ResearchPad - insulin-secretion https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association between the rs1544410 polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and insulin secretion after gestational diabetes mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14643 Genetic variants involved in vitamin D metabolism have been associated with diabetes and related syndromes/diseases. We wanted to investigate possible associations of polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D metabolism with indices of insulin resistance and insulin secretion, and also with development of diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Materials and methodsWe have studied 376 women with previous GDM. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for vitamin D receptor (VDR) [rs731236, rs7975232, rs10735810, and rs1544410], vitamin D binding protein (DBP) [rs7041 and rs4588], and cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1 (CYP27B1) [rs10877012 and rs4646536] were genotyped by TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay using the Quantstudio 7 Flex system. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed 1–2 years postpartum. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the disposition index [(insulinogenic index: I30/G30)/HOMA-IR] were used to calculate insulin resistance and insulin secretion, respectively. Serum samples for determination of 25(OH)D3 were collected at the time of the OGTT. Manifestation of diabetes was followed up to five years postpartum.ResultsAfter adjustment for BMI, age, and ethnicity, the A-allele of the VDR rs1544410 polymorphism was found to be associated with increased disposition index (difference per allele = 3.56, 95% CI: 0.4567–6.674; p = 0.03). The A-allele of the DBP rs7041 polymorphism was found to be associated with 25(OH)D3 levels (difference [in nmol/L] per allele = −5.478, 95% CI: -8.315 to −2.641; p = 0.0002), as was the T-allele of the DBP rs4588 polymorphism (OR = −6.319, 95% CI: −9.466 to −3.171; p = 0.0001). None of the SNPs were significantly associated with HOMA-IR or postpartum diabetes.ConclusionsThis study provides evidence that the rs1544410 polymorphism of the VDR gene may be associated with increased insulin secretion in women after pregnancy complicated by GDM. Further studies in other populations are needed to confirm the results. ]]> <![CDATA[Mystery or method? Evaluating claims of increased energy expenditure during a ketogenic diet]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1fb27919-9738-4fc6-9f1b-08c7be150010 ]]> <![CDATA[Consistency of compact and extended models of glucose-insulin homeostasis: The role of variable pancreatic reserve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7067acd5eed0c4847c74a3

Published compact and extended models of the glucose-insulin physiologic control system are compared, in order to understand why a specific functional form of the compact model proved to be necessary for a satisfactory representation of acute perturbation experiments such as the Intra Venous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). A spectrum of IVGTT’s of virtual subjects ranging from normal to IFG to IGT to frank T2DM were simulated using an extended model incorporating the population-of-controllers paradigm originally hypothesized by Grodsky, and proven to be able to capture a wide array of experimental results from heterogeneous perturbation procedures. The simulated IVGTT’s were then fitted with the Single-Delay Model (SDM), a compact model with only six free parameters, previously shown to be very effective in delivering precise estimates of insulin sensitivity and secretion during an IVGTT. Comparison of the generating, extended-model parameter values with the obtained compact model estimates shows that the functional form of the nonlinear insulin-secretion term, empirically found to be necessary for the compact model to satisfactorily fit clinical observations, captures the pancreatic reserve level of the simulated virtual patients. This result supports the validity of the compact model as a meaningful analysis tool for the clinical assessment of insulin sensitivity.

]]>
<![CDATA[An analog of glibenclamide selectively enhances autophagic degradation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin Z]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521814d5eed0c48479726d

The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is characterized by intracellular accumulation of the misfolded variant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ) and severe liver disease in some of the affected individuals. In this study, we investigated the possibility of discovering novel therapeutic agents that would reduce ATZ accumulation by interrogating a C. elegans model of ATD with high-content genome-wide RNAi screening and computational systems pharmacology strategies. The RNAi screening was utilized to identify genes that modify the intracellular accumulation of ATZ and a novel computational pipeline was developed to make high confidence predictions on repurposable drugs. This approach identified glibenclamide (GLB), a sulfonylurea drug that has been used broadly in clinical medicine as an oral hypoglycemic agent. Here we show that GLB promotes autophagic degradation of misfolded ATZ in mammalian cell line models of ATD. Furthermore, an analog of GLB reduces hepatic ATZ accumulation and hepatic fibrosis in a mouse model in vivo without affecting blood glucose or insulin levels. These results provide support for a drug discovery strategy using simple organisms as human disease models combined with genetic and computational screening methods. They also show that GLB and/or at least one of its analogs can be immediately tested to arrest the progression of human ATD liver disease.

