ResearchPad - ingestion https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cuminaldehyde potentiates the antimicrobial actions of ciprofloxacin against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Escherichia coli</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14566 Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of urinary tract infections that can often evolve to severe infections. The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains has driven the search for novel therapies to replace the use or act as adjuvants of antibiotics. In this context, plant-derived compounds have been widely investigated. Cuminaldehyde is suggested as the major antimicrobial compound of the cumin seed essential oil. However, this effect is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the in silico and in vitro activities of cuminaldehyde, as well as its ability to potentiate ciprofloxacin effects against S. aureus and E. coli. In silico analyses were performed by using different computational tools. The PASS online and SwissADME programmes were used for the prediction of biological activities and oral bioavailability of cuminaldehyde. For analysis of the possible toxic effects and the theoretical pharmacokinetic parameters of the compound, the Osiris, SwissADME and PROTOX programmes were used. Estimations of cuminaldehyde gastrointestinal absorption, blood brain barrier permeability and skin permeation by using SwissADME; and drug likeness and score by using Osiris, were also evaluated The in vitro antimicrobial effects of cuminaldehyde were determined by using microdilution, biofilm formation and time-kill assays. In silico analysis indicated that cuminaldehyde may act as an antimicrobial and as a membrane permeability enhancer. It was suggested to be highly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract and likely to cross the blood brain barrier. Also, irritative and harmful effects were predicted for cuminaldehyde if swallowed at its LD50. Good oral bioavailability and drug score were also found for this compound. Cuminaldehyde presented antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects against S. aureus and E. coli.. When co-incubated with ciprofloxacin, it enhanced the antibiotic antimicrobial and anti-biofilm actions. We suggest that cuminaldehyde may be useful as an adjuvant therapy to ciprofloxacin in S. aureus and E. coli-induced infections.

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<![CDATA[Time course of tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521817d5eed0c4847972ee

The ergogenic effect of acute caffeine ingestion has been widely investigated; however, scientific information regarding tolerance to the performance benefits of caffeine, when ingested on a day-to-day basis, is scarce. The aim of this investigation was to determine the time course of tolerance to the ergogenic effects of a moderate dose of caffeine. Eleven healthy active participants took part in a cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. In one treatment, they ingested 3 mg/kg/day of caffeine for 20 consecutive days while in another they ingested a placebo for 20 days. Each substance was administered daily in an opaque unidentifiable capsule, and the experimental trials started 45 min after capsule ingestion. Two days before, and three times per week during each 20-day treatment, aerobic peak power was measured with an incremental test to volitional fatigue (25 W/min) and aerobic peak power was measured with an adapted version of the Wingate test (15 s). In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased peak cycling power in the incremental exercise test by ~4.0 ±1.3% for the first 15 days (P<0.05) but then this ergogenic effect lessened. Caffeine also increased peak cycling power during the Wingate test on days 1, 4, 15, and 18 of ingestion by ~4.9 ±0.9% (P<0.05). In both tests, the magnitude of the ergogenic effect of caffeine vs. placebo was higher on the first day of ingestion and then progressively decreased. These results show a continued ergogenic effect with the daily ingestion of caffeine for 15–18 days; however, the changes in the magnitude of this effect suggest progressive tolerance.

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<![CDATA[Survey of suspected dysphagia prevalence in home-dwelling older people using the 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5217d3d5eed0c48479462b

Objective

This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of suspected dysphagia and its features in both independent and dependent older people living at home.

Materials and methods

The 10-Item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) questionnaire was sent to 1,000 independent older people and 2,000 dependent older people living at home in a municipal district of Tokyo, Japan. The participants were selected by stratified randomization according to age and care level. We set the cut-off value of EAT-10 at a score of ≥3. The percentage of participants with an EAT-10 score ≥3 was defined as the prevalence of suspected dysphagia. The chi-square test was used for analyzing prevalence in each group. Analysis of the distribution of EAT-10 scores, and comparisons among items, age groups, and care levels to identify symptom features were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results

Valid responses were received from 510 independent older people aged 65 years or older (mean age 75.0 ± 7.2) and 886 dependent older people (mean age 82.3 ± 6.7). The prevalences of suspected dysphagia were 25.1% and 53.8%, respectively, and showed significant increases with advancing age and care level. In both groups, many older people assigned high scores to the item about coughing, whereas individuals requiring high-level care assigned higher scores to the items about not only coughing but also swallowing of solids and quality of life.

