ResearchPad - inbreeding https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Breeding practices and trait preferences of smallholder farmers for indigenous sheep in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia: Inputs to design a breeding program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7865 The aim of this study was to identify breeding practices and trait preferences for indigenous sheep in three districts (Estie, Farta and Lay Gayient) located in the northwest highlands of Ethiopia. Questionnaire survey and choice experiment methods were used to collect data from 370 smallholder farmers. Respondents were selected randomly among smallholder farmers who own sheep in the aforementioned districts. A generalized multinomial logit model was employed to examine preferences for sheep attributes, while descriptive statistics and index values were computed to describe sheep breeding practices. Having the highest index value of 0.36, income generation was ranked as the primary reason for keeping sheep, followed by meat and manure sources. The average flock size per smallholder farmer was 10.21 sheep. The majority of the smallholder farmers (91%) have the experience of selecting breeding rams and ewes within their own flock using diverse criteria. Given the highest index value of 0.34, body size was ranked as a primary ram and ewe selection criteria, followed by coat color. Furthermore, choice modeling results revealed that tail type, body size, coat color, growth rate, horn and ear size have shown significant influences on smallholder farmers’ preference for breeding rams (P<0.01). The part-worth utility coefficients were positive for all ram attributes except ear size. For breeding ewes, mothering ability, coat color, body size, lambing interval, growth rate, tail type and litter size have shown significant effects on choice preferences of smallholder farmers (P<0.05). Moreover, significant scale heterogeneity was observed among respondents for ewe attributes (P<0.001). Overall, the results implied that sheep breeding objectives suitable for the northwest highlands of the country can be derived from traits such as linear body measurement, weight and survival at different ages, and lambing intervals. However, selection decisions at the smallholder level should not only be based on estimated breeding values of traits included in the breeding objective but instead, incorporate ways to address farmers’ preference for qualitative traits.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of infinitesimal and finite locus models for long-term breeding simulations with direct and maternal effects at the example of honeybees]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897737d5eed0c4847d272e

Stochastic simulation studies of animal breeding have mostly relied on either the infinitesimal genetic model or finite polygenic models. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of the chosen model on honeybee breeding schemes. We implemented the infinitesimal model, as well as finite locus models, with 200 and 400 gene loci and simulated populations of 300 and 1000 colonies per year over the course of 100 years. The selection was of a directly and maternally influenced trait with maternal heritability of hm2=0.42, direct heritability of hd2=0.27, and a negative correlation between the effects of rmd = − 0.18. Another set of simulations was run with parameters hm2=0.53, hd2=0.34, and rmd = − 0.53. All models showed similar behavior for the first 20 years. Throughout the study, we observed a higher genetic gain in the direct than in the maternal effects and a smaller gain with a stronger negative covariance. In the long-term, however, only the infinitesimal model predicted sustainable linear genetic progress, while the finite locus models showed sublinear behavior and, after 100 years, only reached between 58% and 62% of the mean breeding values in the infinitesimal model. While the infinitesimal model suggested a reduction of genetic variance by 33% to 49% after 100 years, the finite locus models saw a more drastic loss of 76% to 92%. When designing sustainable breeding strategies, one should, therefore, not blindly trust the infinitesimal model as the predictions may be overly optimistic. Instead, the more conservative choice of the finite locus model should be favored.

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<![CDATA[Gene expression variation and parental allele inheritance in a Xiphophorus interspecies hybridization model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2f04d5eed0c484d9cc9a

Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying segregation of phenotypic variation through successive generations is important for understanding physiological changes and disease risk. Tracing the etiology of variation in gene expression enables identification of genetic interactions, and may uncover molecular mechanisms leading to the phenotypic expression of a trait, especially when utilizing model organisms that have well-defined genetic lineages. There are a plethora of studies that describe relationships between gene expression and genotype, however, the idea that global variations in gene expression are also controlled by genotype remains novel. Despite the identification of loci that control gene expression variation, the global understanding of how genome constitution affects trait variability is unknown. To study this question, we utilized Xiphophorus fish of different, but tractable genetic backgrounds (inbred, F1 interspecies hybrids, and backcross hybrid progeny), and measured each individual’s gene expression concurrent with the degrees of inter-individual expression variation. We found, (a) F1 interspecies hybrids exhibited less variability than inbred animals, indicting gene expression variation is not affected by the fraction of heterozygous loci within an individual genome, and (b), that mixing genotypes in backcross populations led to higher levels of gene expression variability, supporting the idea that expression variability is caused by heterogeneity of genotypes of cis or trans loci. In conclusion, heterogeneity of genotype, introduced by inheritance of different alleles, accounts for the largest effects on global phenotypical variability.

