ResearchPad - interleukins https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1, IL12, IL28 and TLR4 and symptoms of congenital cytomegalovirus infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15749 Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection. A non-specific immune response is the first line of host defense mechanism against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). There is limited data on associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involving innate immunity and the risk and clinical manifestation of cCMV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate association between selected SNPs in genes encoding cytokines and cytokine receptors, and predisposition to cCMV infection including symptomatic course of disease and symptoms. A panel of eight SNPs: IL1B rs16944, IL12B rs3212227, IL28B rs12979860, CCL2 rs1024611, DC-SIGN rs735240, TLR2 rs5743708, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352140 was analyzed in 233 infants (92 cCMV-infected and 141 healthy controls). Associations between genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptoms were analyzed. The association analysis was performed using SNPStats software. No statistically significant association was found between any genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptomatic course of disease. In relation to particular symptoms, polymorphism of IL12B rs3212227 was linked to decreased risk of prematurity (OR = 0.37;95%CI,0.14–0.98;p = 0.025), while polymorphism of IL1B rs16944 was linked to reduced risk of splenomegaly (OR = 0.36;95%CI,0.14–0.98; p = 0.034) in infants with cCMV infection. An increased risk of thrombocytopenia was associated with IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism (OR = 2.55;95%CI,1.03–6.32;p = 0.042), while hepatitis was associated with SNP of TLR4rs4986791 (OR = 7.80;95%CI,1.49–40,81; p = 0.024). This is the first study to demonstrate four new associations between SNPs in selected genes (IL1B, IL12B, IL28B, TLR4) and particular symptoms in cCMV disease. Further studies on the role of SNPs in the pathogenesis of cCMV infection and incorporation of selected SNPs in the clinical practice might be considered in the future.

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<![CDATA[Cytokine secretion responsiveness of lymphomonocytes following cortisol cell exposure: Sex differences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b6945b8463d7e3867f4aca3

The stress hormone cortisol has been recognized as a coordinator of immune response. However, its different ability to modulate the release of inflammatory mediators in males and females has not been clarified yet. Indeed, the dissection of cortisol specific actions may be difficult due to the complex hormonal and physio-pathological individual status. Herein, the release of inflammatory mediators following increasing cortisol concentrations was investigated in an in vitro model of primary human male and female lymphomonocytes. The use of a defined cellular model to assess sex differences in inflammatory cytokine secretion could be useful to exclude the effects of divergent and fluctuating sex hormone levels occurring in vivo. Herein, the cells were challenged with cortisol concentrations resembling the plasma levels achieving in physiological and stressful conditions. The production of cytokines and other molecules involved in inflammatory process was determined. In basal conditions, male cells presented higher levels of some pro-inflammatory molecules (NF-kB and IDO-1 mRNAs, IL-6 and kynurenine) than female cells. Following cortisol exposure, the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, were increased in male cells. Conversely, in female cells IL-6 release was unchanged and IL-8 levels were decreased. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, did not change in male cells and increased in female cells. Interestingly, kynurenine levels were higher in female cells than in male cells following cortisol stimulus. These results highlighted that cortisol differently affects male and female lymphomonocytes, shifting the cytokine release in favour of a pro-inflammatory pattern in male cells and an anti-inflammatory secretion profile in female cells, opening the way to study the influences of other stressful factors involved in the neurohumoral changes occurring in the response to stress conditions.

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<![CDATA[Interleukin-34 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in vitro and in vivo]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be109f

Background

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could activate the immune system and induce extensive inflammatory response. As the most important inflammatory factor, interleukins are critical for anti-viral immunity. Here we investigated whether interleukin-34 (IL-34) play a role in HBV infection.

