ResearchPad - impulsivity https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[How and why do young soccer players change the Flow State?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14602 Flow State (FS) as well as other psychological characteristics influence sports performance (SP) and could be relevant according to the playing position in team sports, such as the soccer where players have different specific functions within the team. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in FS dimensions in young soccer players between training time (TR) and official competition time (CM), according to the playing position and, to find relationships between FS dimensions and physical characteristics and academic performance. A total of 141 U16 soccer players were selected (14.7 ± 0.5 years). Data was collected for academic performance, physical and socio-demographic characteristics, and on two occasions, the dimensions of FS (before of a TR and CM). The results showed that the FS dimensions are higher before of the TR than before of the CM (p < 0.05) in all playing positions. In clear goals dimension, forwards showed lower scores than other playing positions, and various dimensions had a positive relationship with academic performance. In conclusion, the FS presented in CM is lower in U16 soccer players compared to that presented in TR. This work has contributed to increasing the knowledge of the fluctuation of the FS that negatively influence the soccer player in pre-competition states and the influence of various factors on this construct.

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<![CDATA[Impulsivity across reactive, proactive and cognitive domains in Parkinson's disease on dopaminergic medication: Evidence for multiple domain impairment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9fad5eed0c48452a639

Impulse control disorders (ICD) may occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD) although it remains to be understood if such deficits may occur even in the absence of a formal ICD diagnosis. Moreover, studies addressing simultaneously distinct neurobehavioral domains, such as cognitive, proactive and reactive motor impulsivity, are still lacking. Here, we aimed to investigate if reactive, proactive and cognitive impulsivity involving risk taking are concomitantly affected in medicated PD patients, and whether deficits were dependent on response strategies, such as speed accuracy tradeoffs, or the proportion of omission vs. commission errors. We assessed three different impulsivity domains in a sample of 21 PD patients and 13 matched controls. We found impaired impulsivity in both reactive (p = 0.042) and cognitive domains (p = 0.015) for the PD patients, irrespective of response strategy. For the latter, effect sizes were larger for the actions related with reward processing (p = 0.017, dCohen = 0.9). In the proactive impulsivity task, PD patients showed significantly increased number of omissions (p = 0.041), a response strategy which was associated with preserved number of commission errors. Moreover, the number of premature and proactive response errors were correlated with disease stage. Our findings suggest that PD ON medication is characterized compared to healthy controls by impairment across several impulsivity domains, which is moderated in the proactive domain by the response strategy.

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<![CDATA[Email fraud: The search for psychological predictors of susceptibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c48ded4d5eed0c4841cca10

Decisions that we make about email legitimacy can result in a pernicious threat to security of both individuals and organisations. Yet user response to phishing emails is far from uniform; some respond while others do not. What is the source of this diversity in decision-making? From a psychological perspective, we consider cognitive and situational influences that might explain why certain users are more susceptible than others. Alongside an email judgment task employed as a proxy for fraud susceptibility, 224 participants completed a range of cognitive tasks. In addition, we manipulated time pressure for email legitimacy judgments. We identify cognitive reflection and sensation seeking as significant, albeit modest, predictors of susceptibility. Further to this, participants asked to make quicker responses made more judgment errors. We conclude there are cognitive signatures that partially contribute to email fraud susceptibility, with implications for efforts to limit online security breaches and train secure behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Longitudinal relation between state-trait maternal irritability and harsh parenting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa606d5eed0c484cab485

According to Belsky’s process model of parenting, parents’ personality represents the most important factor influencing parenting and child development. While an extensive literature has empirically corroborated the role of irritability traits in predicting aggressive behaviors in laboratory-based studies, only a few studies have examined the role of irritability in predicting aggressive behaviors within family contexts. The present study addressed this gap by examining the longitudinal association between maternal irritability and harsh parenting. Referencing latent state-trait theory (LST), first we estimated the amount of variance in mothers’ irritability due to trait and state components, and, next, we examined the relation between mothers’ irritability (both at trait- and state- levels) and harsh parenting over time. A sample of 204 mothers from Naples and Rome provided data over 5 years in four waves. Mothers averaged 40.30 years (SD = 5.33) at Time 1 and 44.01 years (SD = 5.43) at Time 4. Their children (50% girls) were 9.45 years (SD = 0.74) at Time 1 and 13.18 years (SD = 0.66) at Time 4. Results of LST analysis showed that, on average, 39% of variability in irritability was due to trait-like factors and only 12% to state-like factors. A multitrait-multistate model revealed that the irritability trait associated with mother’s lack of control predicted her harsh parenting 1-year later, while controlling for the rank-order stability of harsh parenting.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent development of cortical oscillations: Power, phase, and support of cognitive maturation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae433d5eed0c484589220