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<![CDATA[Reproductive trade-offs maintain bract color polymorphism in Scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3667c9d5eed0c4841a6427

Populations of scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea) in the Midwestern United States exhibit a bract color polymorphism, with each population having predominantly yellow or scarlet bracts. We investigated a possible mechanism for this maintenance of bract color polymorphism in C. coccinea by conducting hand-pollination experiments in two nearby populations, one predominantly yellow and one predominantly scarlet. The hand-pollination treatments were either self-pollination or cross pollination using pollen from within and between populations. Both color morphs were used as pollen donors for the within and between crosses. We found that both color morphs of C. coccinea were self-compatible. When the scarlet morph was the maternal plant it had higher seed set. When pollinators were excluded, the yellow morph outperformed the scarlet morph in fruit set and seed set. The apparent trade-offs between a higher reproductive output in the scarlet morph and a reproductive assurance advantage in the yellow morph may explain the maintenance of the polymorphism in C. coccinea. While many previous studies have provided evidence for pollinator preference playing a role in floral color polymorphism, the results of the current study indicate that reproductive assurance, which would be important for fluctuations in pollinator abundance or colonizing new areas, may act as a selective agent to maintain such polymorphisms.

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<![CDATA[Contrasting fine-scale genetic structure of two sympatric clonal plants in an alpine swampy meadow featured by tussocks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c26973ad5eed0c48470efa2

Tussocks are unique vegetation structures in wetlands. Many tussock species mainly reproduce by clonal growth, resulting in genetically identical offspring distributed in various spatial patterns. These fine-scale patterns could influence mating patterns and thus the long-term evolution of wetland plants. Here, we contribute the first genetic and clonal structures of two key species in alpine wetlands on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, Kobresia tibetica and Blysmus sinocompressus, using > 5000 SNPs identified by 2b-RAD sequencing. The tussock-building species, K. tibetica, has a phalanx (clumping) growth form, but different genets could co-occur within the tussocks, indicating that it is not proper to treat a tussock as one genetic individual. Phalanx growth does not necessarily lead to increased inbreeding in K. tibetica. B. sinocompressus has a guerilla (spreading) growth form, with the largest detected clone size being 18.32 m, but genets at the local scale tend to be inbred offspring. Our results highlight that the combination of clone expansion and seedling recruitment facilitates the contemporary advantage of B. sinocompressus, but its evolutionary potential is limited by the input genetic load of the original genets. The tussocks of K. tibetica are more diverse and a valuable genetic legacy of former well-developed wet meadows, and they are worthy of conservation attention.

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<![CDATA[Sex-specific dominance reversal of genetic variation for fitness]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19668ed5eed0c484b52394

The maintenance of genetic variance in fitness represents one of the most longstanding enigmas in evolutionary biology. Sexually antagonistic (SA) selection may contribute substantially to maintaining genetic variance in fitness by maintaining alternative alleles with opposite fitness effects in the two sexes. This is especially likely if such SA loci exhibit sex-specific dominance reversal (SSDR)—wherein the allele that benefits a given sex is also dominant in that sex—which would generate balancing selection and maintain stable SA polymorphisms for fitness. However, direct empirical tests of SSDR for fitness are currently lacking. Here, we performed a full diallel cross among isogenic strains derived from a natural population of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that is known to exhibit SA genetic variance in fitness. We measured sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (i.e., fitness) in >500 sex-by-genotype F1 combinations and found that segregating genetic variation in fitness exhibited pronounced contributions from dominance variance and sex-specific dominance variance. A closer inspection of the nature of dominance variance revealed that the fixed allelic variation captured within each strain tended to be dominant in one sex but recessive in the other, revealing genome-wide SSDR for SA polymorphisms underlying fitness. Our findings suggest that SA balancing selection could play an underappreciated role in maintaining fitness variance in natural populations.