]]>
<![CDATA[Exploring the insulin secretory properties of the PGD2-GPR44/DP2 axis in vitro and in a randomized phase-1 trial of type 2 diabetes patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21518ed5eed0c4843fac22

Aims/Hypothesis

GPR44 (DP2, PTGDR2, CRTh2) is the receptor for the pro-inflammatory mediator prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and it is enriched in human islets. In rodent islets, PGD2 is produced in response to glucose, suggesting that the PGD2-GPR44/DP2 axis may play a role in human islet function during hyperglycemia. Consequently, the aim of this work was to elucidate the insulinotropic role of GPR44 antagonism in vitro in human beta-cells and in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.

Methods

We determined the drive on PGD2 secretion by glucose and IL-1beta, as well as, the impact on insulin secretion by pharmacological GPR44/DP2 antagonism (AZD1981) in human islets and beta-cells in vitro. To test if metabolic control would be improved by antagonizing a hyperglycemia-driven increased PGD2 tone, we performed a proof-of-mechanism study in 20 T2DM patients (average 54 years, HbA1c 9.4%, BMI 31.6 kg/m2). The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study consisted of two three-day treatment periods (AZD1981 or placebo) separated by a three-day wash-out period. Mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) and intravenous graded glucose infusion (GGI) was performed at start and end of each treatment period. Assessment of AZD1981 pharmacokinetics, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and PGD2 pathway biomarkers were performed.

Results

We found (1) that PGD2 is produced in human islet in response to high glucose or IL-1beta, but likely by stellate cells rather than endocrine cells; (2) that PGD2 suppresses both glucose and GLP-1 induced insulin secretion in vitro; and (3) that the GPR44/DP2 antagonist (AZD1981) in human beta-cells normalizes insulin secretion. However, AZD1981 had no impact on neither glucose nor incretin dependent insulin secretion in humans (GGI AUC C-peptide 1-2h and MMTT AUC Glucose 0-4h LS mean ratios vs placebo of 0.94 (80% CI of 0.90–0.98, p = 0.12) and 0.99 (90% CI of 0.94–1.05, p = 0.45), despite reaching the expected antagonist exposure.

Conclusion/Interpretation

Pharmacological inhibition of the PGD2-GPR44/DP2 axis has no major impact on the modulation of acute insulin secretion in T2DM patients.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02367066.

]]>
<![CDATA[SUN-646 A Novel Population of FOXO1-Expressing Cells in the Stomach Controls Cell Plasticity by Regulating the Cyclin CCNE1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb20286f8-d84b-47e0-8fa2-4fe8bc4c2846 <![CDATA[SUN-645 Cornus Officinalis Promotes IGFBP2 and Autophagy in Human 1.1B4 Pancreatic Cell Line as Revealed by Employing a Global Proteomic Approach via Mass Spectrometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79091914-a750-4c55-8319-c8fb25b68c70 <![CDATA[Biological Activity and Antidiabetic Potential of C-Terminal Octapeptide Fragments of the Gut-Derived Hormone Xenin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6fab0ee8fa60b941c6