Conclusion

In independent people, approximately one in four individuals showed suspected dysphagia and coughing was the most perceivable symptom. In dependent people, approximately one in two individuals showed suspected dysphagia and their specifically perceivable symptoms were coughing, difficulties in swallowing solids and psychological burden.

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<![CDATA[Dental pulp-derived stem cell conditioned medium to regenerate peripheral nerves in a novel animal model of dysphagia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c196696d5eed0c484b52502

In nerve regeneration studies, various animal models are used to assess nerve regeneration. However, because of the difficulties in functional nerve assessment, a visceral nerve injury model is yet to be established. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) plays an essential role in swallowing. Although a treatment for SLN injury following trauma and surgery is desirable, no such treatment is reported in the literature. We recently reported that stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have a therapeutic effect on various tissues via macrophage polarization. Here, we established a novel animal model of SLN injury. Our model was characterized as having weight loss and drinking behavior changes. In addition, the SLN lesion caused a delay in the onset of the swallowing reflex and gain of laryngeal residue in the pharynx. Systemic administration of SHED-conditioned media (SHED-CM) promoted functional recovery of the SLN and significantly promoted axonal regeneration by converting of macrophages to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In addition, SHED-CM enhanced new blood vessel formation at the injury site. Our data suggest that the administration of SHED-CM may provide therapeutic benefits for SLN injury.

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<![CDATA[Psychometric Evaluation of 5- and 4-Item Versions of the LATCH Breastfeeding Assessment Tool during the Initial Postpartum Period among a Multiethnic Population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd4ab1

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal consistency, structural validity, sensitivity and specificity of the 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment tool among a multiethnic population in Singapore.

Methods

The study was a secondary analysis of a subset of data (n = 907) from our previous breastfeeding survey from 2013 to 2014. The internal consistency of the LATCH was examined using Cronbach’s alpha. The structural validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the proposed factors were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using separate samples. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the LATCH score thresholds for predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding.

Results

The Cronbach’s alpha values of the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments were 0.70 and 0.74, respectively. The EFA demonstrated a one-factor structure for the 5- and 4-item LATCH assessments among a randomized split of 334 vaginally delivered women. Two CFA of the 4-item LATCH demonstrated better fit indices of the models compared to the two CFA of the 5-item LATCH among another randomized split of 335 vaginally delivered women and 238 cesarean delivered women. Using cutoffs of 5.5 and 3.5 were recommended when predicting non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions of the LATCH assessment among vaginally delivered women (n = 669), with satisfactory sensitivities (94% and 95%), low specificities (0% and 2%), low positive predictive values (25%) and negative predictive values (20% and 47%). A cutoff of 5.5 was recommended to predict non-exclusive breastfeeding for 5- and 4-item versions among cesarean delivered women (n = 238) with satisfactory sensitivities (93% and 98%), low specificities (4% and 9%), low positive predictive values (41%) and negative predictive values (65% and 75%). Therefore, the tool has good sensitivity but poor specificity, positive and negative predictive values.

Conclusions

We found that the 4-item version demonstrated sound psychometric properties compared to the 5-item version. Health professionals can use the 4-item LATCH as a clinical tool because it is a concise, easy-to-use and valid tool for assessing breastfeeding techniques among a multiethnic population.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Noseband Tightening on Horses’ Behavior, Eye Temperature, and Cardiac Responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9bab0ee8fa60ba3977

