ResearchPad - instruments-and-techniques https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Methods for Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature From Remote and Low‐Cost Data: A Comparative Study in Central Alabama]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15088 A variety of proxy methods offered reasonable estimates of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) in downtown and suburban Birmingham, ALEstimating WBGT from easily accessible measurements could be a powerful tool for studies and interventions related to heat stress

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<![CDATA[RBSP‐ECT Combined Spin‐Averaged Electron Flux Data Product]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na1f0d5e3-3ac3-4076-90ae-04cd88b0c6c8

Abstract

We describe a new data product combining the spin‐averaged electron flux measurements from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Energetic Particle Composition and Thermal Plasma (ECT) suite on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Van Allen Probes. We describe the methodology used to combine each of the data sets and produce a consistent set of spectra for September 2013 to the present. Three‐minute‐averaged flux spectra are provided spanning energies from 15 eV up to 20 MeV. This new data product provides additional utility to the ECT data and offers a consistent cross calibrated data set for researchers interested in examining the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere across a wide range of energies.

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<![CDATA[Relative Humidity on Mars: New Results From the Phoenix TECP Sensor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N30658b03-7b46-436c-bd01-532f775c0725

Abstract

In situ measurements of relative humidity (RH) on Mars have only been performed by the Phoenix (PHX) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions. Here we present results of our recalibration of the PHX thermal and electrical conductivity probe (TECP) RH sensor. This recalibration was conducted using a TECP engineering model subjected to the full range of environmental conditions at the PHX landing site in the Michigan Mars Environmental Chamber. The experiments focused on the warmest and driest conditions (daytime) because they were not covered in the original calibration (Zent et al., 2010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JE003420) and previous recalibration (Zent et al., 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JE004933). In nighttime conditions, our results are in excellent agreement with the previous 2016 recalibration, while in daytime conditions, our results show larger water vapor pressure values. We obtain vapor pressure values in the range ~0.005–1.4 Pa, while Zent et al. (2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JE004933) obtain values in the range ~0.004–0.4 Pa. Our higher daytime values are in better agreement with independent estimates from the ground by the PHX Surface Stereo Imager instrument and from orbit by Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars. Our results imply larger day‐to‐night ratios of water vapor pressure at PHX compared to MSL, suggesting a stronger atmosphere‐regolith interchange in the Martian arctic than at lower latitudes. Further, they indicate that brine formation at the PHX landing site via deliquescence can be achieved only temporarily between midnight and 6 a.m. on a few sols. The results from our recalibration are important because they shed light on the near‐surface humidity environment on Mars.

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<![CDATA[Regional Biases in MODIS Marine Liquid Water Cloud Drop Effective Radius Deduced Through Fusion With MISR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N54852759-8398-4c76-9829-786891d8555e

Abstract

Satellite measurements from Terra's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) represent our longest, single‐platform, global record of the effective radius (Re) of the cloud drop size distribution. Quantifying its error characteristics has been challenging because systematic errors in retrieved Re covary with the structural characteristics of the cloud and the Sun‐view geometry. Recently, it has been shown that the bias in MODIS Re can be estimated by fusing MODIS data with data from Terra's Multi‐angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Here, we relate the bias to the observed underlying conditions to derive regional‐scale, bias‐corrected, monthly‐mean Re 1.6, Re 2.1, and Re 3.7 values retrieved from the 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 μm MODIS spectral channels. Our results reveal that monthly‐mean bias in Re 2.1 exhibits large regional dependency, ranging from at least ~1 to 10 μm (15 to 60%) varying with scene heterogeneity, optical depth, and solar zenith angle. Regional bias‐corrected monthly‐mean Re 2.1 ranges from 4 to 17 μm, compared to 10 to 25 μm for uncorrected Re 2.1, with estimated uncertainties of 0.1 to 1.8 μm. The bias‐corrected monthly‐mean Re 3.7 and Re 2.1 show difference of approximately +0.6 μm in the coastal marine stratocumulus regions and down to approximately −2 μm in the cumuliform cloud regions, compared to uncorrected values of about −1 to −6 μm, respectively. Bias‐corrected Re values compare favorably to other independent data sources, including field observations, global model simulations, and satellite retrievals that do not use retrieval techniques similar to MODIS. This work changes the interpretation of global Re distributions from MODIS Re products and may further impact studies, which use the original MODIS Re products to study, for example, aerosol‐cloud interactions and cloud microphysical parameterization.