Xenin is a peptide that is co-secreted with the incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), from intestinal K-cells in response to feeding. Studies demonstrate that xenin has appetite suppressive effects and modulates glucose-induced insulin secretion. The present study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and antidiabetic properties of two C-terminal fragment xenin peptides, namely xenin 18–25 and xenin 18–25 Gln. In BRIN-BD11 cells, both xenin fragment peptides concentration-dependently stimulated insulin secretion, with similar efficacy as the parent peptide. Neither fragment peptide had any effect on acute feeding behaviour at elevated doses of 500 nmol/kg bw. When administered together with glucose to normal mice at 25 nmol/kg bw, the overall insulin secretory effect was significantly enhanced in both xenin 18–25 and xenin 18–25 Gln treated mice, with better moderation of blood glucose levels. Twice daily administration of xenin 18–25 or xenin 18–25 Gln for 21 days in high fat fed mice did not affect energy intake, body weight, circulating blood glucose or body fat stores. However, circulating plasma insulin concentrations had a tendency to be elevated, particularly in xenin 18–25 Gln mice. Both treatment regimens significantly improved insulin sensitivity by the end of the treatment period. In addition, sustained treatment with xenin 18–25 Gln significantly reduced the overall glycaemic excursion and augmented the insulinotropic response to an exogenous glucose challenge on day 21. In harmony with this, GIP-mediated glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing effects were substantially improved by twice daily xenin 18–25 Gln treatment. Overall, these data provide evidence that C-terminal octapeptide fragments of xenin, such as xenin 18–25 Gln, have potential therapeutic utility for type 2 diabetes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Expression and Characterization of a Potent Long-Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da81ab0ee8fa60b9adb6

Human GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) can produce a remarkable improvement in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, its clinical benefits are limited by its short half-life, which is less than 2 min because of its small size and rapid enzymatic inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV. We engineered GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc, a 68-kDa fusion protein linking a variant human GLP-1 (A8G/G26E/R36G) to a human IgG2σ constant heavy-chain. A stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell line was obtained using electroporation. Western blotting showed that the expressed protein was immunoreactive to both GLP-1 and IgG antibodies. GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a dose- and glucose-dependent manner and increased insulin mRNA expression. The half-life of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc in cynomolgus monkeys was approximately 57.1 ± 4.5 h. In the KKAy mouse model of diabetes, one intraperitoneal injection of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc (1 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels for 5 days. A 4-week repeat-administration study identified sustained effects on blood glucose levels. Oral glucose tolerance tests conducted at the beginning and end of this 4-week period showed that GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc produced a stable glucose lowering effect. In addition, KKAy mice treated with GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc showed statistically significant weight loss from day 23. In conclusion, these properties of GLP-1-IgG2σ-Fc demonstrated that it represented a potential long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Bioactivity of a modified human Glucagon-like peptide-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc4fb

Diabetes has become the third largest cause of death in humans worldwide. Therefore, effective treatment for this disease remains a critical issue. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, and therefore represents a promising candidate to use for the treatment of diabetes. Native GLP-1, however, is quickly degraded in in the circulatory system; which limits its clinical application. In the present study, a chemically-synthesized, modified analogue of human GLP-1 (mGLP-1) was designed. Our analyses indicated that, relative to native GLP-1, mGLP-1 is more resistant to trypsin and pancreatin degradation. mGLP-1 promotes mouse pancreatic β-cell proliferation by up-regulating the expression level of cyclin E, CDK2, Bcl-2 and down-regulating Bax, p21, and stimulates insulin secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test indicated that mGLP-1 significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Intraperitoneal injections of mGLP-1 into streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic mice significantly reduced blood sugar levels and stimulated insulin secretion. Oral gavages of mGLP-1 in diabetic mice did not result in significant hypoglycemic activity.

]]>
<![CDATA[IVGTT-based simple assessment of glucose tolerance in the Zucker fatty rat: Validation against minimal models]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbcc5

