ResearchPad - ingestive-behavior-and-neurosciences Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Cognitive Distraction at Mealtime Decreases Amount Consumed in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Crossover Exploratory Study]]> Environmental distractions have been shown to affect eating patterns.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a cognitive distraction on amount, preference, and memory of food consumed and perceptions of fullness, hunger, and enjoyment of food in a healthy young-adult population.MethodsA randomized controlled crossover study of 119 healthy adults (20.2 ± 1.4 y; 57% women; 48% white) assigned participants to begin under either the distracted (DIS, n = 55) or control (CON, n = 64) conditions. DIS participants consumed a meal of quiche while completing a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) for 15 min. CON participants ate without any task assignment. After a 30-min rest period, participants were offered a snack and given 5 min to eat ad libitum. Participants completed a survey assessing fullness, hunger, and enjoyment of the meal using 100 mm visual analogue scales. One week later, participants completed the opposite condition. Data were analyzed using ANOVA.ResultsThose in DIS consumed 13 g less of the meal (P < 0.001), even when comparing by initial condition (P < 0.001) and adjusting for sex (P < 0.001). A carryover effect of initial condition was found (P < 0.001), such that participants first assigned to DIS condition consumed less (95.2 ± 61.7 g) when distracted compared to all other condition combinations (127–133 g). Those in DIS had decreased accuracy for both memory of quiche received (absolute difference, 1.1 ± 1.6 compared with 0.7 ± 1.2 for CON, P < 0.001) and memory of quiche consumed (0.8 ± 1.1 for DIS compared with 0.7 ± 1.2 for CON, P = 0.007).ConclusionsWhen distracted, healthy young adults consumed significantly less food and their memory of the meal was dampened. These findings underscore the potential importance of cognitive distraction in affecting food intake. This trial was registered at as NCT04078607. ]]> <![CDATA[High Dietary Iron Disrupts Iron Homeostasis and Induces Amyloid-β and Phospho-τ Expression in the Hippocampus of Adult Wild-Type and APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice]]>



Brain iron deposition is a feature of Alzheimer disease and may contribute to its development. However, the relative contribution of dietary iron remains unclear.


We investigated the impact of high dietary iron on brain pathological changes and cognitive function in adult wild-type (WT) mice and amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice.


Male WT mice and APP/PS1 mice aged 10 wk were fed either a control diet (66 mg Fe/kg) (WT-Ctrl and APP/PS1-Ctrl) or a high iron diet (14 g Fe/kg) (WT-High Fe and APP/PS1-High Fe) for 20 wk. Iron concentrations in brain regions were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Brain iron staining and amyloid-β (Aβ) immunostaining were performed. Protein expressions in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde concentration were examined. Cognitive functions were tested with the Morris water maze system.


In the hippocampus, APP/PS1-High Fe mice had significantly higher iron concentration (2.5-fold) and ferritin (2.0-fold) than APP/PS1-Ctrl mice (P < 0.001), and WT-High Fe mice had significantly higher ferritin (2.0-fold) than WT-Ctrl mice (P < 0.001). Interestingly, APP/PS1 mice had significantly higher iron concentration (2–3-fold) and ferritin (2–2.5-fold) than WT mice fed either diet (P < 0.001). Histological analysis indicated that iron accumulated in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region in APP/PS1 mice, consistent with the pattern of Aβ deposition. For both mouse strains, iron treatment induced Aβ and phospho-τ expression (1.5–3-fold) in the hippocampus, but had little impact on oxidative stress and cognitive function. Furthermore, APP/PS1 mice had significantly lower SOD activity and higher malondialdehyde concentration than WT mice in the hippocampus (P < 0.0001), paralleled by apparent cognitive dysfunction.


Dietary iron overload induces iron disorder and Aβ and phospho-τ expression in the hippocampus of adult WT and APP/PS1 transgenic mice.