ResearchPad - inertia https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Robust pollution source parameter identification based on the artificial bee colony algorithm using a wireless sensor network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14751 Pollution source parameter identification (PSPI) is significant for pollution control, since it can provide important information and save a lot of time for subsequent pollution elimination works. For solving the PSPI problem, a large number of pollution sensor nodes can be rapidly deployed to cover a large area and form a wireless sensor network (WSN). Based on the measurements of WSN, least-squares estimation methods can solve the PSPI problem by searching for the solution that minimize the sum of squared measurement noises. They are independent of the measurement noise distribution, i.e., robust to the noise distribution. To search for the least-squares solution, population-based parallel search techniques usually can overcome the premature convergence problem, which can stagnate the single-point search algorithm. In this paper, we adapt the relatively newly presented artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm to solve the WSN-based PSPI problem and verifies its feasibility and robustness. Extensive simulation results show that the ABC and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm obtained similar identification results in the same simulation scenario. Moreover, the ABC and the PSO achieved much better performance than a traditionally used single-point search algorithm, i.e., the trust-region reflective algorithm.

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<![CDATA[Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990–2017: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14688 In the UK, ethnic minority populations, particularly of South Asian and black African/Caribbean descent, have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and related adverse outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, than the white population.Timely and appropriate diabetes treatment can substantially reduce risk of adverse outcomes associated with T2DM.We sought to quantify ethnic differences in time to initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment among individuals newly diagnosed with T2DM to assess whether these clinically modifiable factors may contribute to ethnic differences in outcomes.What did the researchers do and find?We used routinely recorded data from general practices across the UK to identify people newly diagnosed with T2DM and compared how long it took to initiate and intensify diabetes treatment, comparing people of white, South Asian, and black ethnicity.We found that South Asian and black groups initiated diabetes treatment more quickly than white groups but were slower to intensify to second- and third-line treatment regimes.What do these findings mean?Although time to initial treatment of type 2 diabetes was appropriate, ethnic disparities in subsequent longer-term treatment may contribute to the worse outcomes seen in ethnic minority populations in the UK.Interventions to improve timely and appropriate intensification of diabetes treatment are key to reducing disparities in the downstream adverse outcomes of T2DM. ]]> <![CDATA[Discriminant validity of 3D joint kinematics and centre of mass displacement measured by inertial sensor technology during the unipodal stance task]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14569 The unipodal stance task is a clinical task that quantifies postural stability and alignment of the lower limb joints, while weight bearing on one leg. As persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) have poor postural and knee joint stability, objective assessment of this task might be useful.ObjectiveTo investigate the discriminant validity of three-dimensional joint kinematics and centre of mass displacement (COM) between healthy controls and persons with knee KOA, during unipodal stance using inertial sensors. Additionally, the reliability, agreement and construct validity are assessed to determine the reproducibility and accuracy of the discriminating parameters.MethodsTwenty healthy controls and 19 persons with unilateral severe KOA were included. Five repetitions of the unipodal stance task were simultaneously recorded by an inertial sensor system and a camera-based system (gold standard). Statistical significant differences in kinematic waveforms between healthy controls and persons with severe knee KOA were determined using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (SPM1D).ResultsPersons with severe knee KOA had more lateral trunk lean towards the contralateral leg, more hip flexion throughout the performance of the unipodal stance task, more pelvic obliquity and COM displacement towards the contralateral side. However, for the latter two parameters the minimum detectable change was greater than the difference between healthy controls and persons with severe knee KOA. The construct validity was good (coefficient of multiple correlation 0.75, 0.83 respectively) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) was low (RMSE <1.5°) for the discriminant parameters.ConclusionInertial sensor based movement analysis can discriminate between healthy controls and persons with severe knee KOA for lateral trunk lean and hip flexion, but unfortunately not for the knee angles. Further research is required to improve the reproducibility and accuracy of the inertial sensor measurements before they can be used to assess differences in tasks with a small range of motion. ]]> <![CDATA[The faster, the better? Relationships between run-up speed, the degree of difficulty (D-score), height and length of flight on vault in artistic gymnastics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c99030dd5eed0c484b98b90