For the assessment of glucose tolerance from IVGTT data in Zucker rat, minimal model methodology is reliable but time- and money-consuming. This study aimed to validate for the first time in Zucker rat, simple surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and secretion against the glucose-minimal-model insulin sensitivity index (SI) and against first- (Φ1) and second-phase (Φ2) β-cell responsiveness indexes provided by C-peptide minimal model. Validation of the surrogate insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and of two sets of coupled insulin-based indexes for insulin secretion, differing from the cut-off point between phases (FPIR3-SPIR3, t = 3 min and FPIR5-SPIR5, t = 5 min), was carried out in a population of ten Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) and ten Zucker lean rats (ZLR). Considering the whole rat population (ZLR+ZFR), ISI showed a significant strong correlation with SI (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.88; P<0.001). Both FPIR3 and FPIR5 showed a significant (P<0.001) strong correlation with Φ1 (r = 0.76 and r = 0.75, respectively). Both SPIR3 and SPIR5 showed a significant (P<0.001) strong correlation with Φ2 (r = 0.85 and r = 0.83, respectively). ISI is able to detect (P<0.001) the well-recognized reduction in insulin sensitivity in ZFRs, compared to ZLRs. The insulin-based indexes of insulin secretion are able to detect in ZFRs (P<0.001) the compensatory increase of first- and second-phase secretion, associated to the insulin-resistant state. The ability of the surrogate indexes in describing glucose tolerance in the ZFRs was confirmed by the Disposition Index analysis. The model-based validation performed in the present study supports the utilization of low-cost, insulin-based indexes for the assessment of glucose tolerance in Zucker rat, reliable animal model of human metabolic syndrome.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between the rs7903146 Polymorphism in the TCF7L2 Gene and Parameters Derived with Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Individuals without Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9aab0ee8fa60ba3317

Background

The rs7903146-T allele in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has been associated with impaired pancreatic insulin secretion, enhanced liver glucose production, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, the impact of rs7903146 on daily glucose trajectories remains unclear. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can estimate glycemia and glycemic variability based on consecutive glucose measurements collected over several days. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of rs7903146 with glycemia and glycemic variability in middle-aged participants without diabetes.

Methods

Complete data from 235 participants without diabetes from the Leiden Longevity Study were available. Participants were divided into two groups based on rs7903146 genotype; rs7903146-CC genotype carriers (N = 123) and rs7903146-CT/TT genotype carriers (N = 112). Validated parameters of glycemia (e.g., mean 24h glucose level) and glycemic variability (e.g., 24h standard deviation) were derived from data collected with a CGM system for a 72-hour period.

Results

The study population was on average 64.7 years old (standard deviation = 5.9) and composed of 49.8% of women. Compared with rs7903146-CC carriers, rs7903146-CT/TT carriers exhibited a trend towards a higher mean 24-hour glucose level (5.21 versus 5.32 mmol/L; p-value = 0.15) and a significantly higher mean nocturnal glucose (3:00am– 6:00am; 4.48 versus 4.67 mmol/L; p-value = 0.03) that was explained for 34.6% by body weight and percentage body fat. No differences in measures of glycemic variability between the genotype groups were observed.

Conclusion

Despite limited sample size, our study indicates that the rs7903146-T allele in TCF7L2 was associated with a higher mean nocturnal glucose dependent on body composition, which might suggest that rs7902146 affects liver-specific aspects of glucose metabolism.

]]>
<![CDATA[Hyper-Variability in Circulating Insulin, High Fat Feeding Outcomes, and Effects of Reducing Ins2 Dosage in Male Ins1-Null Mice in a Specific Pathogen-Free Facility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b752f7

Insulin is an essential hormone with key roles in energy homeostasis and body composition. Mice and rats, unlike other mammals, have two insulin genes: the rodent-specific Ins1 gene and the ancestral Ins2 gene. The relationships between insulin gene dosage and obesity has previously been explored in male and female Ins2-/- mice with full or reduced Ins1 dosage, as well as in female Ins1-/- mice with full or partial Ins2 dosage. We report herein unexpected hyper-variability in Ins1-null male mice, with respect to their circulating insulin levels and to the physiological effects of modulating Ins2 gene dosage. Two large cohorts of Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- mice and their Ins1-/-:Ins2+/+ littermates were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) from weaning, and housed in specific pathogen-free conditions. Cohort A and cohort B were studied one year apart. Contrary to female mice from the same litters, inactivating one Ins2 allele on the complete Ins1-null background did not consistently cause a reduction of circulating insulin in male mice, on either diet. In cohort A, all HFD-fed males showed an equivalent degree of insulin hypersecretion and weight gain, regardless of Ins2 dosage. In cohort B the effects of HFD appeared generally diminished, and cohort B Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- males showed decreased insulin levels and body mass compared to Ins1-/-:Ins2+/+ littermates, on both diets. Although experimental conditions were consistent between cohorts, we found that HFD-fed Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- mice with lower insulin levels had increased corticosterone. Collectively, these observations highlight the phenotypic characteristics that change in association with differences in circulating insulin and Ins2 gene dosage, particularly in male mice.