Restrictive nosebands are common in equestrian sport. This is concerning, as recent evidence suggests that very tight nosebands can cause a physiological stress response, and may compromise welfare. The objective of the current study was to investigate relationships that noseband tightness has with oral behavior and with physiological changes that indicate a stress response, such as increases in eye temperature (measured with infrared thermography) and heart rate and decreases in heart rate variability (HRV). Horses (n = 12) wearing a double bridle and crank noseband, as is common in dressage at elite levels, were randomly assigned to four treatments: unfastened noseband (UN), conventional area under noseband (CAUN) with two fingers of space available under the noseband, half conventional area under noseband (HCAUN) with one finger of space under the noseband, and no area under the noseband (NAUN). During the tightest treatment (NAUN), horse heart rate increased (P = 0.003), HRV decreased (P < 0.001), and eye temperature increased (P = 0.011) compared with baseline readings, indicating a physiological stress response. The behavioral results suggest some effects from bits alone but the chief findings are the physiological readings that reflect responses to the nosebands at their tightest. Chewing decreased during the HCAUN (P < 0.001) and NAUN (P < 0.001) treatments. Yawning rates were negligible in all treatments. Similarly, licking was eliminated by the NAUN treatment. Following the removal of the noseband and double bridle during the recovery session, yawning (P = 0.015), swallowing (P = 0.003), and licking (P < 0.001) significantly increased compared with baseline, indicating a post-inhibitory rebound response. This suggests a rise in motivation to perform these behaviors and implies that their inhibition may place horses in a state of deprivation. It is evident that a very tight noseband can cause physiological stress responses and inhibit the expression of oral behaviors.

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<![CDATA[Asymmetric Spread of SRBSDV between Rice and Corn Plants by the Vector Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da65ab0ee8fa60b91c61

Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S. furcifera nymphs at a much lower rate from infected corn plants than from infected rice plants. We also recorded a high mortality of S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. It is evident that young stages of both the virus donor and recipient plants added to the transmission efficiency of SRBSDV from rice to corn plants. Feeding behaviors of the vector recorded by electrical penetration graph showed that phloem sap ingestion, the behavioral event that is linked with plant virus acquisition, was impaired on corn plants, which accounts for the high mortality of and low virus acquisition by S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. Our results reveal an asymmetric spread of SRBSDV between its two host plants and the underlying behavioral mechanism, which is of significance for assessing SRBSDV transmission risks and field epidemiology, and for developing integrated management approaches for SRBSDV disease.

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<![CDATA[Determinants of Salivary Cotinine among Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Bangladesh]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7fab0ee8fa60b99e0a

Introduction

More than 80% of all smokeless tobacco (ST) products in the world are consumed in South Asia; yet little is known about their consumption behaviour, addictiveness, and toxic properties. This paper, for the first time, describes associations between salivary cotinine concentrations among ST users in Bangladesh and their socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviours.

Methods

In a survey of ST users in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we purposively recruited 200 adults who were non-smokers but consumed ST on a regular basis. In-person interviews were conducted to obtain information about socio-demographic and ST use behaviours, and saliva samples were collected to measure cotinine concentration. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test associations between the log transformed salivary cotinine concentration and other study variables.

Results

The geometric mean of cotinine concentration among ST users was 380ng/ml (GSD:2). Total duration of daily ST use in months had a statistically significant association with cotinine concentration. Other ST use characteristics including type and quantity of ST use, swallowing of tobacco juice, urges and strength of urges and attempts to cut down on tobacco use were not found to be associated with cotinine concentration in a multivariable model.

Conclusion

This is the first report from Bangladesh studying cotinine concentration among ST users and it points towards high levels of addiction. This warrants effective tobacco control policies to help ST cessation and prevention.

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<![CDATA[Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbaef

Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil to that of the control site) observed for As (3.5x102), Co (2.8x102) and Ni (1.1x102). Potential ecological risk index values for metals and metalloids determined from soil metal and metalloid concentrations and their respective risk factors were correspondingly highest for As (3.5x103) and Co (1.4x103), whereas Mn (0.6) presented the lowest ecological risk. Human health risk was assessed using Hazard Quotient (HQ), Chronic Hazard Index (CHI) and carcinogenic risk levels, where values of HQ > 1, CHI > 1 and carcinogenic risk values > 1×10−4 represent elevated risks. Values for HQ indicated high exposure-related risk for As (53.7), Cr (14.8), Ni (2.2), Zn (2.64) and Mn (1.67). Children were more at risk from heavy metal and metalloid exposure than adults. Cancer-related risks associated with metal and metalloid exposure among children were also higher than in adults with cancer risk values of 3×10−2 and 4×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing factor to a setback in the health of residents in informal settlements dominating this mining area as the immune systems of some of these residents are already compromised by high HIV prevalence.