On vault in artistic gymnastics, a high run-up speed is thought to be important when performing difficult vaults. To test this assumption in a large cohort of elite athletes, we calculated the correlations between the run-up speed, scores, height and length of flight for handspring-, Tsukahara- and Yurchenko-style vaults and compared the performances of male and female elite and junior athletes (n = 407) during the 2016 European Championships. In females, run-up speed correlated significantly with the difficulty (D-) score and height of flight for all vaulting styles (r ≤ 0.80). In males, run-up speed correlated significantly with the D-score, height and length of flight of Tsukahara (r ≤ 0.69) and Yurchenko vaults only (r ≤ 0.65). Males reached 8–9% higher run-up speeds performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults than did females, but similar run-up speeds performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite females achieved higher run-up speeds than junior females performing Yurchenko vaults. Elite males displayed higher run-up speeds than junior males performing handspring and Tsukahara vaults. We conclude that, in females, more difficult vaults require higher run-up speeds than vaults with lower D-scores and thus, within the measured range of speeds, the faster the run-up, the better, regardless of vaulting style. Males, on the other hand, may not need to exhaust their sprinting capacity, even for the most difficult vaults. Finally, the knowledge of the required run-up speed for each vault helps coaches to estimate each athlete’s potential and/or to focus the training on developing the required physical qualities.

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<![CDATA[Laws of concatenated perception: Vision goes for novelty, decisions for perseverance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c88240cd5eed0c484639615

Every instant of perception depends on a cascade of brain processes calibrated to the history of sensory and decisional events. In the present work, we show that human visual perception is constantly shaped by two contrasting forces exerted by sensory adaptation and past decisions. In a series of experiments, we used multilevel modeling and cross-validation approaches to investigate the impact of previous stimuli and decisions on behavioral reports during adjustment and forced-choice tasks. Our results revealed that each perceptual report is permeated by opposite biases from a hierarchy of serially dependent processes: Low-level adaptation repels perception away from previous stimuli, whereas decisional traces attract perceptual reports toward the recent past. In this hierarchy of serial dependence, “continuity fields” arise from the inertia of decisional templates and not from low-level sensory processes. This finding is consistent with a Two-process model of serial dependence in which the persistence of readout weights in a decision unit compensates for sensory adaptation, leading to attractive biases in sequential perception. We propose a unified account of serial dependence in which functionally distinct mechanisms, operating at different stages, promote the differentiation and integration of visual information over time.

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<![CDATA[A computational scheme for internal models not requiring precise system parameters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c6ed5eed0c484ad895a

Utilization by humans of a precise and adaptable internal model of the dynamics of the body in generating movements is a well-supported concept. The prevailing opinion is that such an internal model ceaselessly develops through long-term repetition and accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, a long-term learning process would not be absolutely necessary for the formation of internal models. It is possible to estimate the dynamics of the system by using a motor command and its resulting output, instead of constructing a model of the dynamics with precise parameters. In this study, a computational model is proposed that uses a motor command and its corresponding output to estimate the dynamics of the system and it is examined whether the proposed model is capable of describing a series of empirical movements. The proposed model was found to be capable of describing humans’ fast movements which require compensation for system dynamics as well as sensory delays. In addition, the proposed model shows equifinality under inertial perturbations as seen in several experimental studies. This satisfactory reproducibility of the proposed computation raises the possibility that humans make a movement by estimating the system dynamics with a copy of motor command and sensory output on a momentary basis, without the need to identify precise system parameters.

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<![CDATA[Quality of INR control and switching to non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulants between women and men with atrial fibrillation treated with Vitamin K Antagonists in Spain. A population-based, real-world study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75bad5eed0c4843d0092

Background

Worldwide, there is growing evidence that quality of international normalized ratio (INR) control in atrial fibrillation patients treated with Vitamin K Antagonists (VKA) is suboptimal. However, sex disparities in population-based real-world settings have been scarcely studied, as well as patterns of switching to second-line Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC). We aimed to assess the quality of INR control in atrial fibrillation patients treated with VKA in the region of Valencia, Spain, for the whole population and differencing by sex, and to identify factors associated with poor control. We also quantified switching to Non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and we identified factors associated to switching.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Information was obtained through linking different regional electronic databases. Outcome measures were Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) and percentage of INR determinations in range (PINRR) in 2015, and percentage of switching to NOAC in 2016, for the whole population and stratified by sex.

Results

We included 22,629 patients, 50.4% were women. Mean TTR was 62.3% for women and 63.7% for men, and PINNR was 58.3% for women and 60.1% for men (p<0.001). Considering the TTR<65% threshold, 53% of women and 49.3% of men had poor anticoagulation control (p<0.001). Women, long-term users antiplatelet users, and patients with comorbidities, visits to Emergency Department and use of alcohol were more likely to present poor INR control. 5.4% of poorly controlled patients during 2015 switched to a NOAC throughout 2016, with no sex differences.

