ResearchPad - immunotherapy-biomarkers https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Characterization of tumor mutation burden, PD-L1 and DNA repair genes to assess relationship to immune checkpoint inhibitors response in metastatic renal cell carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb196bd4e-e98c-4fc9-9715-0b77bd7eabe8 Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have expanded treatment options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC); however, there are limited predictive biomarkers for response to ICIs in this indication, with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) status demonstrating little predictive utility in mRCC. While predictive of ICI response in other tumor types, the utility of tumor mutation burden (TMB) in mRCC is unclear. Here, we assess TMB, loss of antigen presentation genes and PD-L1 status correlated with outcomes to ICI treatment in mRCC.MethodsTumor samples from 34 patients with mRCC treated with ICI therapy at Duke Cancer Institute were retrospectively evaluated using Personal Genome Diagnostics elio tissue complete (RUO version), a tumor genomic profiling assay for somatic variants, TMB, microsatellite status and genomic status of antigen presentation genes. Tumor samples were also analyzed with the Dako 28-8 PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay. Deidentified clinical information was extracted from the medical record, and tumor response was evaluated based on the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) V.1.1 criteria.ResultsPatients were stratified by overall response following ICI therapy and designated as progressive disease (PD; n=18) or disease control groups (DC; n=16). TMB scores ranged from 0.36 to 12.24 mutations/Mb (mean 2.83 mutations/Mb) with no significant difference between the PD and DC groups (3.01 vs 2.63 mutations/Mb, respectively; p=0.7682). Interestingly, 33% of PD patients displayed loss of heterozygosity of major histocompatibility complex class I genes (LOH-MHC) vs 6% of DC patients. Nine of 34 samples were PD-L1-positive (4 in the PD group; 5 in the DC group), suggesting no correlation between PD-L1 expression and response to ICI therapy. Notably, the DC group displayed an enrichment of mutations in DNA repair genes (p=0.04), with 68.8% exhibiting at least one mutated homologous recombination repair (HRR)-related gene compared with only 38.9% of the PD group (p=0.03).ConclusionsOverall, neither TMB nor PD-L1 correlated with ICI response and TMB was not significantly associated with PD-L1 expression. The higher incidence of LOH-MHC in PD group suggests that loss of antigen presentation may restrict response to ICIs. Separately, enrichment of HRR gene mutations in the DC group suggests potential utility in predicting ICI response and a potential therapeutic target, warranting future studies. ]]> <![CDATA[Pre-existing inflammatory immune microenvironment predicts the clinical response of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to therapeutic HPV16 vaccination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff1ff5ca-eb0c-4739-8a5a-93458833b194

Background

Vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (vHSIL) is predominantly induced by high-risk human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16). In two independent trials, therapeutic vaccination against the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins resulted in objective partial and complete responses (PRs/CRs) in half of the patients with HPV16+ vHSIL at 12-month follow-up. Here, the prevaccination and postvaccination vHSIL immune microenvironment in relation to the vaccine-induced clinical response was investigated.

Methods

Two novel seven-color multiplex immunofluorescence panels to identify T cells (CD3, CD8, Foxp3, Tim3, Tbet, PD-1, DAPI) and myeloid cells (CD14, CD33, CD68, CD163, CD11c, PD-L1, DAPI) were designed and fully optimized for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. 29 prevaccination and 24 postvaccination biopsies of patients with vHSIL, and 27 healthy vulva excisions, were stained, scanned with the Vectra multispectral imaging system, and automatically phenotyped and counted using inForm advanced image analysis software.

Results

Healthy vulvar tissue is strongly infiltrated by CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing Tbet and/or PD-1 and CD14+HLA-DR+ inflammatory myeloid cells. The presence of such a coordinated pre-existing proinflammatory microenvironment in HPV16+ vHSIL is associated with CR after vaccination. In partial responders, a disconnection between T cell and CD14+ myeloid cell infiltration was observed, whereas clinical non-responders displayed overall lower immune cell infiltration. Vaccination improved the coordination of local immunity, reflected by increased numbers of CD4+Tbet+ T cells and HLA-DR+CD14+ expressing myeloid cells in patients with a PR or CR, but not in patients with no response. CD8+ T cell infiltration was not increased after vaccination.