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<![CDATA[The incidences and risk factors related to early dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: A prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcae8

Dysphagia is a common complication following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). The incidences of dysphagia were variable and controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of early dysphagia after ACSS with a new scoring system, and to identify the risk factors of it. A prospective study was carried out and patients who underwent ACSS from March 2014 to August 2014 in our hospital were included in this study. A self-designed dysphagia questionnaire was delivered to all of the patients from the first day to the fifth day after ACSS. Perioperative characteristics of patients were recorded, and incidences and risk factors of dysphagia were analyzed. A total of 104 patients who underwent ACSS were included and incidences of dysphagia from the first to the fifth day after ACSS was 87.5%, 79.81%, 62.14%, 50% and 44.23%, respectively. There was a good correlation between the new dysphagia scoring system and Bazaz scoring system (P < 0.001). Operative time and body mass index (BMI) were the risk factors for dysphagia during the first to the second day postoperatively. However, the dC2-C7angle was the main risk factor for dysphagia from the third to the fifth day after surgery. There were comparatively high incidences of early dysphagia after ACSS, which may be ascribed to operative time, BMI and the dC2-C7 angle.

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<![CDATA[Causes of Stranding and Mortality, and Final Disposition of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta) Admitted to a Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (1998-2014): A Long-Term Retrospective Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b7646e

Aims

The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality.

Methods

Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. Final dispositions were calculated as euthanasia (Er), unassisted mortality (Mr), and release (Rr) rates. Time to death (Td) for euthanized and dead turtles, and length of stay for released (Tr) turtles were evaluated.

Results

The most frequent causes of morbidity were entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics (50.81%), unknown/undetermined (20.37%), and ingestion of hooks (11.88%). The final disposition of the 1,634 loggerhead turtles admitted alive were: Er = 3.37%, Mr = 10.34%, and Rr = 86.29%. Er was significantly higher in the trauma category (18.67%) compared to the other causes of admission. The highest Mr was observed for turtles admitted due to trauma (30.67%). The highest Rr was observed in the crude oil (93.87%) and entanglement (92.38%) categories. The median Tr ranged from 12 days (unknown) to 70 days (trauma).

Conclusions

This survey is the first large-scale epidemiological study on causes of stranding and mortality of Eastern Atlantic loggerheads and demonstrates that at least 71.72% of turtles stranded due to anthropogenic causes. The high Rr (86.29%) emphasizes the importance of marine rehabilitation centers for conservation purposes. The stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters Td and Tr should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation process of sea turtles in order to allow comparative studies between marine rehabilitation centers around the world.

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<![CDATA[Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da64ab0ee8fa60b919a5

Objectives

Aspiration after stroke has been associated with aspiration pneumonia, which contributes to increased mortality of stroke. Laryngeal elevation is a core mechanism for protection from aspiration. Few studies have explored the predictive value of laryngeal elevation velocity for aspiration after stroke. This study aimed to explore the ability of laryngeal elevation velocity to predict aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Methods

This was a prospective cohort study that included consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients treated at a teaching hospital during a 10-month period. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Patients who were at risk of aspiration and could swallow 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v) for a videofluoroscopic swallowing (VFS) study were included. The association between abnormal indices in the oral and pharyngeal phase of the VFS study and aspiration was examined using univariate analyses. These indices included the lip closure, tongue movement and control, laryngeal elevation velocity and range, the latency of pharyngeal swallowing, pharyngeal transit time (PTT), abnormal epiglottis tilt, residual barium in the pharynx, and the duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. The laryngeal elevation velocity (%/s) was calculated as the range of laryngeal elevation (%) from the resting position to the maximum superior position or to the position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the corresponding duration of laryngeal elevation. The range of laryngeal elevation (%) was the percentage calculated as the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the maximum superior excursion position or position where the laryngeal vestibule is fully closed divided by the distance between the resting laryngeal position and the lowest edge of the mandible. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value for aspiration secondary to reduced laryngeal elevation velocity after adjusting for the effects of other indices. Intrarater and interrater reliability were calculated using Pearson’s correlation coefficients.