Conclusion

The quality of INR control of all AF patients treated with VKA in 2015 in our Southern European region was suboptimal, and women were at a higher risk of poor INR control. This reflects sex disparities in care, and programs for improving the quality of oral anticoagulation should incorporate the gender perspective. Clinical inertia may be lying behind the observed low rates of switching in patient with poor INR control.

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<![CDATA[Overcoming the problem of multicollinearity in sports performance data: A novel application of partial least squares correlation analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1492d5eed0c48467a325

Objectives

Professional sporting organisations invest considerable resources collecting and analysing data in order to better understand the factors that influence performance. Recent advances in non-invasive technologies, such as global positioning systems (GPS), mean that large volumes of data are now readily available to coaches and sport scientists. However analysing such data can be challenging, particularly when sample sizes are small and data sets contain multiple highly correlated variables, as is often the case in a sporting context. Multicollinearity in particular, if not treated appropriately, can be problematic and might lead to erroneous conclusions. In this paper we present a novel ‘leave one variable out’ (LOVO) partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA) methodology, designed to overcome the problem of multicollinearity, and show how this can be used to identify the training load (TL) variables that influence most ‘end fitness’ in young rugby league players.

Methods

The accumulated TL of sixteen male professional youth rugby league players (17.7 ± 0.9 years) was quantified via GPS, a micro-electrical-mechanical-system (MEMS), and players’ session-rating-of-perceived-exertion (sRPE) over a 6-week pre-season training period. Immediately prior to and following this training period, participants undertook a 30–15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT), which was used to determine a players ‘starting fitness’ and ‘end fitness’. In total twelve TL variables were collected, and these along with ‘starting fitness’ as a covariate were regressed against ‘end fitness’. However, considerable multicollinearity in the data (VIF >1000 for nine variables) meant that the multiple linear regression (MLR) process was unstable and so we developed a novel LOVO PLSCA adaptation to quantify the relative importance of the predictor variables and thus minimise multicollinearity issues. As such, the LOVO PLSCA was used as a tool to inform and refine the MLR process.

Results

The LOVO PLSCA identified the distance accumulated at very-high speed (>7 m·s-1) as being the most important TL variable to influence improvement in player fitness, with this variable causing the largest decrease in singular value inertia (5.93). When included in a refined linear regression model, this variable, along with ‘starting fitness’ as a covariate, explained 73% of the variance in v30-15IFT ‘end fitness’ (p<0.001) and eliminated completely any multicollinearity issues.

Conclusions

The LOVO PLSCA technique appears to be a useful tool for evaluating the relative importance of predictor variables in data sets that exhibit considerable multicollinearity. When used as a filtering tool, LOVO PLSCA produced a MLR model that demonstrated a significant relationship between ‘end fitness’ and the predictor variable ‘accumulated distance at very-high speed’ when ‘starting fitness’ was included as a covariate. As such, LOVO PLSCA may be a useful tool for sport scientists and coaches seeking to analyse data sets obtained using GPS and MEMS technologies.

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<![CDATA[Combined mineral-supplemented diet and exercise increases bone mass and strength after eight weeks and maintains increases after eight weeks detraining in adult mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98de40307c0c23a1c149

Exercise has long-lasting benefits to bone mass and structural strength even after cessation. Combining exercise with a calcium- and phosphorus-supplemented diet increases cortical bone mineral content (BMC), area, and yield force more than exercise alone in adult mice. These increases could also be maintained after stopping exercise if the modified diet is maintained. It was hypothesized that combining exercise with a mineral-supplemented diet would lead to greater cortical BMC, area, and yield force immediately after a lengthy exercise program and after an equally long period of non-exercise (detraining) in adult mice. Male, 16-week old C57Bl/6 mice were assigned to 9 weight-matched groups–a baseline group, exercise and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet for 8 weeks, exercise + detraining and non-exercise groups fed a control or mineral-supplemented diet for 16 weeks. Exercise + detraining consisted of 8 weeks of exercise followed by 8 weeks without exercise. The daily exercise program consisted of running on a treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min/day. After 8 weeks, mice fed the supplemented diet had greater tibial cortical BMC and area, trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV), bone mineral density (vBMD), yield force, and ultimate force than mice fed the control diet. Exercise increased cortical BMC and area only when coupled with the supplemented diet. After 16 weeks, both exercised and non-exercised mice fed the supplemented diet maintained greater tibial cortical BMC and area, trabecular BV/TV, vBMD, yield force, and ultimate force than mice fed the control diet. Combining exercise with a mineral-supplemented diet leads to greater bone mass and structural strength than exercise alone. These benefits remain after an equally long period of detraining. Long-term use of dietary mineral supplements may help increase and maintain bone mass with aging in adult mice.

