ResearchPad - integrative-systems https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Arousal State-Dependent Alterations in VTA-GABAergic Neuronal Activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8070 Decades of research have implicated the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in motivation, learning and reward processing. We and others recently demonstrated that it also serves as an important node in sleep/wake regulation. Specifically, VTA-dopaminergic neuron activation is sufficient to drive wakefulness and necessary for the maintenance of wakefulness. However, the role of VTA-GABAergic neurons in arousal regulation is not fully understood. It is still unclear whether VTA-GABAergic neurons predictably alter their activity across arousal states, what is the nature of interactions between VTA-GABAergic activity and cortical oscillations, and how activity in VTA-GABAergic neurons relates to VTA-dopaminergic neurons in the context of sleep/wake regulation. To address these, we simultaneously recorded population activity from VTA subpopulations and electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) signals during spontaneous sleep/wake states and in the presence of salient stimuli in freely-behaving mice. We found that VTA-GABAergic neurons exhibit robust arousal-state-dependent alterations in population activity, with high activity and transients during wakefulness and REM sleep. During wakefulness, population activity of VTA-GABAergic neurons, but not VTA-dopaminergic neurons, was positively correlated with EEG γ power and negatively correlated with θ power. During NREM sleep, population activity in both VTA-GABAergic and VTA-dopaminergic neurons negatively correlated with δ, θ, and σ power bands. Salient stimuli, with both positive and negative valence, activated VTA-GABAergic neurons. Together, our data indicate that VTA-GABAergic neurons, like their dopaminergic counterparts, drastically alter their activity across sleep-wake states. Changes in their activity predicts cortical oscillatory patterns reflected in the EEG, which are distinct from EEG spectra associated with dopaminergic neural activity.

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<![CDATA[Synchronization of Sensory Gamma Oscillations Promotes Multisensory Communication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne93998eb-2f8e-424f-99d1-1825b8829504

Abstract

Rhythmic neuronal activity in the gamma range is a signature of cortical processing and its synchronization across distant sites has been proposed as a fundamental mechanism of network interactions. While this has been shown within sensory streams, we tested whether cross talk between the senses relies on similar mechanisms. Direct sensory interactions in humans (male and female) were studied with a visual–tactile amplitude matching paradigm. In this task, congruent stimuli are associated with behavioral benefits, which are proposed to be mediated by increased binding between sensory cortices through coherent gamma oscillations. We tested this hypothesis by applying 4-in-1 multi-electrode transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with 40 Hz over visual and somatosensory cortices. In phase stimulation (0°) was expected to strengthen binding and thereby enhance the congruence effect, while anti-phase (180°) stimulation was expected to have opposite effects. Gamma tACS was controlled by alpha (10 Hz) and sham stimulation, as well as by applying tACS unilaterally while visual–tactile stimuli were presented lateralized. Contrary to our expectations, gamma tACS over the relevant hemisphere delayed responses to congruent trials. Additionally, reanalysis of EEG data revealed decoupling of sensory gamma oscillations during congruent trials. We propose that gamma tACS prevented sensory decoupling and thereby limited the congruence effect. Together, our results favor the perspective that processing multisensory congruence involves corticocortical communication rather than feature binding. Furthermore, we found control stimulation over the irrelevant hemisphere to speed responses under alpha stimulation and to delay responses under gamma stimulation, consistent with the idea that contralateral alpha/gamma dynamics regulate cortical excitability.

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<![CDATA[Charge-Balanced Electrical Stimulation Can Modulate Neural Precursor Cell Migration in the Presence of Endogenous Electric Fields in Mouse Brains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbddecc0c-ed5f-4413-8ae5-4050a029bb8d

Abstract

Electric fields (EFs) can direct cell migration and are crucial during development and tissue repair. We previously reported neural precursor cells (NPCs) are electrosensitive cells that can undergo rapid and directed migration towards the cathode using charge-balanced electrical stimulation in vitro. Here, we investigate the ability of electrical stimulation to direct neural precursor migration in mouse brains in vivo. To visualize migration, fluorescent adult murine neural precursors were transplanted onto the corpus callosum of adult male mice and intracortical platinum wire electrodes were implanted medial (cathode) and lateral (anode) to the injection site. We applied a charge-balanced biphasic monopolar stimulation waveform for three sessions per day, for 3 or 6 d. Irrespective of stimulation, the transplanted neural precursors had a propensity to migrate laterally along the corpus callosum, and applied stimulation affected that migration. Further investigation revealed an endogenous EF along the corpus callosum that correlated with the lateral migration, suggesting that the applied EF would need to overcome endogenous cues. There was no difference in transplanted cell differentiation and proliferation, or inflammatory cell numbers near the electrode leads and injection site comparing stimulated and implanted non-stimulated brains. Our results support that endogenous and applied EFs are important considerations for designing cell therapies for tissue repair in vivo.

