ResearchPad - intensive-care-units https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7662 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an evolving infectious disease that dramatically spread all over the world in the early part of 2020. No studies have yet summarized the potential severity and mortality risks caused by COVID-19 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and we update information in smokers.MethodsWe systematically searched electronic databases from inception to March 24, 2020. Data were extracted by two independent authors in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Study quality was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We synthesized a narrative from eligible studies and conducted a meta-analysis using a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI).ResultsIn total, 123 abstracts were screened and 61 full-text manuscripts were reviewed. A total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria, which included a total of 2473 confirmed COVID-19 patients. All studies were included in the meta-analysis. The crude case fatality rate of COVID-19 was 7.4%. The pooled prevalence rates of COPD patients and smokers in COVID-19 cases were 2% (95% CI, 1%–3%) and 9% (95% CI, 4%–14%) respectively. COPD patients were at a higher risk of more severe disease (risk of severity = 63%, (22/35) compared to patients without COPD 33.4% (409/1224) [calculated RR, 1.88 (95% CI, 1.4–2.4)]. This was associated with higher mortality (60%). Our results showed that 22% (31/139) of current smokers and 46% (13/28) of ex-smokers had severe complications. The calculated RR showed that current smokers were 1.45 times more likely [95% CI: 1.03–2.04] to have severe complications compared to former and never smokers. Current smokers also had a higher mortality rate of 38.5%.ConclusionAlthough COPD prevalence in COVID-19 cases was low in current reports, COVID-19 infection was associated with substantial severity and mortality rates in COPD. Compared to former and never smokers, current smokers were at greater risk of severe complications and higher mortality rate. Effective preventive measures are required to reduce COVID-19 risk in COPD patients and current smokers. ]]> <![CDATA[Long-term outcomes after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury: A cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c92b361d5eed0c4843a3f31

Background

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term outcomes of adult patients with AKI who receive ECMO.

Materials and methods

The study analyzed encrypted datasets from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. The data of 3251 patients who received first-time ECMO treatment between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013, were analyzed. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients who required dialysis for AKI (D-AKI) and those who did not in order to evaluate the impact of D-AKI on long-term mortality and major adverse kidney events.

Results

Of the 3251 patients, 54.1% had D-AKI. Compared with the patients without D-AKI, those with D-AKI had higher rates of all-cause mortality (52.3% vs. 33.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53–2.17), chronic kidney disease (13.7% vs. 8.1%; adjusted subdistribution HR [aSHR] 1.66, 95% CI 1.16–2.38), and end-stage renal disease (5.2% vs. 0.5%; aSHR 14.28, 95% CI 4.67–43.62). The long-term mortality of patients who survived more than 90 days after discharge was 22.0% (153/695), 32.3% (91/282), and 50.0% (10/20) in the patients without D-AKI, with recovery D-AKI, and with nonrecovery D-AKI who required long-term dialysis, respectively, demonstrating a significant trend (Pfor trend <0.001).

Conclusion

AKI is associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and major adverse kidney events in adult patients who receive ECMO.

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<![CDATA[Effect of moderate elevated intra-abdominal pressure on lung mechanics and histological lung injury at different positive end-expiratory pressures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nccafa6f6-e83a-4af1-be67-e451f21e0145

Introduction

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a well-known phenomenon in critically ill patients. Effects of a moderately elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on lung mechanics are still not fully analyzed. Moreover, the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in elevated IAP is unclear.

Methods

We investigated changes in lung mechanics and transformation in histological lung patterns using three different PEEP levels in eighteen deeply anesthetized pigs with an IAP of 10 mmHg. After establishing the intra-abdominal pressure, we randomized the animals into 3 groups. Each of n = 6 (Group A = PEEP 5, B = PEEP 10 and C = PEEP 15 cmH2O). End-expiratory lung volume (EELV/kg body weight (bw)), pulmonary compliance (Cstat), driving pressure (ΔP) and transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL) were measured for 6 hours. Additionally, the histological lung injury score was calculated.