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<![CDATA[On the design of power gear trains: Insight regarding number of stages and their respective ratios]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c032df9d5eed0c4844f8a6a

This paper presents a formulation for selecting the stage ratios and number of stages in a multistage transmission with a given desired total transmission ratio in a manner that maximizes efficiency, maximizes acceleration, or minimizes the mass of the transmission. The formulation is used to highlight several implications for gear train design, including the fact that minimizing rotational inertia and mass are competing objectives with respect to optimal selection of stage ratios, and that both rotational inertia and mass can often be minimized by increasing the total number of stages beyond a minimum realizable number. Additionally, a multistage transmission will generally provide maximum acceleration when the stage ratios increase monotonically from the motor to the load. The transmission will have minimum mass when the stage ratios decrease monotonically. The transmission will also provide maximum efficiency when the corresponding stages employ constant stage ratios. This paper aims to use this optimization formulation to elucidate tradeoffs between various common objectives in gear train design (efficiency, acceleration, and mass).

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<![CDATA[Local dynamic stability during gait for predicting falls in elderly people: A one-year prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b03d26c463d7e6e6b5b7905

Computing the local dynamic stability using accelerometer data from inertial sensors has recently been proposed as a gait measure which may be able to identify elderly people at fall risk. However, the assumptions supporting this potential were concluded as most studies implement a retrospective fall history observation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of local dynamic stability for fall risk prediction in a cohort of subjects over the age of 60 years using a prospective fall occurrence observation. A total of 131 elderly subjects voluntarily participated in this study. The baseline measurement included gait stability assessment using inertial sensors and clinical examination by Tinetti Balance Assessment Tool. After the baseline measurement, subjects were observed for a period of one year for fall occurrence. Our results demonstrated poor multiple falls predictive ability of trunk local dynamic stability (AUC = 0.673). The predictive ability improved when the local dynamic stability was combined with clinical measures, a combination of trunk medial-lateral local dynamic stability and Tinetti total score being the best predictor (AUC = 0.755). Together, the present findings suggest that the medial-lateral local dynamic stability during gait combined with a clinical score is a potential fall risk assessment measure in the elderly population.

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<![CDATA[Static and Dynamic Postural Changes after a Mountain Ultra-Marathon of 80 km and 5500 D+]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db07ab0ee8fa60bc89e8

The study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue on static and dynamic postural stability after completing a mountain ultra-marathon. Twelve male athletes participated in the study. Postural stability was assessed before and immediately after the race. Static postural stability was evaluated on a dynamometric platform with eyes opened (OE) and closed (CE). Dynamic postural stability was assessed with OE on an instrumented plate which allowed medio-lateral oscillations. Stabilometric data were affected by fatigue in the OE condition, concerning sway path velocity (p = 0.0006), sway area velocity (p = 0.0006), area of the confidence ellipse (p = 0.0016), maximal anterior-posterior (AP) (p = 0.0017) and medio-lateral (ML) (p = 0.0039) oscillations. In the CE condition the sway path velocity (p = 0.0334), the maximal ML oscillations (p = 0.0161) and the area of the confident ellipse (p = 0.0180) were also negatively influenced. Stabilogram diffusion analysis showed in the OE condition an increase of short-term diffusion coefficients considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfys; p = 0.0023) and the combination of the two (Dfr2s; p = 0.0032). Equally, long term diffusion coefficients increased considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0093) and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0086). In CE condition greater values were detected for medio-lateral direction (Dfxl; p = 0.033), anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0459) and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0048). The dynamic postural stability test showed an increase of the time spent with the edges of the plate on the floor (p = 0.0152). Our results showed that mountain ultra-marathon altered static stability more than dynamic stability. An involvement of cognitive resources to monitor postural stability after fatiguing could be the explanation of the worsening in the automatic task (quiet standing) and of the positive compensation in the less automatic task (dynamic standing on the instrumented plate).