]]>
<![CDATA[Long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids exert opposing effects on viability and function of GLP-1-producing cells: Mechanisms of lipotoxicity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5bab0ee8fa60bdfdc9

Background and aim

Fatty acids acutely stimulate GLP-1 secretion from L-cells in vivo. However, a high fat diet has been shown to reduce the density of L-cells in the mouse intestine and a positive correlation has been indicated between L-cell number and GLP-1 secretion. Thus, the mechanism of fatty acid-stimulated GLP-1 secretion, potential effects of long-term exposure to elevated levels of different fatty acid species, and underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to determine how long-term exposure to saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids, by direct effects on GLP-1-producing cells, alter function and viability, and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods

GLP-1-secreting GLUTag cells were cultured in the presence/absence of saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids (0.125 mM for 48 h, followed by analyses of viability and apoptosis, as well as involvement of fatty acid oxidation, free fatty acid receptors (FFAR1) and ceramide synthesis. In addition, effects on the expression of proglucagon, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), free fatty acid receptors (FFAR1, FFAR3), sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) and subsequent secretory response were determined.

Results

Saturated (16:0) and unsaturated (18:1) fatty acids exerted opposing effects on the induction of apoptosis (1.4-fold increase in DNA fragmentation by palmitate and a 0.5-fold reduction by oleate; p<0.01). Palmitate-induced apoptosis was associated with increased ceramide content and co-incubation with Fumonisin B1 abolished this lipo apoptosis. Oleate, on the other hand, reduced ceramide content, and—unlike palmitate—upregulated FFAR1 and FFAR3, evoking a 2-fold increase in FFAR1-mediated GLP-1 secretion following acute exposure to 0.125 mmol/L palmitate; (p<0.05).

Conclusion/Interpretation

Saturated (16:0), but not unsaturated (18:1), fatty acids induce ceramide-mediated apoptosis of GLP-1-producing cells. Further, unsaturated fatty acids confer lipoprotection, enhancing viability and function of GLP-1-secreting cells. These data provide potential mechanistic insight contributing to reduced L-cell mass following a high fat diet and differential effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on GLP-1 secretion in vivo.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pancreatic Beta Cell G-Protein Coupled Receptors and Second Messenger Interactions: A Systems Biology Computational Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db16ab0ee8fa60bcd3a8

Insulin secretory in pancreatic beta-cells responses to nutrient stimuli and hormonal modulators include multiple messengers and signaling pathways with complex interdependencies. Here we present a computational model that incorporates recent data on glucose metabolism, plasma membrane potential, G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCR), cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum calcium dynamics, cAMP and phospholipase C pathways that regulate interactions between second messengers in pancreatic beta-cells. The values of key model parameters were inferred from published experimental data. The model gives a reasonable fit to important aspects of experimentally measured metabolic and second messenger concentrations and provides a framework for analyzing the role of metabolic, hormones and neurotransmitters changes on insulin secretion. Our analysis of the dynamic data provides support for the hypothesis that activation of Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases play a critical role in modulating the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and catecholamines. The regulatory properties of adenylyl cyclase isoforms determine fluctuations in cytoplasmic cAMP concentration and reveal a synergistic action of glucose, GLP-1 and GIP on insulin secretion. On the other hand, the regulatory properties of phospholipase C isoforms determine the interaction of glucose, acetylcholine and free fatty acids (FFA) (that act through the FFA receptors) on insulin secretion. We found that a combination of GPCR agonists activating different messenger pathways can stimulate insulin secretion more effectively than a combination of GPCR agonists for a single pathway. This analysis also suggests that the activators of GLP-1, GIP and FFA receptors may have a relatively low risk of hypoglycemia in fasting conditions whereas an activator of muscarinic receptors can increase this risk. This computational analysis demonstrates that study of second messenger pathway interactions will improve understanding of critical regulatory sites, how different GPCRs interact and pharmacological targets for modulating insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Finnish Diabetes Risk Score Is Associated with Impaired Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity, Drug-Treated Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: A Follow-Up Study of the METSIM Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb174e