Results

Comparing hours 0 and 6 in group A, there was a decrease of EELV/kg (27±2 vs. 16±1 ml/kg; p<0.05) and of Cstat (42±2 vs. 27±1 ml/cmH2O; p<0.05) and an increase of ΔP (11±0 vs. 17±1 cmH2O; p<0.05) and ΔPL (6±0 vs. 10±1 cmH2O; p<0.05). In group B, there was no significant change in EELV/kg (27±3 vs. 24±3 ml/kg), but a decrease in Cstat (42±3 vs. 32±1 ml/cmH20; p<0.05) and an increase in ΔP (11±1 vs. 15±1 cmH2O; p<0.05) and ΔPL (5±1 vs. 7±0 cmH2O; p<0.05). In group C, there were no significant changes in EELV/kg (27±2 vs. 29±3 ml/kg), ΔP (10±1 vs. 12±1 cmH2O) and ΔPL (5±1 vs. 7±1 cmH2O), but a significant decrease of Cstat (43±1 vs. 37±1 ml/cmH2O; p<0.05). Histological lung injury score was lowest in group B.

Conclusions

A moderate elevated IAP of 10 mmHg leads to relevant changes in lung mechanics during mechanical ventilation. In our study, a PEEP of 10 cmH2O was associated with a lower lung injury score and was able to overcome the IAP induced alterations of EELV.

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<![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

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<![CDATA[Association between sublingual microcirculation, tissue perfusion and organ failure in major trauma: A subgroup analysis of a prospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823c2d5eed0c484638f67

Introduction

Previous studies described impaired microvascular perfusion and tissue oxygenation as reliable predictors of Multiple Organ Failure in major trauma. However, this relationship has been incompletely investigated. The objective of this analysis is to further evaluate the association between organ dysfunction and microcirculation after trauma.

Materials and methods

This is a retrospective subgroup analysis on 28 trauma patients enrolled for the Microcirculation DAIly MONitoring in critically ill patients study (NCT 02649088). Patients were divided in two groups according with their Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score at day 4. At admission and every 24 hours, the sublingual microcirculation was evaluated with Sidestream Darkfield Imaging (SDF) and peripheral tissue perfusion was assessed with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Vascular Occlusion Test (VOT). Simultaneously, hemodynamic, clinical/laboratory parameters and main organ supports were collected.

Results

Median SOFA score at Day 4 was 6.5. Accordingly, patients were divided in two groups: D4-SOFA ≤6.5 and D4-SOFA >6.5. The Length of Stay in Intensive Care was significantly higher in patients with D4-SOFA>6.5 compared to D4-SOFA≤6.5 (p = 0.013). Total Vessel Density of small vessels was significantly lower in patients with high D4-SOFA score at Day 1 (p = 0.002) and Day 2 (p = 0.006) after admission; the Perfused Vessel Density was lower in patients with high D4-SOFA score at Day 1 (p = 0.007) and Day 2 (p = 0.033). At Day 1, NIRS monitoring with VOT showed significantly faster tissue oxygen saturation downslope (p = 0.018) and slower upslope (p = 0.04) in patients with high D4-SOFA.

Discussion

In our cohort of major traumas, sublingual microcirculation and peripheral microvascular reactivity were significantly more impaired early after trauma in those patients who developed more severe organ dysfunctions. Our data would support the hypothesis that restoration of macrocirculation can be dissociated from restoration of peripheral and tissue perfusion, and that microvascular alterations can be associated with organ failure.

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<![CDATA[Intra-hospital transport of critically ill patients with rapid response team and risk factors for cardiopulmonary arrest: A retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823c5d5eed0c484638fbe

Introduction

This study aimed to determine the occurrence rate and risk factors of cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) during intra-hospital transport (IHT) among critically ill patients, accompanied by a rapid response team (RRT).

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study in a 1300-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital. Data of all admitted patients transported within the hospital and accompanied by the RRT from October 2012 to May 2016 were included. We compared patients with CPA (+) and patients without CPA (-) to identify risk factors for CPA during transport.

Results

Among 535 patients, CPA occurred in eight (1.5%) patients during IHT. There were no significant differences in age, sex, and comorbidities between groups. More patients in the CPA (+) group than in the CPA (-) group received manual ventilation during IHT (75% vs. 23.0%, p = 0.001). An increased risk of CPA (p<0.001) corresponded with a higher number of vasopressors used during IHT. In univariate logistic regression analysis, history of myocardial infarction (OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.4–50.5, p = 0.005), manual ventilation (OR 10.1, 95% CI 2.0–50.5, p = 0.005), and use of three or more vasopressors (OR 11.1, 95% CI 2.5–48.9, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with risk of CPA during RRT-led IHT.