Results

Data from 89 patients were analyzed. This cohort included 71 males and 18 females with a mean age of 59.31±11.46 years. The mean time from stroke onset to the VFS study was 3 days (1–7). Twenty one (23%) patients aspirated while swallowing 5 ml of diluted barium (40%, w/v). Aspiration was associated with age, the velocity (%/s) of laryngeal elevation and duration, delayed pharyngeal phase, pharyngeal transit time, abnormal epiglottic tilt, and invalid laryngeal elevation before true swallowing, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening. After adjusting for the effects of the indices mentioned above, logistic regression analysis revealed that a reduced of laryngeal elevation velocity before vestibule closure was predictive of aspiration independently (OR, 0.993; 95% CI, 0.987–1.000).

Discussions

Reduced laryngeal elevation velocity for laryngeal elevated to position where laryngeal vestibule is fully closed was an independent predictor of aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This may be related to a decreased contraction velocity of the muscles involved in hyolaryngeal elevation. Therapeutic methods aimed at improving laryngeal elevation velocity may decrease aspiration events and pneumonias after stroke.

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<![CDATA[Can Ingestion of Lead Shot and Poisons Change Population Trends of Three European Birds: Grey Partridge, Common Buzzard, and Red Kite?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabaab0ee8fa60bae7bb

Little is known about the magnitude of the effects of lead shot ingestion alone or combined with poisons (e.g., in bait or seeds/granules containing pesticides) on population size, growth, and extinction of non-waterbird avian species that ingest these substances. We used population models to create example scenarios demonstrating how changes in these parameters might affect three susceptible species: grey partridge (Perdix perdix), common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and red kite (Milvus milvus). We added or subtracted estimates of mortality due to lead shot ingestion (4–16% of mortality, depending on species) and poisons (4–46% of mortality) reported in the UK or France to observed mortality of studied populations after models were calibrated to observed population trends. Observed trends were decreasing for partridge (in continental Europe), stable for buzzard (in Germany), and increasing for red kite (in Wales). Although lead shot ingestion and poison at modeled levels did not change the trend direction for the three species, they reduced population size and slowed population growth. Lead shot ingestion at modeled rates reduced population size of partridges by 10%, and when combined with bait and pesticide poisons, by 18%. For buzzards, decrease in mean population size by lead shot and poisons combined was much smaller (≤ 1%). The red kite population has been recovering; however, modeled lead shot ingestion reduced its annual growth rate from 6.5% to 4%, slowing recovery. If mortality from poisoned baits could be removed, the kite population could potentially increase at a rapid annual rate of 12%. The effects are somewhat higher if ingestion of these substances additionally causes sublethal reproductive impairment. These results have uncertainty but suggest that declining or recovering populations are most sensitive to lead shot or poison ingestion, and removal of poisoned baits can have a positive impact on recovering raptor populations that frequently feed on carrion.

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<![CDATA[Bile Acid Metabolome after an Oral Lipid Tolerance Test by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baeeed

Context

Besides their role in intestinal resorption of lipids, bile acids are regarded as endocrine and metabolic signaling molecules. The detailed profile of bile acid species in peripheral blood after an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) is unknown.

Objective

We quantified the regulation of 18 bile acids after OLTT in healthy individuals.

Material and methods

100 volunteers were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters and underwent OLTT. Venous blood was drawn in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2h, 4h, and 6 h after OLTT. Serum concentrations of 18 bile acids were measured by LC-MS/MS.

Results

All of the 6 taurine-conjugated bile acids (TUDCA, THDCA, TCA, TCDCA, TDCA, TLCA) and all of the 6 glycine-conjugated bile acids (GUDCA, GHDCA, GCA, GCDCA, GDCA, GLCA) rose significantly at 2h and remained elevated during OLTT. Of the primary bile acids, CA remained unchanged, whereas CDCA significantly decreased at 4h. Of the secondary bile acids, DCA, UDCA and HDCA were not altered, whereas LCA decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between the intestinal feed-back regulator of bile acid synthesis FGF-19 and bile acids. This correlation seems to depend on all of the six taurine-conjugated bile acids and on GCA, GDCA, and GCDCA. Females and users of hormonal contraception displayed higher levels of taurine-conjugated bile acids.