We investigated the association of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) with insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and risk of type 2 diabetes, drug-treated hypertension, cardiovascular (CVD) events and total mortality in a follow-up study of the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) cohort. The METSIM study includes 10,197 Finnish men, aged 45–73 years, and examined in 2005–2010. Of 8,749 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study 693 developed incident type 2 diabetes, 225 started antihypertensive medication, 351 had a CVD event, and 392 died during a 8.2-year follow-up. The FINDRISC was significantly associated with decreases in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001), and with a 4.14-fold increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes, 2.43-fold increased risk of drug-treated hypertension, 1.61-fold increased risk of CVD, and 1.55-increased risk of total mortality (the FINDRISC ≥12 vs. < 12 points). In conclusion, the FINDRISC predicts impairment in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, the conversion to type 2 diabetes, drug-treated hypertension, CVD events and total mortality.

]]>
<![CDATA[Carriers of Loss-of-Function Mutations in EXT Display Impaired Pancreatic Beta-Cell Reserve Due to Smaller Pancreas Volume]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da38ab0ee8fa60b86d1f

Exotosin (EXT) proteins are involved in the chain elongation step of heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis, which is intricately involved in organ development. Loss of function mutations (LOF) in EXT1 and EXT2 result in hereditary exostoses (HME). Interestingly, HS plays a role in pancreas development and beta-cell function, and genetic variations in EXT2 are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that loss of function of EXT1 or EXT2 in subjects with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) affects pancreatic insulin secretion capacity and development. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by hyperglycemic clamps to investigate first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in HME patients and age and gender matched non-affected relatives. Pancreas volume was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OGTT did not reveal significant differences in glucose disposal, but there was a markedly lower GSIS in HME subjects during hyperglycemic clamp (iAUC HME: 0.72 [0.46–1.16] vs. controls 1.53 [0.69–3.36] nmol·l−1·min−1, p<0.05). Maximal insulin response following arginine challenge was also significantly attenuated (iAUC HME: 7.14 [4.22–10.5] vs. controls 10.2 [7.91–12.70] nmol·l−1·min−1 p<0.05), indicative of an impaired beta-cell reserve. MRI revealed a significantly smaller pancreatic volume in HME subjects (HME: 72.0±15.8 vs. controls 96.5±26.0 cm3 p = 0.04). In conclusion, loss of function of EXT proteins may affect beta-cell mass and insulin secretion capacity in humans, and render subjects at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes when exposed to environmental risk factors.

]]>
<![CDATA[Rosuvastatin Treatment Affects Both Basal and Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion in INS-1 832/13 Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db37ab0ee8fa60bd3994

Rosuvastatin is a member of the statin family. Like the other statins it is prescribed to lower cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Rosuvastatin lowers the cholesterol levels by inhibiting the key enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) in the cholesterol producing mevalonate pathway. It has been recognized that apart from their beneficial lipid lowering effects, statins also exhibit diabetogenic properties. The molecular mechanisms behind these remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin secretion, we treated INS-1 832/13 cells with varying doses (20 nM to 20 μM) of rosuvastatin for 48 h. At concentrations of 2 μM and above basal insulin secretion was significantly increased. Using diazoxide we could determine that rosuvastatin did not increase basal insulin secretion by corrupting the KATP channels. Glucose-induced insulin secretion on the other hand seemed to be affected differently at different rosuvastatin concentrations. Rosuvastatin treatment (20 μM) for 24–48 h inhibited voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which lead to reduced depolarization-induced exocytosis of insulin-containing granules. At lower concentrations of rosuvastatin (≤ 2 μM) the stimulus-secretion coupling pathway was intact downstream of the KATP channels as assessed by the patch clamp technique. However, a reduction in glucose-induced insulin secretion could be observed with rosuvastatin concentrations as low as 200 nM. The inhibitory effects of rosuvastatin on glucose-induced insulin secretion could be reversed with mevalonate, but not squalene, indicating that rosuvastatin affects insulin secretion through its effects on the mevalonate pathway, but not through the reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that rosuvastatin has the potential to increase basal insulin secretion and reduce glucose-induced insulin secretion. The latter is possibly an unavoidable side effect of rosuvastatin treatment as it occurs through the same mechanisms as the lipid-lowering effects of the drug.