Methodology/Principal findings

In this study, we first found that both serum IL-34 and IL-34 mRNA in PBMCs in chronic HBV patients was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Furthermore, both IL-34 protein and mRNA levels were declined hepatoma cells expressing HBV. In addition, the clinical parameters analysis found that serum IL-34 was significantly associated with HBV DNA (P = 0.0066), ALT (P = 0.0327), AST (P = 0.0435), TB (P = 0.0406), DB (P = 0.0368) and AFP (P = 0.0225). Correlation analysis also found that serum IL-34 negatively correlated with HBV DNA copies, ALT and AST. In vitro studies found that IL-34 treatment in HepAD38 and HepG2.2.15 cells markedly inhibited HBV DNA, total RNA, 3.5kb mRNA and HBc protein. In vivo studies further demonstrated IL-34 treatment in HBV transgenic mice exhibited greater inhibition on HBV DNA, total RNA, 3.5kb mRNA and HBc protein, suggesting the effect to IL-34 on HBV is likely due to host innate or adaptive immune response.

Conclusions/Significance

Our study identified a novel interleukin, IL-34, which has anti-viral activity in HBV replication in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest a rationale for the use of IL-34 in the HBV treatment.

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<![CDATA[Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR1)-Dependent Regulation of the Mouse Oviductal Transcriptome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db27ab0ee8fa60bd0752

Estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) is an important transcriptional regulator in the mammalian oviduct, however ESR1-dependent regulation of the transcriptome of this organ is not well defined, especially at the genomic level. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate estradiol- and ESR1-dependent regulation of the transcriptome of the oviduct using transgenic mice, both with (ESR1KO) and without (wild-type, WT) a global deletion of ESR1. Oviducts were collected from ESR1KO and WT littermates at 23 days of age, or ESR1KO and WT mice were treated with 5 IU PMSG to stimulate follicular development and the production of ovarian estradiol, and the oviducts collected 48 h later. RNA extracted from whole oviducts was hybridized to Affymetrix Genechip Mouse Genome 430–2.0 arrays (n = 3 arrays per genotype and treatment) or reverse transcribed to cDNA for analysis of the expression of selected mRNAs by real-time PCR. Following microarray analysis, a statistical two-way ANOVA and pairwise comparison (LSD test) revealed 2428 differentially expressed transcripts (DEG’s, P < 0.01). Genotype affected the expression of 2215 genes, treatment (PMSG) affected the expression of 465 genes, and genotype x treatment affected the expression of 438 genes. With the goal of determining estradiol/ESR1-regulated function, gene ontology (GO) and bioinformatic pathway analyses were performed on DEG’s in the oviducts of PMSG-treated ESR1KO versus PMSG-treated WT mice. Significantly enriched GO molecular function categories included binding and catalytic activity. Significantly enriched GO cellular component categories indicated the extracellular region. Significantly enriched GO biological process categories involved a single organism, modulation of a measurable attribute and developmental processes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed ESR1-regulation of the immune response within the oviduct as the primary canonical pathway. In summary, a transcriptomal profile of estradiol- and ESR1-regulated gene expression and related bioinformatic analysis is presented to increase our understanding of how estradiol/ESR1 affects function of the oviduct, and to identify genes that may be proven as important regulators of fertility in the future.

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<![CDATA[Role of IL-1β in Experimental Cystic Fibrosis upon P. aeruginosa Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0aab0ee8fa60b7723d

Cystic fibrosis is associated with increased inflammatory responses to pathogen challenge. Here we revisited the role of IL-1β in lung pathology using the experimental F508del-CFTR murine model on C57BL/6 genetic background (Cftrtm1eur or d/d), on double deficient for d/d and type 1 interleukin-1 receptor (d/d X IL-1R1−/−), and antibody neutralization. At steady state, young adult d/d mice did not show any signs of spontaneous lung inflammation. However, IL-1R1 deficiency conferred partial protection to repeated P. aeruginosa endotoxins/LPS lung instillation in d/d mice, as 50% of d/d mice succumbed to inflammation, whereas all d/d x IL-1R1−/− double mutants survived with lower initial weight loss and less pulmonary collagen and mucus production, suggesting that the absence of IL-1R1 signaling is protective in d/d mice in LPS-induced lung damage. Using P. aeruginosa acute lung infection we found heightened neutrophil recruitment in d/d mice with higher epithelial damage, increased bacterial load in BALF, and augmented IL-1β and TNF-α in parenchyma as compared to WT mice. Thus, F508del-CFTR mice show enhanced IL-1β signaling in response to P. aeruginosa. IL-1β antibody neutralization had no effect on lung homeostasis in either d/d or WT mice, however P. aeruginosa induced lung inflammation and bacterial load were diminished by IL-1β antibody neutralization. In conclusion, enhanced susceptibility to P. aeruginosa in d/d mice correlates with an excessive inflammation and with increased IL-1β production and reduced bacterial clearance. Further, we show that neutralization of IL-1β in d/d mice through the double mutation d/d x IL-1R1−/− and in WT via antibody neutralization attenuates inflammation. This supports the notion that intervention in the IL-1R1/IL-1β pathway may be detrimental in CF patients.