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<![CDATA[GLP-1R Signaling Directly Activates Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Action in Brain Slices but Does not Rescue Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition in Ovariectomized Mice During Negative Energy Balance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bd41311d5eed0c4847cb377

Abstract

Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) are key components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). ARC Kiss1 action is dependent on energy status, and unmasking metabolic factors responsible for modulating ARC Kiss1 neurons is of great importance. One possible factor is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an anorexigenic neuropeptide produced by brainstem preproglucagon neurons. Because GLP fiber projections and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) are abundant in the ARC, we hypothesized that GLP-1R signaling could modulate ARC Kiss1 action. Using ovariectomized mice, we found that GLP-producing fibers come in close apposition with ARC Kiss1 neurons; these neurons also contain Glp1r mRNA. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1R agonist) increased action potential firing and caused a direct membrane depolarization of ARC Kiss1 cells in brain slices. We determined that brainstem preproglucagon mRNA is decreased after a 48-h fast in mice, a negative energy state in which ARC Kiss1 expression and downstream GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) release are potently suppressed. However, activation of GLP-1R signaling in fasted mice with liraglutide was not sufficient to prevent LH inhibition. Furthermore, chronic central infusions of the GLP-1R antagonist, exendin(9–39), in ad libitum–fed mice did not alter ARC Kiss1 mRNA or plasma LH. As a whole, these data identify a novel interaction of the GLP-1 system with ARC Kiss1 neurons but indicate that CNS GLP-1R signaling alone is not critical for the maintenance of LH during fasting or normal feeding.

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<![CDATA[GABA Receptors on Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons Are Differentially Homeostatically Regulated Following Sleep Deprivation123]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afe7420463d7e161413cc46

Abstract

Though overlapping in distribution through the hypothalamus, orexin (Orx) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons play opposite roles in the regulation of sleep–wake states. Orx neurons discharge during waking, whereas MCH neurons discharge during sleep. In the present study, we examined in mice whether GABAA and GABAB receptors (Rs) are present on Orx and MCH neurons and might undergo differential changes as a function of their different activities following sleep deprivation (SD) and sleep recovery (SR). Applying quantitative stereological image analysis to dual-immunofluorescent stained sections, we determined that the proportion of Orx neurons positively immunostained for GABAARs was significantly higher following SD (∼48%) compared with sleep control (SC; ∼24%) and SR (∼27%), and that the luminance of the GABAARs was significantly greater. In contrast, the average proportion of the MCH neurons immunostained for GABAARs was insignificantly lower following SD (∼43%) compared with SC (∼54%) and SR (56%), and the luminance of the GABAARs was significantly less. Although, GABABRs were observed in all Orx and MCH neurons (100%), the luminance of these receptors was differentially altered following SD. The intensity of GABABRs in the Orx neurons was significantly greater after SD than after SC and SR, whereas that in the MCH neurons was significantly less. The present results indicate that GABA receptors undergo dynamic and differential changes in the wake-active Orx neurons and the sleep-active MCH neurons as a function of and homeostatic adjustment to their preceding activity and sleep–wake state.

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<![CDATA[Reduced Orexin System Function Contributes to Resilience to Repeated Social Stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5892d4463d7e4bbcb756ec

Abstract

Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD. The present experiments used a rodent social defeat model that generates actively coping rats and passively coping rats, which we have previously shown exhibit resilient and vulnerable profiles, respectively, to examine if orexins play a role in these stress-induced phenotypes. In situ radiolabeling and qPCR revealed that actively coping rats expressed significantly lower prepro-orexin mRNA compared with passively coping rats. This led to the hypothesis that lower levels of orexins contribute to resilience to repeated social stress. To test this hypothesis, rats first underwent 5 d of social defeat to establish active and passive coping phenotypes. Then, orexin neurons were inhibited before each social defeat for three additional days using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Inhibition of orexins increased social interaction behavior and decreased depressive-like behavior in the vulnerable population of rats. Indeed, these data suggest that lowering orexins promoted resilience to social defeat and may be an important target for treatment of stress-related disorders.

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