]]>
<![CDATA[Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Rather than Body-Mass-Index Determines Fasting and Post-Glucose-Load Growth Hormone Concentrations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db45ab0ee8fa60bd8516

Background

Obese, non-acromegalic persons show lower growth hormone (GH) concentrations at fasting and reduced GH nadir during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, this finding has never been studied with regard to whole-body insulin-sensitivity as a possible regulator.

Methods

In this retrospective analysis, non-acromegalic (NonACRO, n = 161) and acromegalic (ACRO, n = 35), non-diabetic subjects were subdivided into insulin-sensitive (IS) and –resistant (IR) groups according to the Clamp-like Index (CLIX)-threshold of 5 mg·kg−1·min−1 from the OGTT.

Results

Non-acromegalic IS (CLIX: 8.8±0.4 mg·kg−1·min−1) persons with similar age and sex distribution, but lower (p<0.001) body-mass-index (BMI = 25±0 kg/m2, 84% females, 56±1 years) had 59% and 70%, respectively, higher (p<0.03) fasting GH and OGTT GH area under the curve concentrations than IR (CLIX: 3.5±0.1 mg·kg−1·min−1, p<0.001) subjects (BMI = 29±1 kg/m2, 73% females, 58±1 years). When comparing on average overweight non-acromegalic IS and IR with similar anthropometry (IS: BMI: 27±0 kg/m2, 82% females, 58±2 years; IR: BMI: 27±0 kg/m2, 71% females, 60±1 years), but different CLIX (IS: 8.7±0.9 vs. IR: 3.8±0.1 mg·kg−1·min−1, p<0.001), the results remained almost the same. In addition, when adjusted for OGTT-mediated glucose rise, GH fall was less pronounced in IR. In contrast, in acromegalic subjects, no difference was found between IS and IR patients with regard to fasting and post-glucose-load GH concentrations.

Conclusions

Circulating GH concentrations at fasting and during the OGTT are lower in non-acromegalic insulin-resistant subjects. This study seems the first to demonstrate that insulin sensitivity rather than body-mass modulates fasting and post-glucose-load GH concentrations in non-diabetic non–acromegalic subjects.

]]>
<![CDATA[BET Bromodomain Proteins Brd2, Brd3 and Brd4 Selectively Regulate Metabolic Pathways in the Pancreatic β-Cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad4ab0ee8fa60bb74f0

Displacement of Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) proteins from chromatin has promise for cancer and inflammatory disease treatments, but roles of BET proteins in metabolic disease remain unexplored. Small molecule BET inhibitors, such as JQ1, block BET protein binding to acetylated lysines, but lack selectivity within the BET family (Brd2, Brd3, Brd4, Brdt), making it difficult to disentangle contributions of each family member to transcriptional and cellular outcomes. Here, we demonstrate multiple improvements in pancreatic β-cells upon BET inhibition with JQ1 or BET-specific siRNAs. JQ1 (50–400 nM) increases insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a concentration dependent manner. JQ1 increases insulin content in INS-1 cells, accounting for increased secretion, in both rat and human islets. Higher concentrations of JQ1 decrease intracellular triglyceride stores in INS-1 cells, a result of increased fatty acid oxidation. Specific inhibition of both Brd2 and Brd4 enhances insulin transcription, leading to increased insulin content. Inhibition of Brd2 alone increases fatty acid oxidation. Overlapping yet discrete roles for individual BET proteins in metabolic regulation suggest new isoform-selective BET inhibitors may be useful to treat insulin resistant/diabetic patients. Results imply that cancer and diseases of chronic inflammation or disordered metabolism are related through shared chromatin regulatory mechanisms.

]]>