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<![CDATA[Differential Expression of the Activator Protein 1 Transcription Factor Regulates Interleukin-1ß Induction of Interleukin 6 in the Developing Enterocyte]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da24ab0ee8fa60b801cd

The innate immune response is characterized by activation of transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein-1 and their downstream targets, the pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β and interleukin 6. Normal development of this response in the intestine is critical to survival of the human neonate and delays can cause the onset of devastating inflammatory diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Previous studies have addressed the role of nuclear factor kappa B in the development of the innate immune response in the enterocyte, however despite its central role in the control of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, little is known on the role of Activator Protein 1 in this response in the enterocyte. Here we show that the canonical Activator Protein 1 members, cJun and cFos and their upstream kinases JNK and p38 play an essential role in the regulation of interleukin 6 in the immature enterocyte. Our data supports a model whereby the cFos/cJun heterodimer and the more potent cJun homodimer downstream of JNK are replaced by less efficient JunD containing dimers, contributing to the decreased responsiveness to interleukin 1β and decreased interleukin 6 secretion observed in the mature enterocyte. The tissue specific expression of JunB in colonocytes and colon derived tissues together with its ability to repress Interleukin-1β induction of an Interleukin-6 gene reporter in the NCM-460 colonocyte suggests that induction of JunB containing dimers may offer an attractive therapeutic strategy for the control of IL-6 secretion during inflammatory episodes in this area of the intestine

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<![CDATA[5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Attenuate TNF-α-Induced Inflammation in Human Synovial Fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f2ab0ee8fa60b6f04d

The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of lipoxygenase pathways in TNF-α-induced production of cytokines and chemokines. Human synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid patients were used in this study. 5-LOX inhibitors and shRNA were used to examine the involvement of 5-LOX in TNF-α-induced cytokines and chemokines expression. The signaling pathways were examined by Western Blotting or immunofluorescence staining. The effect of 5-LOX inhibitor on TNF-α-induced chemokine expression and paw edema was also explored in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with 5-LOX inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of 5-LOX using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects. The abrogation of NF-κB activation was involved in the antagonizing effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor decreased TNF-α-induced up-regulation of serum MCP-1 level and paw edema in mouse model. Our results provide the evidence that the administration of 5-LOX inhibitors is able to ameliorate TNF-α-induced cytokine/chemokine release and paw edema, indicating that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed for therapeutic treatment of inflammatory arthritis.

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<![CDATA[Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis for Identifying Modules and Functionally Enriched Pathways in Type 1 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab8ab0ee8fa60bada1d

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease, caused by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells, resulting in the body’s inability to produce insulin. While great efforts have been put into understanding the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of the disease, the exact molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. T1D is a heterogeneous disease, and previous research in this field is mainly focused on the analysis of single genes, or using traditional gene expression profiling, which generally does not reveal the functional context of a gene associated with a complex disorder. However, network-based analysis does take into account the interactions between the diabetes specific genes or proteins and contributes to new knowledge about disease modules, which in turn can be used for identification of potential new biomarkers for T1D. In this study, we analyzed public microarray data of T1D patients and healthy controls by applying a systems biology approach that combines network-based Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) with functional enrichment analysis. Novel co-expression gene network modules associated with T1D were elucidated, which in turn provided a basis for the identification of potential pathways and biomarker genes that may be involved in development of T1D.