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<![CDATA[Screening and verification of genes associated with leaf angle and leaf orientation value in inbred maize lines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eefd5eed0c484d28e63

Leaf angle and leaf orientation value are important traits affecting planting density and photosynthetic efficiency. To identify the genes involved in controlling leaf angle and leaf orientation value, we utilized 1.49×106 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers obtained after sequencing 80 backbone inbred maize lines in Jilin Province, based on phenotype data from two years, and analyzed these two traits in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). A total of 33 SNPs were significantly associated (P<0.000001) with the two target traits. Twenty-two SNPs were significantly associated with leaf angle and distributed on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, explaining 21.62% of the phenotypic variation. Eleven SNPs were significantly associated with leaf orientation value and distributed on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9, explaining 29.63% of the phenotypic variation. Within the mean linkage disequilibrium (LD) distance of 9.7 kb for the significant SNP locus, 22 leaf angle candidate genes were detected, and 3 of these candidate genes harbored significant SNPs, with phenotype contribution rates greater than 10%. Two candidate genes at distances less than 100 bp from significant SNPs showed phenotype contribution rates greater than 8%. Seven leaf orientation value candidate genes were detected: 3 of these candidate genes harbored significant SNPs, with phenotype contribution rates greater than 10%. Eight inbred maize lines with significant differences in leaf angle and leaf orientation value were selected to test candidate gene expression levels from 182 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The 5 leaf angle candidate genes and 3 leaf orientation value candidate genes were verified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed significant differences in the expression levels of the above eight genes between inbred maize lines with significant differences in leaf angle and leaf orientation value.

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<![CDATA[Pollen flow and paternity in an isolated and non-isolated black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) timber seed orchard]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c102877d5eed0c48424735b

Artificial pollination of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is not practical and timber breeders have historically utilized only open-pollinated half-sib families. An alternate approach called “breeding without breeding,” consists of genotyping open-pollinated progeny using DNA markers to identify paternal parents and then constructing full-sib families. In 2014, we used 12 SSR markers to genotype 884 open-pollinated half-sib progeny harvested from two clonal orchards containing 206 trees, comprised of 52 elite timber selections. Seed was harvested in 2011 from each of two ramets of 23 clones, one upwind and one downwind, based on prevailing wind direction from the west—southwest. One orchard was isolated from wild black walnut and composed of forward selections while the other orchard was adjacent to a natural forest containing mature black walnut composed of backward selections. Isolation significantly increased within-orchard pollination (85%) of the progeny from the isolated orchard compared to 42% from the non-isolated orchard. Neither prevailing wind direction nor seed tree position in the orchard affected paternity patterns or wild pollen contamination. Genetic diversity indices revealed that progeny from both orchards were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium with very little inbreeding and no selfing. A significant level of inbreeding was present among the forward selected parents, but not the first generation (backward selected) parents. Some orchard clones failed to sire any progeny while other clones pollinated upwards of 20% of progeny.

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<![CDATA[Genomic characterization of the Braque Français type Pyrénées dog and relationship with other breeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117b55d5eed0c484698b51

The evaluation of genetic variability is a useful research tool for the correct management of selection and conservation strategies in dog breeds. In addition to pedigree genealogies, genomic data allow a deeper knowledge of the variability and genetic structure of populations. To date, many dog breeds, such as small regional breeds, still remain uncharacterized. Braque Français type Pyrénées (BRA) is a dog breed originating from a very old type of gun-dog used for pointing the location of game birds to hunters. Despite the ancient background, the knowledge about levels of genetic diversity, degree of inbreeding and population structure is scarce. This may raise concerns on the possibility that few inbred bloodlines may dominate the breed, and on its future health. The aim of this work was therefore to provide a high-resolution representation of the genome-wide diversity and population structure of BRA dogs, using the 170K genome-wide SNP array. Genome-wide polymorphisms in BRA were compared with those of other worldwide dog breeds. Between-dog relationships estimated from genomic data were very similar to pedigree relationships (Pearson correlation rg,a = 0.92). Results showed that BRA generally presents moderate levels of genetic diversity when compared with the major canine breeds. The estimated effective population size (recent Ne = 51) shows a similar declining pattern over generations as all other dog breeds, pointing at a common demographic history of modern canine breeds, clearly different from the demography of feral wolves. Multidimensional scaling (MDS), Bayesian clustering and Neighbor Joining tree were used to visualize and explore the genetic relationships among breeds, and revealed that BRA was highly differentiated and presented only low levels of admixture with other breeds. Brittany Spaniel, English Setter, Gordon Setter and Weimaraner dogs are the closest breeds to BRA. The exact reason for BRA being so divergent from other dog breeds, based on these results, is not yet clear. Further studies including additional ≪braccoid≫ breeds will be needed to refine the results presented here and to investigate the origin of the BRA breed. Nonetheless, the genome-wide characterization reported here provides a comprehensive insight into the genome diversity and population structure of the Braque Français, type Pyrénées breed.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in South African, French and Argentinian Angora Goats from Genome-Wide SNP Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ab6e