Conclusion

A prevaccination inflamed type 1 immune contexture is required for stronger vaccine-induced immune infiltration and is associated with better clinical response. Therapeutic vaccination did not overtly increase immune infiltration of cold lesions.

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<![CDATA[Identification of tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs for improving prognosis and immunotherapy response of patients with non-small cell lung cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0d8f8065-3439-4072-841a-6231a05f0997

Background

Increasing evidence has demonstrated the functional relevance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to immunity regulation and the tumor microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs and their value in improving clinical outcomes and immunotherapy remain largely unexplored.

Methods

We developed a computational approach to identify an lncRNA signature (TILSig) as an indicator of immune cell infiltration in patients with NSCLC through integrative analysis for lncRNA, immune and clinical profiles of 115 immune cell lines, 187 NSCLC cell lines and 1533 patients with NSCLC. Then the influence of the TILSig on the prognosis and immunotherapy in NSCLC was comprehensively investigated.

Results

Computational immune and lncRNA profiling analysis identified an lncRNA signature (TILSig) consisting of seven lncRNAs associated with tumor immune infiltration. The TILSig significantly stratified patients into the immune-cold group and immune-hot group in both training and validation cohorts. These immune-hot patients exhibit significantly improved survival outcome and greater immune cell infiltration compared with immune-cold patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that the TILSig is an independent predictive factor after adjusting for other clinical factors. Further analysis accounting for TILSig and immune checkpoint gene revealed that the TILSig has a discriminatory power in patients with similar expression levels of immune checkpoint genes and significantly prolonged survival was observed for patients with low TILSig and low immune checkpoint gene expression implying a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) immunotherapy.

Conclusions

Our finding demonstrated the importance and value of lncRNAs in evaluating the immune infiltrate of the tumor and highlighted the potential of lncRNA coupled with specific immune checkpoint factors as predictive biomarkers of ICI response to enable a more precise selection of patients.

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<![CDATA[Development and validation of the immune signature to predict distant metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc5a64021-999f-4c90-b03c-1383afceafef Background
The tumor immune microenvironment has clinicopathological significance in predicting prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. We aimed to develop an immune signature to predict distant metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Methods
Using multiplexed quantitative fluorescence, we detected 17 immune biomarkers in a primary screening cohort of 54 NPC tissues presenting with/without distant metastasis following radical therapy. The LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) logistic regression model used statistically significant survival markers in the training cohort (n=194) to build an immune signature. The prognostic and predictive accuracy of it was validated in an external independent group of 304 patients.
Results
Eight statistically significant markers were identified in the screening cohort. The immune signature consisting of four immune markers (PD-L1+ CD163+, CXCR5, CD117) in intratumor was adopted to classify patients into high and low risk in the training cohort and it showed a high level of reproducibility between different batches of samples (r=0.988 for intratumor; p<0.0001). High-risk patients had shorter distant metastasis-free survival (HR 5.608, 95% CI 2.619 to 12.006; p<0.0001) and progression-free survival (HR 2.798, 95% CI 1.498 to 5.266; p=0·001). The C-indexes which reflected the predictive capacity in training and validation cohort were 0.703 and 0.636, respectively. Low-risk patients benefited from induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy (IC+CCRT) (HR 0.355, 95% CI 0.147 to 0.857; p=0·021), while high-risk patients did not (HR 1.329, 95% CI 0.543 to 3.253; p=0·533). To predict the individual risk of distant metastasis, nomograms with the integration of both immune signature and clinicopathological risk factors were developed.
Conclusions
The immune signature provided a reliable estimate of distant metastasis risk in patients with NPC and might be applied to identify the cohort which benefit from IC+CCRT.
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