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<![CDATA[A Generic Mechanism for Enhanced Cytokine Signaling via Cytokine-Neutralizing Antibodies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4aab0ee8fa60bda0aa

Enhancement or inhibition of cytokine signaling and corresponding immune cells responses are critical factors in various disease treatments. Cytokine signaling may be inhibited by cytokine-neutralizing antibodies (CNAs), which prevents further activation of cytokine receptors. However, CNAs may result in enhanced—instead of inhibitory—cytokine signaling (an “agonistic effect”) in various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This may lead to lack of efficacy or adverse events for cytokine-inhibiting based medicines. Alternatively, cytokine-antibody complexes may produce stronger signaling vs. cytokine alone, thereby increasing the efficacy of stimulating cytokine-based drugs, at equal or lower cytokine doses. In this paper, the effect of cytokine signaling enhancement by a CNA was studied in a generic mathematical model of interleukin-4 (IL-4) driven T-cell proliferation. The occurrence of the agonistic effect depends upon the antibody-to-cytokine binding affinity and initial concentrations of antibody and cytokine. Model predictions were in agreement with experimental studies. When the cytokine receptor consists of multiple subunits with substantially differing affinities (e.g., IL-4 case), the choice of the receptor chain to be blocked by the antibody is critical, for the agonistic effect to appear. We propose a generic mechanism for the effect: initially, binding of the CNA to the cytokine reduces free cytokine concentration; yet, cytokine molecules bound within the cytokine-CNA complex—and released later and over time—are “rescued” from earlier clearance via cellular internalization. Hence, although free cytokine-dependent signalling may be less potent initially, it will also be more sustained over time; and given non-linear dynamics, it will lead ultimately to larger cellular effector responses, vs. the same amount of free cytokine in the absence of CNA. We suggest that the proposed mechanism is a generic property of {cytokine, CNA, receptor} triads, both in vitro and in vivo, and can occur in a predictable fashion for a variety of cytokines of the immune system.

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<![CDATA[Interleukin 1 Polymorphisms Contribute to Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Risk: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da39ab0ee8fa60b87697

Objective

We performed a meta-analysis to assess association between interleukin 1 (IL-1) polymorphisms and the risk of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD).

Background

A series of studies have investigated the association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-1 and IDD risk; however, the overall results are inconclusive.

Methods

Two independent investigators conducted a systematic search for relevant available studies. Allele frequencies were extracted from each study. The association between the IL-1α (+889C/T) or IL-1β (+3954C/T) polymorphism and IDD risk was measured by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

Results

Five and six studies, respectively, were ultimately included in the meta-analysis for the IL-1α (+889C/T) and IL-1β (+3954C/T) polymorphism. The combined results showed that the IL-1α (+889C/T) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to IDD, particularly in Caucasians (TT versus CC: OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.45, 6.04; Pheterogeneity = 0.82; TT versus CC/CT: OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.47; Pheterogeneity = 0.20). In contrast, the IL-1β (+3954C/T) polymorphism showed a trend towards increased risk in Caucasians but no association in Asians.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis suggested that the IL-1α (+889C/T) polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of IDD, especially in Caucasian populations.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Biomarker Panel Examining Response to Gemcitabine with or without Erlotinib for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy in NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad7ab0ee8fa60bb893f

Purpose

NCIC Clinical Trials Group PA.3 was a randomized control trial that demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) in patients receiving erlotinib in addition to gemcitabine for locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Prior to therapy, patients had plasma samples drawn for future study. We sought to identify biomarkers within these samples.

Experimental Design

Using the proximity ligation assay (PLA), a probe panel was built from commercially available antibodies for 35 key proteins selected from a global genetic analysis of pancreatic cancers, and used to quantify protein levels in 20 uL of patient plasma. To determine if any of these proteins levels independently associated with OS, univariate and mulitbaraible Cox models were used. In addition, we examined the associations between biomarker expression and disease stage at diagnosis using Fisher's exact test. The correlation between Erlotinib sensitivity and each biomarkers was assessed using a test of interaction between treatment and biomarker.