The Angora goat populations in Argentina (AR), France (FR) and South Africa (SA) have been kept geographically and genetically distinct. Due to country-specific selection and breeding strategies, there is a need to characterize the populations on a genetic level. In this study we analysed genetic variability of Angora goats from three distinct geographical regions using the standardized 50k Goat SNP Chip. A total of 104 goats (AR: 30; FR: 26; SA: 48) were genotyped. Heterozygosity values as well as inbreeding coefficients across all autosomes per population were calculated. Diversity, as measured by expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.371 in the SA population to 0.397 in the AR population. The SA goats were the only population with a positive average inbreeding coefficient value of 0.009. After merging the three datasets, standard QC and LD-pruning, 15 105 SNPs remained for further analyses. Principal component and clustering analyses were used to visualize individual relationships within and between populations. All SA Angora goats were separated from the others and formed a well-defined, unique cluster, while outliers were identified in the FR and AR breeds. Apparent admixture between the AR and FR populations was observed, while both these populations showed signs of having some common ancestry with the SA goats. LD averaged over adjacent loci within the three populations per chromosome were calculated. The highest LD values estimated across populations were observed in the shorter intervals across populations. The Ne for the Angora breed was estimated to be 149 animals ten generations ago indicating a declining trend. Results confirmed that geographic isolation and different selection strategies caused genetic distinctiveness between the populations.

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<![CDATA[The distribution of runs of homozygosity and selection signatures in six commercial meat sheep breeds]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf4b8

Domestication and the subsequent selection of animals for either economic or morphological features can leave a variety of imprints on the genome of a population. Genomic regions subjected to high selective pressures often show reduced genetic diversity and frequent runs of homozygosity (ROH). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to use 42,182 autosomal SNPs to identify genomic regions in 3,191 sheep from six commercial breeds subjected to selection pressure and to quantify the genetic diversity within each breed using ROH. In addition, the historical effective population size of each breed was also estimated and, in conjunction with ROH, was used to elucidate the demographic history of the six breeds. ROH were common in the autosomes of animals in the present study, but the observed breed differences in patterns of ROH length and burden suggested differences in breed effective population size and recent management. ROH provided a sufficient predictor of the pedigree inbreeding coefficient, with an estimated correlation between both measures of 0.62. Genomic regions under putative selection were identified using two complementary algorithms; the fixation index and hapFLK. The identified regions under putative selection included candidate genes associated with skin pigmentation, body size and muscle formation; such characteristics are often sought after in modern-day breeding programs. These regions of selection frequently overlapped with high ROH regions both within and across breeds. Multiple yet uncharacterised genes also resided within putative regions of selection. This further substantiates the need for a more comprehensive annotation of the sheep genome as these uncharacterised genes may contribute to traits of interest in the animal sciences. Despite this, the regions identified as under putative selection in the current study provide an insight into the mechanisms leading to breed differentiation and genetic variation in meat production.

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<![CDATA[The Relationship between Mating System and Genetic Diversity in Diploid Sexual Populations of Cyrtomium falcatum in Japan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0aab0ee8fa60bc9f5f

The impact of variation in mating system on genetic diversity is a well-debated topic in evolutionary biology. The diploid sexual race of Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) shows mating system variation, i.e., it displays two different types of sexual expression (gametangia formation) in gametophytes: mixed (M) type and separate (S) type. We examined whether there is variation in the selfing rate among populations of this species, and evaluated the relationship between mating system, genetic diversity and effective population size using microsatellites. In this study, we developed eight new microsatellite markers and evaluated genetic diversity and structure of seven populations (four M-type and three S-type). Past effective population sizes (Ne) were inferred using Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). The values of fixation index (FIS), allelic richness (AR) and gene diversity (h) differed significantly between the M-type (FIS: 0.626, AR: 1.999, h: 0.152) and the S-type (FIS: 0.208, AR: 2.718, h: 0.367) populations (when admixed individuals were removed from two populations). Although evidence of past bottleneck events was detected in all populations by ABC, the current Ne of the M-type populations was about a third of that of the S-type populations. These results suggest that the M-type populations have experienced more frequent bottlenecks, which could be related to their higher colonization ability via gametophytic selfing. Although high population differentiation among populations was detected (FST = 0.581, F’ST = 0.739), there was no clear genetic differentiation between the M- and S-types. Instead, significant isolation by distance was detected among all populations. These results suggest that mating system variation in this species is generated by the selection for single spore colonization during local extinction and recolonization events and there is no genetic structure due to mating system.