Conclusions

Despite accompaniment by a specialized team such as the RRT, CPA can occur during IHT. History of myocardial infarction, manual ventilation with bag-valve mask, and the use of three or more vasopressors were independent risk factors of CPA during IHT of critically ill patients accompanied by the RRT.

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<![CDATA[Arterial carboxyhaemoglobin levels in children admitted to PICU: A retrospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accf2d5eed0c4849903c7

While carbon monoxide (CO) is considered toxic, low levels of endogenously produced CO are protective against cellular injury induced by oxidative stress. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels have been associated with outcomes in critically ill adults. We aimed to describe the distribution of carboxyhaemoglobin in critically ill children and the relationship of these levels with clinical outcomes. This retrospective observational study was conducted at a large tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We included all children admitted to the PICU over a two-year period who underwent arterial blood gas analysis. We measured the following: (i) Population and age-related differences in COHb distribution; (ii) Change in COHb over the first week of admission using a multi-level linear regression analysis; (iii) Uni- and multivariable relationships between COHb and length of ventilation and PICU survival. Arterial COHb levels were available for 559/2029 admissions. The median COHb level was 1.20% (IQR 1.00–1.60%). Younger children had significantly higher COHb levels (p-value <2 x 10−16). Maximum Carboxyhaemoglobin was associated with survival 1.67 (95% CI: 1.01–2.57; p-value = 0.02) and length of ventilation (OR 5.20, 95% CI: 3.07–7.30; p-value = 1.8 x 10−6) following multi-variable analysis. First measured and minimum COHb values were weakly associated with length of ventilation, but not survival. In conclusion, children have increased COHb levels in critical illness, which are greater in younger children. Higher COHb levels are associated with longer length of ventilation and death in PICU. This may reflect increased oxidative stress in these children.

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<![CDATA[Effect of intensivist involvement on clinical outcomes in patients with advanced lung cancer admitted to the intensive care unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9fbd5eed0c48452a658

Purpose

Intensive care unit (ICU)-related mortality for lung cancer is ranked highest among the solid tumors and little information exists on the role of intensivists on clinical outcomes. This study aimed to elucidate the intensivist’s contribution toward clinical outcomes.

Materials and methods

Data of advanced lung cancer patients, including stage IIIB or IV non-small cell lung cancer and extensive-stage small cell lung cancer, admitted to the ICU from 2005 to 2016 were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine variables associated with ICU and in-hospital mortality. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) for time-series was used to assess the intensivist’s impact.

Results

Of 264 patients, 85 (32.2%) were admitted to the ICU before and 179 (67.8%) after organized intensive care introduction in 2011. Before and after 2011, the changes observed were as follows: ICU mortality rate, 43.5% to 40.2%, respectively (p = 0.610); hospital mortality rate, 82.4% to 65. 9% (p = 0.006). The duration of ICU and hospital stay decreased after 2011 (14.5±16.5 vs. 8.3 ± 8.6, p < 0.001; 36.6 ± 37.2 vs. 22.0 ± 19.6, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, admission after 2011 was independently associated with decreased hospital mortality (Odds ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.21–0.77, p = 0.006). In ARIMA models, intensivist involvement was associated with significantly reduced hospital mortality. (Estimate -17.95, standard error 5.31, p = 0.001)

Conclusion

In patients with advanced lung cancer, organized intensive care could contribute to improved clinical outcomes.

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<![CDATA[An attention based deep learning model of clinical events in the intensive care unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca08d5eed0c48452a6e2

This study trained long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) incorporating an attention mechanism to predict daily sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI), and vancomycin antibiotic administration over two week patient ICU courses in the MIMIC-III dataset. These models achieved next-day predictive AUC of 0.876 for sepsis, 0.823 for MI, and 0.833 for vancomycin administration. Attention maps built from these models highlighted those times when input variables most influenced predictions and could provide a degree of interpretability to clinicians. These models appeared to attend to variables that were proxies for clinician decision-making, demonstrating a challenge of using flexible deep learning approaches trained with EHR data to build clinical decision support. While continued development and refinement is needed, we believe that such models could one day prove useful in reducing information overload for ICU physicians by providing needed clinical decision support for a variety of clinically important tasks.