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<![CDATA[A PCA‐Based Framework for Determining Remotely Sensed Geological Surface Orientations and Their Statistical Quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N88586ae5-2186-427c-a894-c1fe793c1adb

The orientations of planar rock layers are fundamental to our understanding of structural geology and stratigraphy. Remote sensing platforms including satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles, and Light Detection and Ranging scanners are increasingly used to build three‐dimensional models of structural features on Earth and other planets. Remotely gathered orientation measurements are straightforward to calculate but subject to uncertainty inherited from input data, differences in viewing geometry, and the plane‐fitting process, complicating geological interpretation. Here, we improve upon the present state of the art by developing a generalized means for computing and reporting errors in strike‐dip measurements from remotely sensed data. We outline a general framework for representing the error space of uncertain orientations in Cartesian and spherical coordinates and develop a principal component analysis (PCA) regression method, which captures statistical errors independent of viewing geometry and input data structure. We also introduce graphical techniques to visualize the uniqueness and quality of orientation measurements and a process to increase statistical power by jointly fitting bedding planes under the assumption of parallel stratigraphy. These new techniques are validated by comparison of field‐gathered orientation measurements with those derived from minimally processed satellite imagery of the San Rafael Swell, Utah, and unmanned aerial vehicle imagery from the Naukluft Mountains, Namibia. We provide software packages supporting planar fitting and visualization of error distributions. This method increases the precision and comparability of structural measurements gathered using a new generation of remote sensing techniques.

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<![CDATA[Anhydrous Phase B: Transmission Electron Microscope Characterization and Elastic Properties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8e26b212-55d2-4518-9ff1-4ce419f02024

Key Points

  • Anhydrous phase B and stishovite formed directly from olivine in experiments at 14 GPa and 1400 °C

  • The structure of anhydrous phase B is determined ab initio from precession electron diffraction tomography in transmission electron microscopy

  • Elastic and seismic properties of anhydrous phase B are calculated

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<![CDATA[Terrain‐Enhanced Precipitation Processes Above the Melting Layer: Results From OLYMPEX]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75658ed5eed0c484cbe24b

Abstract

Enhancement of precipitation processes aloft over complex terrain is documented using reflectivity data from an S‐band scanning radar (NPOL) that was deployed on the west coast of Washington State during the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX). From November 2015 through mid‐January 2016, NPOL obtained high‐resolution data within sectors over the ocean and over the windward slopes of the Olympic Mountains. Contoured Frequency by Altitude Diagrams of radar reflectivity highlight a higher frequency of occurrence of larger reflectivities for all heights between 2 and 8 km over land compared to ocean, with the largest difference in the 4‐ to 6‐km range indicating a robust signature of enhancement aloft over the windward slopes. This enhancement pattern is found to some degree under all environmental conditions considered but is especially pronounced during periods of high vapor transport, high melting level height, southwest low‐level winds, and neutral stability. These conditions are generally associated with warm sectors of midlatitude cyclones and atmospheric rivers. Past studies have postulated that a secondary enhancement in reflectivity aloft was an intrinsic part of atmospheric river type systems. However, these results show that further significant enhancement of this signature occurs as deep moist‐neutral, high water vapor content flow is lifted when it encounters a mountain range. Reflectivity data from the dual‐precipitation radar aboard the Global Precipitation Measurement satellite also documents this reflectivity increase aloft over the Olympic Mountains compared to the adjacent ocean, showing the potential for Global Precipitation Measurement to provide reliable estimates of precipitation structure over remote mountainous regions.