Conclusions

The novelty of the study is based on the identification of single bile acids during OLTT. LC-MS/MS-based quantification of bile acids in serum provides a reliable tool for future investigation of endocrine and metabolic effects of bile acids.

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<![CDATA[Sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding by Asian citrus psyllid: Evidence from electrical penetration graph and visualization of stylet pathways]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc500

Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Sustained phloem ingestion by D. citri on CLas infected plants is required for pathogen acquisition and transmission. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-walled sclerenchyma around the phloem in mature, fully expanded citrus leaves that is more prominent on the abaxial compared with the adaxial side. The composition and thickness of this fibrous ring may have an important role in selection of feeding sites by D. citri based on leaf age and leaf surface, which in turn can affect pathogen acquisition and transmission. We measured feeding behavior using electrical penetration graph (EPG) recordings of individual D. citri adults placed on abaxial or adaxial surfaces of young or mature Valencia orange leaves to study the role of the sclerenchymatous ring in modifying D. citri feeding behavior. Feeding sites on the same leaf tissues were then sectioned and examined by epifluorescence microscopy. The duration of phloem ingestion (E2 waveform) by psyllids was significantly reduced on mature compared with young leaves, and on abaxial compared with adaxial leaf surfaces. The longest duration of phloem ingestion was observed from psyllids placed on the adaxial side of young leaves that had the least developed sclerenchyma. Bouts of phloem salivation (E1 waveform), however, were significantly longer on mature leaves compared with young leaves. D. citri adults made consecutive phloem feeding attempts (bouts) on the abaxial side of mature leaves and those bouts resulted in unsuccessful or shorter periods of phloem ingestion. Adults also made more frequent and longer bouts of xylem ingestion on mature leaves compared with adult psyllids placed on young leaves. Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the fibrous ring in young leaves was thinner and autofluoresced in red whereas the ring in mature leaves was thicker and autofluoresced in blue, indicating changes in structure and composition (e.g., lignification) of sclerenchyma correlated with leaf age. Our results support the hypothesis that the presence of a thick, well-developed fibrous ring around phloem tissues of mature leaves acts as a barrier to frequent or prolonged phloem ingestion by D. citri from citrus leaves. This may have an important role in limiting or preventing CLas acquisition and/or transmission by D. citri, and could be used for identification and development of resistant citrus cultivars.

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<![CDATA[Effects of the Non-Nutritive Sweeteners on Glucose Metabolism and Appetite Regulating Hormones: Systematic Review of Observational Prospective Studies and Clinical Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabdab0ee8fa60baf7e2

Background

The effects of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones are not clear. There is an ongoing debate concerning NNS use and deleterious changes in metabolism.

Objectives

The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific available evidence regarding the effects of NNS on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones.

Data Sources and Study Eligibility Criteria

We identified human observational studies evaluating the relation between NNS consumption and obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, in addition to clinical trials evaluating the effects of NNS in glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones.

Results

Fourteen observational studies evaluating the association between NNS consumption and the development of metabolic diseases and twenty-eight clinical trials studying the effects of NNS on metabolism were included. Finally, two meta-analyses evaluating the association between the consumption of NNS-containing beverages and the development of type 2 diabetes were identified.

Conclusions

Some observational studies suggest an association between NNS consumption and development of metabolic diseases; however, adiposity is a confounder frequently found in observational studies. The effects of the NNS on glucose metabolism are not clear. The results of the identified clinical trials are contradictory and are not comparable because of the major existing differences between them. Studies evaluating specific NNS, with an adequate sample size, including a homogeneous study group, identifying significant comorbidities, with an appropriate control group, with an appropriate exposure time, and considering adjustment for confounder variables such as adiposity are needed.

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<![CDATA[The Sequential Binge, a New Therapeutic Approach for Binge Eating: A Pilot Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1eab0ee8fa60b7e14e

Background and Objectives

A sizeable proportion of patients experiencing binge eating do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We present the sequential binge (SB), a new behavioral intervention that complements CBT, and preliminary results of its effects. SB breaks up the binge into repeated identical sequences of eating separated by incremental pauses. This pattern of ingestion aims at facilitating boredom toward the ingested foods and at turning cognitive control away from binge food restriction. SB is hypothesized to reduce food intake during the binge and the number of daily binges.

