal CART expression in the pituitary gland requires PROP1.

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<![CDATA[A One-Step Immunostaining Method to Visualize Rodent Muscle Fiber Type within a Single Specimen]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafdab0ee8fa60bc5455

In this study, we present a quadruple immunostaining method for rapid muscle fiber typing of mice and rats using antibodies specific to the adult myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B, which are common marker proteins of distinct muscle fiber types. We developed rat monoclonal antibodies specific to each MyHC isoform and conjugated these four antibodies to fluorophores with distinct excitation and emission wavelengths. By mixing the four types of conjugated antibodies, MyHC1, 2A, 2X, and 2B could be distinguished within a single specimen allowing for facile delineation of skeletal muscle fiber types. Furthermore, we could observe hybrid fibers expressing MyHC2X and MyHC2B together in single longitudinal muscle sections from mice and rats, that was not attained in previous techniques. This staining method is expected to be applied to study muscle fiber type transition in response to environmental factors, and to ultimately develop techniques to regulate animal muscle fiber types.

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<![CDATA[SPARC Regulates Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced (TGFBI) Extracellular Matrix Deposition and Paclitaxel Response in Ovarian Cancer Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6fb15

TGFBI has been shown to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel via an integrin receptor-mediated mechanism that modulates microtubule stability. Herein, we determine that TGFBI localizes within organized fibrillar structures in mesothelial-derived ECM. We determined that suppression of SPARC expression by shRNA decreased the deposition of TGFBI in mesothelial-derived ECM, without affecting its overall protein expression or secretion. Conversely, overexpression of SPARC increased TGFBI deposition. A SPARC-YFP fusion construct expressed by the Met5a cell line co-localized with TGFBI in the cell-derived ECM. Interestingly, in vitro produced SPARC was capable of precipitating TGFBI from cell lysates dependent on an intact SPARC carboxy-terminus with in vitro binding assays verifying a direct interaction. The last 37 amino acids of SPARC were shown to be required for the TGFBI interaction while expression of a SPARC-YFP construct lacking this region (aa 1–256) did not interact and co-localize with TGFBI in the ECM. Furthermore, ovarian cancer cells have a reduced motility and decreased response to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel when plated on ECM derived from mesothelial cells lacking SPARC compared to control mesothelial-derived ECM. In conclusion, SPARC regulates the fibrillar ECM deposition of TGFBI through a novel interaction, subsequently influencing cancer cell behavior.

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<![CDATA[Long-lasting masculinizing effects of postnatal androgens on myelin governed by the brain androgen receptor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab18494463d7e5ca175d923

The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood. A key role of the brain AR in establishing the sexual phenotype of myelin was demonstrated by its conditional deletion. Our results uncover a new persistent effect of postnatal AR signaling, with implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and sex differences in multiple sclerosis.

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<![CDATA[The mechanism of sirtuin 2–mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdd0a6

Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD). However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the interplay between sirtuin 2 and α-synuclein, the major component of the pathognomonic protein inclusions in PD and other synucleinopathies. We found that α-synuclein is acetylated on lysines 6 and 10 and that these residues are deacetylated by sirtuin 2. Genetic manipulation of sirtuin 2 levels in vitro and in vivo modulates the levels of α-synuclein acetylation, its aggregation, and autophagy. Strikingly, mutants blocking acetylation exacerbate α-synuclein toxicity in vivo, in the substantia nigra of rats. Our study identifies α-synuclein acetylation as a key regulatory mechanism governing α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity, demonstrating the potential therapeutic value of sirtuin 2 inhibition in synucleinopathies.

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<![CDATA[AGIA Tag System Based on a High Affinity Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody against Human Dopamine Receptor D1 for Protein Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7fab0ee8fa60b99e0b

Polypeptide tag technology is widely used for protein detection and affinity purification. It consists of two fundamental elements: a peptide sequence and a binder which specifically binds to the peptide tag. In many tag systems, antibodies have been used as binder due to their high affinity and specificity. Recently, we obtained clone Ra48, a high-affinity rabbit monoclonal antibody (mAb) against dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1). Here, we report a novel tag system composed of Ra48 antibody and its epitope sequence. Using a deletion assay, we identified EEAAGIARP in the C-terminal region of DRD1 as the minimal epitope of Ra48 mAb, and we named this sequence the “AGIA” tag, based on its central sequence. The tag sequence does not include the four amino acids, Ser, Thr, Tyr, or Lys, which are susceptible to post-translational modification. We demonstrated performance of this new tag system in biochemical and cell biology applications. SPR analysis demonstrated that the affinity of the Ra48 mAb to the AGIA tag was 4.90 × 10−9 M. AGIA tag showed remarkably high sensitivity and specificity in immunoblotting. A number of AGIA-fused proteins overexpressed in animal and plant cells were detected by anti-AGIA antibody in immunoblotting and immunostaining with low background, and were immunoprecipitated efficiently. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution of the second Glu to Asp (AGIA/E2D) enabled competitive dissociation of AGIA/E2D-tagged protein by adding wild-type AGIA peptide. It enabled one-step purification of AGIA/E2D-tagged recombinant proteins by peptide competition under physiological conditions. The sensitivity and specificity of the AGIA system makes it suitable for use in multiple methods for protein analysis.

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