During adolescence, the integration of specialized functional brain networks related to cognitive control continues to increase. Slow frequency oscillations (4–10 Hz) have been shown to support cognitive control processes, especially within prefrontal regions. However, it is unclear how neural oscillations contribute to functional brain network development and improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. To bridge this gap, we employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to explore changes in oscillatory power and phase coupling across cortical networks in a sample of 68 adolescents and young adults. We found a redistribution of power from lower to higher frequencies throughout adolescence, such that delta band (1–3 Hz) power decreased, whereas beta band power (14–16 and 22–26 Hz) increased. Delta band power decreased with age most strongly in association networks within the frontal lobe and operculum. Conversely, beta band power increased throughout development, most strongly in processing networks and the posterior cingulate cortex, a hub of the default mode (DM) network. In terms of phase, theta band (5–9 Hz) phase-locking robustly decreased with development, following an anterior-to-posterior gradient, with the greatest decoupling occurring between association networks. Additionally, decreased slow frequency phase-locking between frontolimbic regions was related to decreased impulsivity with age. Thus, greater decoupling of slow frequency oscillations may afford functional networks greater flexibility during the resting state to instantiate control when required.

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<![CDATA[Reduced microbiome alpha diversity in young patients with ADHD]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5ff793463d7e28ade495c6

ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers. We found that the microbial diversity (alpha diversity) was significantly decreased in ADHD patients compared to controls (pShannon = 0.036) and that the composition (beta diversity) differed significantly between patients and controls (pANOSIM = 0.033, pADONIS = 0.006, pbetadisper = 0.002). In detail, the bacterial family Prevotellacae was associated with controls, while patients with ADHD showed elevated levels of Bacteroidaceae, and both Neisseriaceae and Neisseria spec. were found as possible biomarkers for juvenile ADHD. Our results point to a possible link of certain microbiota with ADHD, with Neisseria spec. being a very promising ADHD-associated candidate. This finding provides the basis for a systematic, longitudinal assessment of the role of the gut microbiome in ADHD, yielding promising potential for both prevention and therapeutic intervention.

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<![CDATA[Attention Network Dysfunction in Bulimia Nervosa - An fMRI Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9dfab0ee8fa60b68ed4

Objective

Recent evidence has suggested an increased rate of comorbid ADHD and subclinical attentional impairments in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients. However, little is known regarding the underlying neural mechanisms of attentional functions in BN.

Method

Twenty BN patients and twenty age- and weight-matched healthy controls (HC) were investigated using a modified version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an fMRI study. This design enabled an investigation of the neural mechanisms associated with the three attention networks involved in alerting, reorienting and executive attention.

Results

The BN patients showed hyperactivation in parieto-occipital regions and reduced deactivation of default-mode-network (DMN) areas during alerting compared with HCs. Posterior cingulate activation during alerting correlated with the severity of eating-disorder symptoms within the patient group. Conversely, BN patients showed hypoactivation during reorienting and executive attention in anterior cingulate regions, the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and parahippocampus compared with HCs, which was negatively associated with global ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, respectively.

Discussion

Our findings demonstrate altered brain mechanisms in BN associated with all three attentional networks. Failure to deactivate the DMN and increased parieto-occipital activation required for alerting might be associated with a constant preoccupation with food or body image-related thoughts. Hypoactivation of executive control networks and TPJ might increase the likelihood of inattentive and impulsive behaviors and poor emotion regulation. Thus, dysfunction in the attentional network in BN goes beyond an altered executive attentional domain and needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of BN.