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<![CDATA[Kin-Aggregations Explain Chaotic Genetic Patchiness, a Commonly Observed Genetic Pattern, in a Marine Fish]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e9ab0ee8fa60b6c43a

The phenomenon of chaotic genetic patchiness is a pattern commonly seen in marine organisms, particularly those with demersal adults and pelagic larvae. This pattern is usually associated with sweepstakes recruitment and variable reproductive success. Here we investigate the biological underpinnings of this pattern in a species of marine goby Coryphopterus personatus. We find that populations of this species show tell-tale signs of chaotic genetic patchiness including: small, but significant, differences in genetic structure over short distances; a non-equilibrium or “chaotic” pattern of differentiation among locations in space; and within locus, within population deviations from the expectations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). We show that despite having a pelagic larval stage, and a wide distribution across Caribbean coral reefs, this species forms groups of highly related individuals at small spatial scales (<10 metres). These spatially clustered family groups cause the observed deviations from HWE and local population differentiation, a finding that is rarely demonstrated, but could be more common than previously thought.

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<![CDATA[Cross-Breeding Is Inevitable to Conserve the Highly Inbred Population of Puffin Hunter: The Norwegian Lundehund]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcf00

The Norwegian Lundehund is a highly endangered native dog breed. Low fertility and high frequency predisposition to intestinal disorder imply inbreeding depression. We assessed the genetic diversity of the Lundehund population from pedigree data and evaluated the potential of optimal contribution selection and cross-breeding in the long-term management of the Lundehund population. The current Norwegian Lundehund population is highly inbred and has lost 38.8% of the genetic diversity in the base population. Effective population size estimates varied between 13 and 82 depending on the method used. Optimal contribution selection alone facilitates no improvement in the current situation in the Lundehund due to the extremely high relatedness of the whole population. Addition of (replacement with) 10 breeding candidates of foreign breed to 30 Lundehund breeders reduced the parental additive genetic relationship by 40–42% (48–53%). Immediate actions are needed to increase the genetic diversity in the current Lundehund population. The only option to secure the conservation of this rare breed is to introduce individuals from foreign breeds as breeding candidates.

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<![CDATA[When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc18

Background

Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.

Methodology

To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.

Results

Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Vicia faba L. Landraces and Wild Related Species Assessed by Nuclear SSRs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e7ab0ee8fa60b6b7d2

Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a facultative cross-pollinating legume crop with a great importance for food and feed due to its high protein content as well as the important role in soil fertility and nitrogen fixation. In this work we evaluated genetic diversity and population structure of faba bean accessions from the Western Mediterranean basin and wild related species. For that purpose we screened 53 V. faba, 2 V. johannis and 7 V. narbonensis accessions from Portugal, Spain and Morocco with 28 faba bean Single Sequence Repeats (SSR). SSR genotyping showed that the number of alleles detected per locus for the polymorphic markers ranged between 2 and 10, with Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values between 0.662 and 0.071, and heterozygosity (HO) between 0–0.467. Heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient levels indicate a higher level of inbreeding in wild related species than in cultivated Vicia. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a superior genetic diversity within accessions than between accessions even from distant regions. These results are in accordance to population structure analysis showing that individuals from the same accession can be genetically more similar to individuals from far away accessions, than from individuals from the same accession. In all three levels of analysis (whole panel of cultivated and wild accessions, cultivated faba bean accessions and Portuguese accessions) no population structure was observed based on geography or climatic factors. Differences between V. narbonensis and V. johannis are undetectable although these wild taxa are clearly distinct from V. faba accessions. Thus, a limited gene flow occurred between cultivated accessions and wild relatives. Contrastingly, the lack of population structure seems to indicate a high degree of gene flow between V. faba accessions, possibly explained by the partially allogamous habit in association with frequent seed exchange/introduction.