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<![CDATA[The successful containment of a hospital outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 using active surveillance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9abd5eed0c484529fbf

The worldwide dissemination of high-risk carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones has become a major threat to healthcare facilities. This study describes the successful containment of a hospital outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae Sequence Type (ST) 307 using active surveillance. The outbreak began when a patient was transferred from a local hospital. After 48 hours in our hospital, a tracheal aspirate was positive for a meropenem resistant and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae. All patients in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) and the neurology wards were subject to contact precautions. The hospital surfaces and devices, healthcare workers, and patients from these wards were screened by cultures. Fecal swabs were placed into broth and PCR for blaKPC, blaOXA-48, blaIMP, blaVIM, and blaNDM, which were performed directly from the broth after 12 hours. PCRs were also performed on DNA extracted from carbapenemase-producing species from subcultured broths. Five and nine days later, two more patients’ rectal swabs tested positive. Molecular assays identified K. pneumoniae blaNDM-1 onto a 130-kb conjugative plasmid (IncY, IncFIIs, and IncFIIY), ST307. After the three patients were discharged, monitoring continued, and after three weeks with negative results, rectal swabbing ended. In conclusion, it was possible to contain a hospital outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST307 through epidemiological and microbiological surveillance. With the methodology used, the detection of NDM-type genes in fecal samples was obtained in approximately 15 hours after obtaining the fecal sample.

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<![CDATA[Is there an association between consent rates in Swiss hospitals and critical care staffs' attitudes towards organ donation, their knowledge and confidence in the donation process?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6730d8d5eed0c484f38205

This study investigated the critical care staff’s attitude, knowledge and involvement with donation, skills and confidence with donation-related tasks and their association with consent rates at the hospital level. In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among critical care staff of hospitals involved in organ donation using an anonymous online questionnaire with a response rate of 56.4% (n = 2799). The hospital level consent rate was obtained from the Swiss Monitoring of Potential Donors database (2013–2015). For each hospital, we calculated a mean score for each predictor of interest of the Hospital Attitude Survey and investigated the association with hospital consent rates with generalized linear mixed-effect models. In univariable analysis, one score point increase in doctors' confidence resulted in a 66% (95% CI: 45%–80%) reduction in the odds to consent, and one score point increase in nurses' attitudes resulted in a 223% (95% CI: 84%–472%) increase in the odds to consent. After simultaneously adjusting for all major predictors found in the crude models, only levels of education of medical and nursing staff remained as significant predictors for hospital consent rates. In Switzerland, efforts are needed to increase consent rates for organ donation and should concentrate on continuous support as well as specific training of the hospital staff involved in the donation process.

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<![CDATA[Development of a risk prediction model (Hangang) and comparison with clinical severity scores in burn patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ce4d5eed0c484c81a27

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop a new prediction model to reflect the risk of mortality and severity of disease and to evaluate the ability of the developed model to predict mortality among adult burn patients.

Methods

This study included 2009 patients aged more than 18 years who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours after a burn. We divided the patients into two groups; those admitted from January 2007 to December 2013 were included in the derivation group and those admitted from January 2014 to September 2017 were included in the validation group. Shrinkage methods with 10-folds cross-validation were performed to identify variables and limit overfitting of the model. The discrimination was analyzed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve. The Brier score, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were also calculated. The calibration was analyzed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (HL test). The clinical usefulness was evaluated using a decision-curve analysis.

Results

The Hangang model showed good calibration with the HL test (χ2 = 8.785, p = 0.361); the highest AUC and the lowest Brier score were 0.943 and 0.068, respectively. The NRI and IDI were 0.124 (p-value = 0.003) and 0.079 (p-value <0.001) when compared with FLAMES, respectively.

Conclusions

This model reflects the current risk factors of mortality among adult burn patients. Furthermore, it was a highly discriminatory and well-calibrated model for the prediction of mortality in this cohort.

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<![CDATA[More than one in three proxies do not know their loved one’s current code status: An observational study in a Maryland ICU]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b5258d5eed0c4842bc6a8

Rationale

The majority of ICU patients lack decision-making capacity at some point during their ICU stay. However the extent to which proxy decision-makers are engaged in decisions about their patient’s care is challenging to quantify.