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<![CDATA[Electron Acceleration to MeV Energies at Jupiter and Saturn]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c756545d5eed0c484cbd8bc

Abstract

The radiation belts and magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn show significant intensities of relativistic electrons with energies up to tens of megaelectronvolts (MeV). To date, the question on how the electrons reach such high energies is not fully answered. This is largely due to the lack of high‐quality electron spectra in the MeV energy range that models could be fit to. We reprocess data throughout the Galileo orbiter mission in order to derive Jupiter's electron spectra up to tens of MeV. In the case of Saturn, the spectra from the Cassini orbiter are readily available and we provide a systematic analysis aiming to study their acceleration mechanisms. Our analysis focuses on the magnetospheres of these planets, at distances of L > 20 and L > 4 for Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, where electron intensities are not yet at radiation belt levels. We find no support that MeV electrons are dominantly accelerated by wave‐particle interactions in the magnetospheres of both planets at these distances. Instead, electron acceleration is consistent with adiabatic transport. While this is a common assumption, confirmation of this fact is important since many studies on sources, losses, and transport of energetic particles rely on it. Adiabatic heating can be driven through various radial transport mechanisms, for example, injections driven by the interchange instability or radial diffusion. We cannot distinguish these processes at Saturn with our technique. For Jupiter, we suggest that the dominating acceleration process is radial diffusion because injections are never observed at MeV energies.

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<![CDATA[Radio emissions from double RHESSI TGFs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b049571463d7e249772181a

Abstract

A detailed analysis of Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) is performed in association with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) sources and very low frequency (VLF) sferics recorded at Duke University. RHESSI clock offset is evaluated and found to experience changes on the 5 August 2005 and 21 October 2013, based on the analysis of TGF‐WWLLN matches. The clock offsets were found for all three periods of observations with standard deviations less than 100 μs. This result opens the possibility for the precise comparative analyses of RHESSI TGFs with the other types of data (WWLLN, radio measurements, etc.) In case of multiple‐peak TGFs, WWLLN detections are observed to be simultaneous with the last TGF peak for all 16 cases of multipeak RHESSI TGFs simultaneous with WWLLN sources. VLF magnetic field sferics were recorded for two of these 16 events at Duke University. These radio measurements also attribute VLF sferics to the second peak of the double TGFs, exhibiting no detectable radio emission during the first TGF peak. Possible scenarios explaining these observations are proposed. Double (multipeak) TGFs could help to distinguish between the VLF radio emission radiated by the recoil currents in the +IC leader channel and the VLF emission from the TGF producing electrons.

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<![CDATA[Are Paleomagnetic Records From U‐Channels Appropriate for Studies of Reversals and Excursions?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c756548d5eed0c484cbd903

Abstract

Sampling of sediment cores using plastic U‐channels has made possible the acquisition of detailed records of paleomagnetic secular variation, geomagnetic polarity, environmental magnetic studies, and relative paleointensity over the past several million years. U‐channel measurements provide the great advantage of rapid measurements of long sediment cores, but the signal resolution is attenuated by the response function of the magnetometer sensors, which therefore restrains the recovery of rapid and large‐amplitude field changes. Here we focus on the suitability of the dynamics of reversals and excursions derived from U‐channel measurements. We compare successive individual paleomagnetic directions of 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm cubic discrete samples with those of a 1.5‐m equivalent U‐channel sample train obtained by placing the samples adjacent to each other. We use varying excursion and transition lengths and generate transitional directions that resemble those of the most detailed paleomagnetic records. Excursions with opposite polarity directions recorded over less than 7.5 cm are barely detected in U‐channel measurements. Regarding reversals, U‐channel measurements smooth the signal of low‐resolution records and generate artificial transitional directions. Despite producing misleading similarities with the overall structure of transition records, longer transitional intervals fail also to reproduce the complexity of field changes. Finally, we test the convolution of magnetization by different response functions. The simulation reveals that even small response function changes can generate significant differences in results.

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