Methods

Prospective pilot study. Fifteen binging patients with previous unsuccessful intensive CBT were given SB as an adjunct to their treatment and were followed up for 16 weeks from admission. All patients were reassessed 47 weeks on average after discharge.

Results

SB was associated with a 44% relative reduction in the planned food intake (p<0.001), a longer consecutive binge refractory period compared to regular binges (median: 48 hours versus 4 hours, p = 0.002) and an average relative reduction by 26% of binge number the day after each SB (p = 0.004). 47% of patients reached binge abstinence for four consecutive weeks 16 weeks after the first SB.

Conclusion

This case series shows promising evidence for the use of SB in patients with refractory binge eating. Further evaluation in a prospective randomized controlled trial would be justified.

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<![CDATA[Accuracy of a Real-Time, Computerized, Binocular, Three-Dimensional Trajectory-Tracking Device for Recording Functional Mandibular Movements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb17bb

Objective

Developments in digital technology have permitted researchers to study mandibular movements. Here, the accuracy of a real-time, computerized, binocular, three-dimensional (3D) trajectory-tracking device for recording functional mandibular movements was evaluated.

Methods

An occlusal splint without the occlusal region was created based on a plaster cast of the lower dentition. The splint was rigidly connected with a target on its labial side and seated on the cast. The cast was then rigidly attached to the stage of a high-precision triaxial electronic translator, which was used to move the target-cast-stage complex. Half-circular movements (5.00-mm radius) in three planes (XOY, XOZ, YOZ) and linear movements along the x-axis were performed at 5.00 mm/s. All trajectory points were recorded with the binocular 3D trajectory-tracking device and fitted to arcs or lines, respectively, with the Imageware software. To analyze the accuracy of the trajectory-tracking device, the mean distances between the trajectory points and the fitted arcs or lines were measured, and the mean differences between the lengths of the fitted arcs’ radii and a set value (5.00 mm) were then calculated. A one-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the spatial consistency of the recording accuracy in three different planes.

Results

The mean distances between the trajectory points and fitted arcs or lines were 0.076 ± 0.033 mm or 0.089 ± 0.014 mm. The mean difference between the lengths of the fitted arcs’ radii and the set value (5.00 mm) was 0.025 ± 0.071 mm. A one-way ANOVA showed that the recording errors in three different planes were not statistically significant.

Conclusion

These results suggest that the device can record certain movements at 5.00 mm/s, which is similar to the speed of functional mandibular movements. In addition, the recordings had an error of <0.1 mm and good spatial consistency. Thus, the device meets some of the requirements necessary for recording human mandibular movements.

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<![CDATA[Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da40ab0ee8fa60b89a68

Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young’s modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

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<![CDATA[Cephalic phase of insulin secretion in response to a meal is unrelated to family history of type 2 diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbeaa

The pre-absorptive cephalic phase of insulin secretion is elicited during the first ten min of a meal and before glucose levels rise. Its importance for insulin release during the post-absorptive phase has been well documented in animals but its presence or importance in man has become increasingly controversial. We here examined the presence of an early cephalic phase of insulin release in 31 well matched individuals without (n = 15) or with (n = 16) a known family history of type 2 diabetes (first-degree relatives; FDR). We also examined the potential differences in individuals with or without impaired fasting (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We here demonstrate that a cephalic phase of insulin secretion was present in all individuals examined and without any differences between control persons and FDR or IFG/IGT. However, the overall importance of the cephalic phase is conjectural since it was unrelated to the subsequent post-absorptive insulin release or glucose tolerance. One of the best predictors of the incremental cephalic phase of insulin release was fasting insulin level and, thus, a relation to degree of insulin sensitivity is likely. In conclusion, an early pre-absorptive and cephalic phase of insulin release is robustly present in man. However, we could not document any relation to family history of Type 2 diabetes nor to the post-absorptive phase and, thus, confirm its importance for subsequent degree of insulin release or glucose tolerance.

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