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<![CDATA[Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac9ab0ee8fa60bb37ea

Background

Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue.

Method

We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype.

Results

In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity.

Conclusions

The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties.

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<![CDATA[Marijuana Use Is Associated with Behavioral Approach and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents and Emerging Adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf0ab0ee8fa60bc0fbd

Background

Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach.

Objectives

Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction. The influence of alcohol and gender were also assessed.

Methods

84 participants (42 MJ, 42 controls) aged 18–25 were balanced for gender (39 F). Exclusion criteria included: MRI contraindications, left handed, comorbid Axis-I disorders, major medical or neurologic disorders, prenatal issues, or prenatal alcohol/illicit drug exposure, or excessive other drug use. Participants completed the FrsBE, BIS/BAS, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State), and BDI-II. Multiple regressions were run to predict anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction from MJ group status, past year alcohol use, gender, and MJ*gender interactions, controlling for cotinine and ecstasy.

Results

MJ group predicted increased depressive symptoms (p =.049). Decreased fun-seeking (p =.04), reward response (p =.01), and BAS total (p =.01) were predicted by MJ group. Gender predicted decreased reward responsiveness in females (p =.049) and decreased BIS in females (p =.03). Female marijuana users had increased anxiety symptoms (p =.04) and increased disinhibition (p =.04). Increased cotinine predicted increased drive (p =.046), reward responsiveness (p =.008) and BAS Total (p =.02). Apathy and Executive Dysfunction were not predicted by any measures. All results had small effect sizes.

Conclusions/Importance

Depressive symptoms were greater in MJ users, while behavioral approach was decreased. Cotinine levels predicted increased behavioral approach. Female MJ users also had greater anxiety and disinhibition. In sum, these findings suggest sub-clinical threshold deficits related to regular marijuana use that are indicative of a need to prevent marijuana use in adolescents and young adults.

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<![CDATA[German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da83ab0ee8fa60b9b67e

Background

The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.

Methods

The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.

Results

The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D) including only 27 of the 72 items.

Conclusions

The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.

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<![CDATA[Answering the missed call: Initial exploration of cognitive and electrophysiological changes associated with smartphone use and abuse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1436

Background

Smartphone usage is now integral to human behavior. Recent studies associate extensive usage with a range of debilitating effects. We sought to determine whether excessive usage is accompanied by measurable neural, cognitive and behavioral changes.

Method

Subjects lacking previous experience with smartphones (n = 35) were compared to a matched group of heavy smartphone users (n = 16) on numerous behavioral and electrophysiological measures recorded using electroencephalogram (EEG) combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC). In a second longitudinal intervention, a randomly selected sample of the original non-users received smartphones for 3 months while the others served as controls. All measurements were repeated following this intervention.

Results

Heavy users showed increased impulsivity, hyperactivity and negative social concern. We also found reduced early TMS evoked potentials in the rPFC of this group, which correlated with severity of self-reported inattention problems. Heavy users also obtained lower accuracy rates than nonusers in a numerical processing. Critically, the second part of the experiment revealed that both the numerical processing and social cognition domains are causally linked to smartphone usage.

Conclusion

Heavy usage was found to be associated with impaired attention, reduced numerical processing capacity, changes in social cognition, and reduced right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) excitability. Memory impairments were not detected. Novel usage over short period induced a significant reduction in numerical processing capacity and changes in social cognition.

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<![CDATA[How reliable are the effects of self-control training?: A re-examination using self-report and physical measures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be0467

In light of recent challenges to the strength model of self-control, our study re-examines the effects of self-control training on established physical and self-report measures of self-control. We also examined whether beliefs about the malleability of self-control qualify any training effects. Participants in the training condition were assigned to increase use of their non-dominant hand for two weeks, and did comply mainly if they held high-malleability beliefs; yet, compared to a control condition, the physical measure of self-control did not improve. This was also evident in a secondary objective measure of self-control, a Stroop task, as well as in self-reported self-control. The discussion focuses on the lack of replication of training effects on self-control.