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<![CDATA[Subsocial Cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea Mate Indiscriminately with Kin Despite High Costs of Inbreeding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab5ab0ee8fa60bacc4d

Many animals have evolved strategies to reduce risks of inbreeding and its deleterious effects on the progeny. In social arthropods, such as the eusocial ants and bees, inbreeding avoidance is typically achieved by the dispersal of breeders from their native colony. However studies in presocial insects suggest that kin discrimination during mate choice may be a more common mechanism in socially simpler species with no reproductive division of labour. Here we examined this possibility in the subsocial cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a model species for research in sexual selection, where males establish dominance hierarchies to access females and control breeding territories. When given a binary choice between a sibling male and a non-sibling male that had the opportunity to establish a hierarchy prior to the tests, females mated preferentially with the dominant male, irrespective of kinship or body size. Despite the lack of kin discrimination during mate choice, inbred-mated females incurred significant fitness costs, producing 20% less offspring than outbred-mated females. We discuss how the social mating system of this territorial cockroach may naturally limit the probability of siblings to encounter and reproduce, without the need for evolving active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, such as kin recognition.

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<![CDATA[Inbreeding and selection shape genomic diversity in captive populations: Implications for the conservation of endangered species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc868

Captive breeding programs are often initiated to prevent species extinction until reintroduction into the wild can occur. However, the evolution of captive populations via inbreeding, drift, and selection can impair fitness, compromising reintroduction programs. To better understand the evolutionary response of species bred in captivity, we used nearly 5500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to measure the impact of breeding regimes on genomic diversity. We bred mice in captivity for 20 generations using two replicates of three protocols: random mating (RAN), selection for docile behaviors (DOC), and minimizing mean kinship (MK). The MK protocol most effectively retained genomic diversity and reduced the effects of selection. Additionally, genomic diversity was significantly related to fitness, as assessed with pedigrees and SNPs supported with genomic sequence data. Because captive-born individuals are often less fit in wild settings compared to wild-born individuals, captive-estimated fitness correlations likely underestimate the effects in wild populations. Therefore, minimizing inbreeding and selection in captive populations is critical to increasing the probability of releasing fit individuals into the wild.

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<![CDATA[Discovery of genome-wideSNPs by RAD-seqand the genetic diversity of captive hog deer (Axis porcinus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc09f

The hog deer (Axis porcinus) is a small deer whose natural habitat is the wet or moist tall grasslands in South and Southeast Asia. Wild populations have dramatically decreased in recent decades. While wild hog deer were recently acknowledged to be extinct in China, a few captive populations have been maintained. In the present study, we successfully employed the restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) technique to generate a genome-wide profile of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the captive population of hog deer from Chengdu Zoo, China (N = 11). Up to 4.7 million clean reads per sample were sequenced, and 11,155 SNPs and 8,247 haplotypes were simultaneously observed within more than 80% of sequenced individuals. In this population, the mean frequency of major alleles at each polymorphism site was 0.7903±0.0014, and the average nucleotide diversity (π) and inbreeding coefficient (FIS) were 0.3031±0.0015 and -0.0302±0.0062, respectively. Additionally, the Euclidean distance-based multidimensional scaling method revealed that the pairwise genetic relatedness was evenly distributed. However, the results of homologous searching by short reads did not provide any meaningful explanation of the phylogenetic relationship of hog deer, which should be further investigated. In conclusion, our results revealed current state of genetic diversity in this captive population of hog deer.Furthermore, these genome-wide SNPs would be useful for guiding the mating schedule to avoid sharp increase of inbreeding coefficient.

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<![CDATA[Tight species cohesion among sympatric insular wild gingers (Asarum spp. Aristolochiaceae) on continental islands: Highly differentiated floral characteristics versus undifferentiated genotypes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe8f

The Amami Island group of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, harbors extensive species diversity of Asarum in a small landmass. The fine-scale population genetic structure and diversity of nine insular endemic Asarum species were examined using nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and ITS sequences. High population genetic diversity (HS = 0.45–0.79) was estimated based on the microsatellites, implying outcrossing of Asarum species within populations accompanied by inbreeding. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that species were divided into three robust genetic clusters and that the species within each cluster had a homogeneous genetic structure, indicating incomplete lineage sorting. This conclusion was supported by an ITS phylogeny. The degree of genetic differentiation among species was very low both within and between clusters (FST = 0.096–0.193, and 0.096–0.266, respectively). Although species can be crossed artificially to produce fertile hybrids, our results indicate that there is very little evidence of hybridization or introgression occurring among species in the wild, even within stands composed of multiple sympatric species. The highly differentiated floral morphology of the studied species is likely to impose reproductive isolation between them and maintain their integrity in the wild. A lack of genetic differentiation between sympatric species suggests that speciation within this group occurred rapidly and recently.

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