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<![CDATA[Forecasting outpatient visits using empirical mode decomposition coupled with back-propagation artificial neural networks optimized by particle swarm optimization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdba19

Accurately predicting the trend of outpatient visits by mathematical modeling can help policy makers manage hospitals effectively, reasonably organize schedules for human resources and finances, and appropriately distribute hospital material resources. In this study, a hybrid method based on empirical mode decomposition and back-propagation artificial neural networks optimized by particle swarm optimization is developed to forecast outpatient visits on the basis of monthly numbers. The data outpatient visits are retrieved from January 2005 to December 2013 and first obtained as the original time series. Second, the original time series is decomposed into a finite and often small number of intrinsic mode functions by the empirical mode decomposition technique. Third, a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network is constructed to forecast each intrinsic mode functions. To improve network performance and avoid falling into a local minimum, particle swarm optimization is employed to optimize the weights and thresholds of back-propagation artificial neural networks. Finally, the superposition of forecasting results of the intrinsic mode functions is regarded as the ultimate forecasting value. Simulation indicates that the proposed method attains a better performance index than the other four methods.

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<![CDATA[Downscaling Global Emissions and Its Implications Derived from Climate Model Experiments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dacfab0ee8fa60bb5bca

In climate change research, future scenarios of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions generated by integrated assessment models (IAMs) are used in climate models (CMs) and earth system models to analyze future interactions and feedback between human activities and climate. However, the spatial resolutions of IAMs and CMs differ. IAMs usually disaggregate the world into 10–30 aggregated regions, whereas CMs require a grid-based spatial resolution. Therefore, downscaling emissions data from IAMs into a finer scale is necessary to input the emissions into CMs. In this study, we examined whether differences in downscaling methods significantly affect climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. We tested two downscaling methods using the same regionally aggregated sulfur emissions scenario obtained from the Asian-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model. The downscaled emissions were fed into the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC). One of the methods assumed a strong convergence of national emissions intensity (e.g., emissions per gross domestic product), while the other was based on inertia (i.e., the base-year remained unchanged). The emissions intensities in the downscaled spatial emissions generated from the two methods markedly differed, whereas the emissions densities (emissions per area) were similar. We investigated whether the climate change projections of temperature and precipitation would significantly differ between the two methods by applying a field significance test, and found little evidence of a significant difference between the two methods. Moreover, there was no clear evidence of a difference between the climate simulations based on these two downscaling methods.

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<![CDATA[Collecting Kinematic Data on a Ski Track with Optoelectronic Stereophotogrammetry: A Methodological Study Assessing the Feasibility of Bringing the Biomechanics Lab to the Field]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0fab0ee8fa60b79259

In the laboratory, optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry is one of the most commonly used motion capture systems; particularly, when position- or orientation-related analyses of human movements are intended. However, for many applied research questions, field experiments are indispensable, and it is not a priori clear whether optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric systems can be expected to perform similarly to in-lab experiments. This study aimed to assess the instrumental errors of kinematic data collected on a ski track using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry, and to investigate the magnitudes of additional skiing-specific errors and soft tissue/suit artifacts. During a field experiment, the kinematic data of different static and dynamic tasks were captured by the use of 24 infrared-cameras. The distances between three passive markers attached to a rigid bar were stereophotogrammetrically reconstructed and, subsequently, were compared to the manufacturer-specified exact values. While at rest or skiing at low speed, the optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system’s accuracy and precision for determining inter-marker distances were found to be comparable to those known for in-lab experiments (< 1 mm). However, when measuring a skier’s kinematics under “typical” skiing conditions (i.e., high speeds, inclined/angulated postures and moderate snow spraying), additional errors were found to occur for distances between equipment-fixed markers (total measurement errors: 2.3 ± 2.2 mm). Moreover, for distances between skin-fixed markers, such as the anterior hip markers, additional artifacts were observed (total measurement errors: 8.3 ± 7.1 mm). In summary, these values can be considered sufficient for the detection of meaningful position- or orientation-related differences in alpine skiing. However, it must be emphasized that the use of optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry on a ski track is seriously constrained by limited practical usability, small-sized capture volumes and the occurrence of extensive snow spraying (which results in marker obscuration). The latter limitation possibly might be overcome by the use of more sophisticated cluster-based marker sets.

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<![CDATA[Lagrange Interpolation Learning Particle Swarm Optimization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da33ab0ee8fa60b85697

In recent years, comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO) has attracted the attention of many scholars for using in solving multimodal problems, as it is excellent in preserving the particles’ diversity and thus preventing premature convergence. However, CLPSO exhibits low solution accuracy. Aiming to address this issue, we proposed a novel algorithm called LILPSO. First, this algorithm introduced a Lagrange interpolation method to perform a local search for the global best point (gbest). Second, to gain a better exemplar, one gbest, another two particle’s historical best points (pbest) are chosen to perform Lagrange interpolation, then to gain a new exemplar, which replaces the CLPSO’s comparison method. The numerical experiments conducted on various functions demonstrate the superiority of this algorithm, and the two methods are proven to be efficient for accelerating the convergence without leading the particle to premature convergence.