Objectives

To assess 1)whether proxies know their patient’s actual code status as recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and 2)whether code status orders reflect ICU patient preferences as reported by proxy decision-makers.

Methods

We enrolled proxy decision-makers for 96 days starting January 4, 2016. Proxies were asked about the patient’s goals of care, preferred code status, and actual code status. Responses were compared to code status orders in the EMR at the time of interview. Characteristics of patients and proxies who correctly vs incorrectly identified actual code status were compared, as were characteristics of proxies who reported a preferred code status that did vs did not match actual code status.

Measurements and main results

Among 111 proxies, 42 (38%) were incorrect or unsure about the patient’s actual code status and those who were correct vs. incorrect or unsure were similar in age, race, and years of education (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Twenty-nine percent reported a preferred code status that did not match the patient’s code status in the EMR. Matching preferred and actual code status was not associated with a patient’s age, gender, income, admission diagnosis, or subsequent in-hospital mortality or with proxy age, gender, race, education level, or relation to the patient (P>0.20 for all comparisons).

Conclusions

More than 1 in 3 proxies is incorrect or unsure about their patient’s actual code status and more than 1 in 4 proxies reported that a preferred code status that did not match orders in the EMR. Proxy age, race, gender and education level were not associated with correctly identifying code status or code status concordance.

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<![CDATA[Outcomes and challenges of a kidney transplant programme at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town: A South African perspective]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e6afd5eed0c484ef3b68

Introduction

Access to dialysis and transplantation in the developing world remains limited. Therefore, optimising renal allograft survival is essential. This study aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes and identify poor prognostic factors in the renal transplant programme at Groote Schuur Hospital [GSH], Cape Town.     

Method

Data were collected on all patients who underwent a kidney transplant at GSH from 1st July 2010 to the 30 June 2015. Analyses were performed to assess baseline characteristics, graft and patient survival, as well as predictors of poor outcome.    

Results

198 patients were transplanted. The mean age was 38 +/- 10.5 years, 127 (64.1%) were male, and 86 (43.4%) were of African ethnicity. Deceased donor organs were used for 130 (66.7%) patients and living donors for 65 (33.3%). There were > 5 HLA mismatches in 58.9% of transplants. Sepsis was the commonest cause of death and delayed graft function [DGF] occurred in 41 (21.4%) recipients. Patient survival was 90.4% at 1 year and 83.1% at 5 years. Graft survival was 89.4% at 1 year and 80.0% at 5 years. DGF (HR 2.83 (1.12–7.19), p value = 0.028) and recipient age > 40 years (HR 3.12 (1.26–7.77), p value = 0.014) were predictors of death.

Conclusion

Despite the high infectious burden, stratified immunosuppression and limited tissue typing this study reports encouraging results from a resource constrained transplant programme in South Africa. Renal transplantation is critical to improve access to treatment of end stage kidney disease where access to dialysis is limited.

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<![CDATA[The Copenhagen Triage Algorithm is non-inferior to a traditional triage algorithm: A cluster-randomized study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8bdd5eed0c48496f08e

Introduction

Triage systems with limited room for clinical judgment are used by emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. The Copenhagen Triage Algorithm (CTA) is a simplified triage system with a clinical assessment.

Methods

The trial was a non-inferiority, two-center cluster-randomized crossover study where CTA was compared to a local adaptation of Adaptive Process Triage (ADAPT). CTA involves initial categorization based on vital signs with a final modification based on clinical assessment by an ED nurse. We used 30-day mortality with a non-inferiority margin at 0.5%. Predictive performance was compared using Receiver Operator Characteristics.

Results

We included 45,347 patient visits, 23,158 (51%) and 22,189 (49%) were triaged with CTA and ADAPT respectively with a 30-day mortality of 3.42% and 3.43% (P = 0.996) a difference of 0.01% (95% CI: -0.34 to 0.33), which met the non-inferiority criteria. Mortality at 48 hours was 0.62% vs. 0.71%, (P = 0.26) and 6.38% vs. 6.61%, (P = 0.32) at 90 days for CTA and ADAPT. CTA triaged at significantly lower urgency level (P<0.001) and was superior in predicting 30-day mortality, Area under the curve: 0.67 (95% CI 0.65–0.69) compared to 0.64 for ADAPT (95% CI 0.62–0.66) (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in rate of admission to the intensive care unit, length of stay, waiting time nor rate of readmission within 30 or 90 days.