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<![CDATA[Trait impulsivity components correlate differently with proactive and reactive control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc899

The relationship between impulsivity and cognitive control is still unknown. We hypothesized that trait impulsivity would differentially correlate with specific cognitive control processes. Trait impulsivity was measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, which assesses motor, attention, and non-planning impulsiveness components. Cognitive control was measured by a hybrid-designed Stroop task, which distinguishes proactive and reactive control. Thirty-three participants performed the Stroop task while they were scanned by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Proactive and reactive control involved increased activity in the fronto-parietal network, and brain activity was associated with impulsivity scores. Specifically, higher motor impulsiveness was associated with a larger proactive control effect in the inferior parietal lobule and a smaller reactive control effect in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate contex. Higher attention impulsivity was associated with a smaller proactive control effect in the right DLPFC. Such a correlation pattern suggests that impulsivity trait components are attributable to different cognitive control subsystems.

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<![CDATA[Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da39ab0ee8fa60b876d3

Background

Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients.

Methods

Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions.

Results

Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity.

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<![CDATA[Personality Factors Predicting Smartphone Addiction Predisposition: Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems, Impulsivity, and Self-Control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d9ab0ee8fa60b66eec

The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20–49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.

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<![CDATA[Reduced Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Response in Adults with Methamphetamine Induced Psychosis: Relevance for Impulsivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b89bcb

Patients with methamphetamine abuse/dependence often exhibit high levels of impulsivity, which may be associated with the structural abnormalities and functional hypoactivities observed in the frontal cortex of these subjects. Although near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-invasive method for characterizing the clinical features of various psychiatric illnesses, few studies have used NIRS to directly investigate the association between prefrontal cortical activity and inhibitory control in patients with methamphetamine-induced psychosis (MAP). Using a 24-channel NIRS system, we compared hemodynamic responses during the Stroop color-word task in 14 patients with MAP and 21 healthy controls matched for age, sex and premorbid IQ. In addition, we used the Barrett Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11) to assess impulsivity between subject groups. The MAP group exhibited significantly less activation in the anterior and frontopolar prefrontal cortex accompanied by lower Stroop color-word task performance, compared with controls. Moreover, BIS-11 scores were significantly higher in the MAP group, and were negatively correlated with the hemodynamic responses in prefrontal cortex. Our data suggest that reduced hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might reflect higher levels of impulsivity in patients with MAP, providing new insights into disrupted inhibitory control observed in MAP.

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<![CDATA[Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db37ab0ee8fa60bd37f0

Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

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<![CDATA[Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab1ab0ee8fa60bab70e

This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.

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<![CDATA[Measuring Impatience in Intertemporal Choice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d1ab0ee8fa60b64425

In general terms, decreasing impatience means decreasing discount rates. This property has been usually referred to as hyperbolic discounting, although there are other discount functions which also exhibit decreasing discount rates. This paper focuses on the measurement of the impatience associated with a discount function with the aim of establishing a methodology to compare this characteristic for two different discount functions. In this way, first we define the patience associated with a discount function in an interval as its corresponding discount factor and consequently we deduce that the impatience at a given moment is the corresponding instantaneous discount rate. Second we compare the degree of impatience of discount functions belonging to the same or different families, by considering the cases in which the functions do or do not intersect.

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<![CDATA[Asymmetric morality: Blame is more differentiated and more extreme than praise]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c915f7bd5eed0c48420a975

Despite extensive recent investigations of moral judgments, little is known about how negative judgments like blame might differ from positive judgments like praise. Drawing on theory from both social and moral cognition, the present studies identify and test potential asymmetries in the extremity and differentiatedness of blame as compared to praise. The amplified blame hypothesis predicts that people will assign greater blame for negative behaviors than praise for positive behaviors. The differentiated blame hypothesis predicts that, as compared to praise judgments, blame judgments will more finely differentiate among distinct mental states that precede action, such as thoughts, desires, and intentions. A series of studies—using varied stimulus sets and samples—together provide robust support for the differentiated blame hypothesis and somewhat weaker support for the amplified blame hypotheses. These results illustrate systematic asymmetries between blame and praise, generally revealing that blame is more extreme and differentiated than praise. Together, the findings reflect the social costs and social regulatory function of moral judgments, suggesting that blame and praise are not mirror images and that blame might be more complex.

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