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<![CDATA[Assessing the uptake of persistent identifiers by research infrastructure users]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc99

Significant progress has been made in the past few years in the development of recommendations, policies, and procedures for creating and promoting citations to data sets, software, and other research infrastructures like computing facilities. Open questions remain, however, about the extent to which referencing practices of authors of scholarly publications are changing in ways desired by these initiatives. This paper uses four focused case studies to evaluate whether research infrastructures are being increasingly identified and referenced in the research literature via persistent citable identifiers. The findings of the case studies show that references to such resources are increasing, but that the patterns of these increases are variable. In addition, the study suggests that citation practices for data sets may change more slowly than citation practices for software and research facilities, due to the inertia of existing practices for referencing the use of data. Similarly, existing practices for acknowledging computing support may slow the adoption of formal citations for computing resources.

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<![CDATA[Generation of the pitch moment during the controlled flight after takeoff of fruitflies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc835

In the present paper, the controlled flight of fruitflies after voluntary takeoff is studied. Wing and body kinematics of the insects after takeoff are measured using high-speed video techniques, and the aerodynamic force and moment are calculated by the computational fluid dynamics method based on the measured data. How the control moments are generated is analyzed by correlating the computed moments with the wing kinematics. A fruit-fly has a large pitch-up angular velocity owing to the takeoff jump and the fly controls its body attitude by producing pitching moments. It is found that the pitching moment is produced by changes in both the aerodynamic force and the moment arm. The change in the aerodynamic force is mainly due to the change in angle of attack. The change in the moment arm is mainly due to the change in the mean stroke angle and deviation angle, and the deviation angle plays a more important role than the mean stroke angle in changing the moment arm (note that change in deviation angle implies variation in the position of the aerodynamic stroke plane with respect to the anatomical stroke plane). This is unlike the case of fruitflies correcting pitch perturbations in steady free flight, where they produce pitching moment mainly by changes in mean stroke angle.

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<![CDATA[DyHAP: Dynamic Hybrid ANFIS-PSO Approach for Predicting Mobile Malware]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db43ab0ee8fa60bd792e

To deal with the large number of malicious mobile applications (e.g. mobile malware), a number of malware detection systems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method to find the optimum parameters that can be used to facilitate mobile malware identification. We also present a multi agent system architecture comprising three system agents (i.e. sniffer, extraction and selection agent) to capture and manage the pcap file for data preparation phase. In our hybrid approach, we combine an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Evaluations using data captured on a real-world Android device and the MalGenome dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in comparison to two hybrid optimization methods which are differential evolution (ANFIS-DE) and ant colony optimization (ANFIS-ACO).

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<![CDATA[Impact of Prolonged Temporal Discrimination Threshold on Finger Movements of Parkinson’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b709e6

Introduction

Sensory information is essential for the precise control of movement. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have higher-order sensory dysfunctions including prolonged temporal discrimination threshold (TDT). However, the impact of prolonged TDT on parkinsonian motor deficits is uncertain.

Methods

This study includes 33 PD patients and 24 healthy controls. TDT values were measured in the index finger. Using coin rotation task (CRT), dexterous finger movement was assessed. Using an inertial sensor, the speed, amplitude, and frequency of finger tapping were measured. The impact of prolonged index finger TDT on two different finger movements was analyzed using the general estimating equation.

Results

Compared to healthy controls, TDT was prolonged in the PD patients. There was no impact of TDT on mean values or decrement for amplitude and speed, as well as mean values, decrement and variability of tapping frequency. However, prolonged TDT had a significant impact on the variability in amplitude (B = 436.905 × 10−4, Wald χ2 = 9.140, p = 0.014) and speed (B = 425.655 × 10−4, Wald χ2 = 9.876, p = 0.014) of finger tapping. There was a marginal correlation between TDT and CRT. In addition, CRT correlated with variability in amplitude and speed of finger tapping.

Conclusion

In PD, cutaneous temporal discriminative sensory dysfunction appears to be related to increased variabilities in the speed and amplitude of fast repetitive finger movements and disturbed finger dexterity.

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