Conclusion

A novel triage system based on vital signs and a clinical assessment by an ED nurse was non-inferior to a traditional triage algorithm by short term mortality, and superior in predicting 30-day mortality.

Trial registration

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02698319

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<![CDATA[Association of statin therapy with clinical outcomes in patients with vasospastic angina: Data from Korean health insurance review and assessment service]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b523dd5eed0c4842bc526

There is conflicting evidence for the clinical benefit of statin therapy in patients with vasospastic angina (VSA). We investigated the association of statin therapy with clinical outcomes in relatively large populations with clinically suspected VSA from a nationwide population-based database. Data were collected from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment database records of 4,099 patients that were in an intensive care unit with VSA between January 1, 2008 and May 31, 2015. We divided the patients into a statin group (n = 1,795) and a non-statin group (n = 2,304). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiac arrest and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The median follow-up duration was 3.8 years (interquartile range: 2.2 to 5.8 years). Cardiac arrest or AMI occurred in 120 patients (5.2%) in the statin group, and 97 patients (5.4%) in the non-statin group (P = 0.976). With inverse probability of treatment weighting, there was no significant difference in the rate of cardiac arrest or AMI between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76–1.30; P = 0.937), or even between the non-statin group and high-intensity statin group (adjusted HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.69–1.70; P = 0.75). The beneficial association of statin use with the primary outcome was consistently lacking across the various comorbidity types. Statin therapy was not associated with reduced cardiac arrest or AMI in patients with VSA, regardless of statin intensity. Prospective, randomized trials will be needed to confirm our findings.

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<![CDATA[A model based on intensity of medical care may improve outcomes for internal medicine patients in Italy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2a1d5eed0c48441e7b2

Background

In medical wards, to guarantee safe, sustainable and effective treatments to heterogeneous and complex patients, care should be graduated into different levels of clinical intensity based on a standardised assessment of acute-illness severity. To support this assumption, we conducted a prospective observational study on all unselected admissions of 3,381 patients to a medium size internal Italian Medicine Unit by comparing Standard Medical Care model (SMC) to a new paradigm of patient admission based on Intensity of Medical Care (IMC).

Methods

The SMC operated during 2013, while an IMC organizational model started in 2014. In SMC, patient’s admission was performed according to bed availability only. In IMC, after the stratification of clinical instability performed using the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and clinical judgment, patients were allocated to three different ward areas (high, middle, and post-acute medical care). We compared clinical and organizational outcomes of IMC patients (2015) to SMC patients (2013), performing adjusted logistic regression model.

Results

We managed 1,609 and 1,772 patients using SMC and IMC, respectively. The IMC seemed to be associated to a lower risk of clinical worsening for patients. Comparing IMC to SMC, the odds ratio (aOR) for urgent transfers to intensive care units was 0.69 (p = 0.03), and for combination of urgent transfers and early deaths was 0.68 (p<0.01).

Conclusions

Redesigning the configuration of internal medicine ward to support urgency and competency of the clinical response by applying IMC paradigm based on the NEWS, improved outcomes in patients with acute illness and enhanced ward performances.

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<![CDATA[Decreased total iron binding capacity upon intensive care unit admission predicts red blood cell transfusion in critically ill patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521820d5eed0c484797475

Introduction

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with poor clinical outcome in critically ill patients. We investigated the predictive value of biomarkers on intensive care units (ICU) admission for RBC transfusion within 28 days.

Methods

Critically ill patients (n = 175) who admitted to our ICU with organ dysfunction and an expected stay of ≥ 48 hours, without hemorrhage, were prospectively studied (derivation cohort, n = 121; validation cohort, n = 54). Serum levels of 12 biomarkers (hemoglobin, creatinine, albumin, interleukin-6 [IL-6], erythropoietin, Fe, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], transferrin, ferritin, transferrin saturation, folate, and vitamin B12) were measured upon ICU admission, days 7, 14, 21 and 28.

Results

Among the 12 biomarkers measured upon ICU admission, levels of hemoglobin, albumin, IL-6, TIBC, transferrin and ferritin were statistically different between transfusion and non-transfusion group. Of 6 biomarkers, TIBC upon ICU admission had the highest area under the curve value (0.835 [95% confidence interval] = 0.765–0.906) for predicting RBC transfusion (cut-off value = 234.5 μg/dL; sensitivity = 0.906, specificity = 0.632). This result was confirmed in validation cohort, whose sensitivity and specificity were 0.888 and 0.694, respectively. Measurement of these biomarkers every seven days revealed that albumin, TIBC and transferrin were statistically different between groups throughout hospitalization until 28 days. In validation cohort, patients in the transfusion group had significantly higher serum hepcidin levels than those in the non-transfusion group (P = 0.004). In addition, joint analysis across derivation and validation cohorts revealed that the serum IL-6 levels were higher in the transfusion group (P = 0.0014).

Conclusion

Decreased TIBC upon ICU admission has high predictive value for RBC transfusion unrelated to hemorrhage within 28 days.

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<![CDATA[Microbial contamination and tissue procurement location: A conventional operating room is not mandatory. An observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f47d5eed0c484d73ac0

Background

Standard operating rooms (SOR) are assumed to be the best place to prevent microbial contamination when performing tissue procurement. However, mobilizing an operating room is time and cost consuming if no organ retrieval is performed. In such case, non-operating dedicated rooms (NODR) are usually recommended by European guidelines for tissue harvesting. Performing the tissue retrieval in the Intensive care unit (ICU) when possible might be considered as it allows a faster and simpler procedure.

Objective

Our primary objective was to study the relationship between the risk of microbial contamination and the location (ICU, SOR or NODR) of the tissue retrieval in heart-beating and non-heart-beating deceased donors.

Materials and method

We retrospectively reviewed all deceased donors’ files of the local tissue banks of Montpellier and Marseille from January 2007 to December 2014. The primary endpoint was the microbial contamination of the grafts. We built a multivariate regression model and used a GEE (generalized estimating equations) allowing us to take into account the clustered structure of our data.

Results

2535 cases were analyzed involving 1027 donors. The retrieval took place for 1189 in a SOR, for 996 in a hospital mortuary (NODR) and for 350 in an ICU. 285 (11%) microbial contaminations were revealed. The multivariate analysis found that the location in a hospital mortuary was associated with a lower risk of contamination (OR 0.43, 95% CI [0.2–0.91], p = 0.03). A procurement performed in the ICU was not associated with a significant increased risk (OR 0.62, 95% CI [0.26–1.48], p = 0.4).

Conclusion

According to our results, performing tissue procurement in dedicated non-sterile rooms could decrease the rate of allograft tissue contamination. This study also suggests that in daily clinical practice, transferring patients from ICU to SOR for tissue procurement could be avoided as it does not lead to less microbial contamination.

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<![CDATA[Permissive underfeeding, cytokine profiles and outcomes in critically ill patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d017cd5eed0c48403bceb

Background

During critical illness in humans, the effects of caloric restriction on the inflammatory response are not well understood. The aim of this study is to examine the associations of caloric restriction, inflammatory response profiles and outcomes in critically ill patients.

Methods

This is a sub-study of the PermiT trial (Permissive Underfeeding or Standard Enteral Feeding in Critically Ill Adults Trial- ISRCTN68144998). Serum samples were collected on study days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 and analyzed for a panel of 29 cytokines. We used principal component analysis to convert possibly correlated variables (cytokine levels) into a limited number of linearly uncorrelated variables (principal components). We constructed repeated measures mixed linear models to assess whether permissive underfeeding compared to standard feeding was associated with difference cytokine levels over time.

Results

A total of 72 critically ill patients were enrolled in this study (permissive underfeeding n = 36 and standard feeding n = 36). Principal component analysis identified 6 components that were responsible for 78% of the total variance. When adjusted to principal components, permissive underfeeding was not associated with 90-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 0.44, 6.95, p = 0.43) or with incident renal replacement therapy. The cytokines did not differ with time between permissive underfeeding and standard feeding groups.

Conclusions

The association of permissive underfeeding compared to standard feeding with mortality was not influenced by the inflammatory profile. Permissive underfeeding compared to standard feeding was not associated with differences in the serum levels of cytokines in critically ill patients.

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