Results and Conclusion

Of the 569 eligible patients, 480 had samples available for study. Samples were randomly allocated into training (251) and validation sets (229). Among all patients, elevated levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha), and interleukin-6 were independently associated with lower OS, while IL-8, CEA, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and mucin-1 were associated with metastatic disease. Patients with elevated levels of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2) expression had improved OS when treated with erlotinib compared to placebo. In conclusion, PLA is a powerful tool for identifying biomarkers from archived, small volume serum samples. These data may be useful to stratify patient outcomes regardless of therapeutic intervention.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00040183

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<![CDATA[Inflammatory Micro-Environmental Cues of Human Atherothrombotic Arteries Confer to Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells the Capacity to Trigger Lymphoid Neogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daaaab0ee8fa60ba8f98

Background

Experimental atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLOs) within the adventitial layer, which involves the chemokine-expressing aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs). TLOs have also been described around human atherothrombotic arteries but the mechanisms of their formation remain poorly investigated. Herein, we tested whether human vascular SMCs play the role of chemokine-expressing cells that would trigger the formation of TLOs in atherothrombotic arteries.

Results

We first characterized, by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis, the prevalence and cell composition of TLOs in human abdominal aneurysms of the aorta (AAAs), an evolutive form of atherothrombosis. Chemotaxis experiments revealed that the conditioned medium from AAA tissues recruited significantly more B and T lymphocytes than the conditioned medium from control (N-AAA) tissues. This was associated with an increase in the concentration of CXCL13, CXCL16, CCL19, CCL20, and CCL21 chemokines in the conditioned medium from AAA tissues. Immunofluorescence analysis of AAA cryosections revealed that α-SMA-positive SMCs were the main contributors to the chemokine production. These results were confirmed by RT-qPCR assays where we found that primary vascular SMCs from AAA tissues expressed significantly more chemokines than SMCs from N-AAA. Finally, in vitro experiments demonstrated that the inflammatory cytokines found to be increased in the conditioned medium from AAA were able to trigger the production of chemokines by primary SMCs.

Conclusion

Together, these results suggest that human vascular SMCs in atherothrombotic arteries, in response to inflammatory signals, are converted into chemokine-expressing cells that trigger the recruitment of immune cells and the formation of aortic TLOs.

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<![CDATA[The Non-receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tec Controls Assembly and Activity of the Noncanonical Caspase-8 Inflammasome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0bab0ee8fa60b7792e

Tec family kinases are intracellular non-receptor tyrosine kinases implicated in numerous functions, including T cell and B cell regulation. However, a role in microbial pathogenesis has not been described. Here, we identified Tec kinase as a novel key mediator of the inflammatory immune response in macrophages invaded by the human fungal pathogen C. albicans. Tec is required for both activation and assembly of the noncanonical caspase-8, but not of the caspase-1 inflammasome, during infections with fungal but not bacterial pathogens, triggering the antifungal response through IL-1β. Furthermore, we identify dectin-1 as the pathogen recognition receptor being required for Syk-dependent Tec activation. Hence, Tec is a novel innate-specific inflammatory kinase, whose genetic ablation or inhibition by small molecule drugs strongly protects mice from fungal sepsis. These data demonstrate a therapeutic potential for Tec kinase inhibition to combat invasive microbial infections by attenuating the host inflammatory response.

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<![CDATA[Autophagy Controls BCG-Induced Trained Immunity and the Response to Intravesical BCG Therapy for Bladder Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b70c8d

The anti-tuberculosis-vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most widely used vaccine in the world. In addition to its effects against tuberculosis, BCG vaccination also induces non-specific beneficial effects against certain forms of malignancy and against infections with unrelated pathogens. It has been recently proposed that the non-specific effects of BCG are mediated through epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, a process called trained immunity. In the present study we demonstrate that autophagy contributes to trained immunity induced by BCG. Pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy blocked trained immunity induced in vitro by stimuli such as β–glucans or BCG. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the autophagy genes ATG2B (rs3759601) and ATG5 (rs2245214) influenced both the in vitro and in vivo training effect of BCG upon restimulation with unrelated bacterial or fungal stimuli. Furthermore, pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of autophagy blocked epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes at the level of H3K4 trimethylation. Finally, we demonstrate that rs3759601 in ATG2B correlates with progression and recurrence of bladder cancer after BCG intravesical instillation therapy. These findings identify a key role of autophagy for the nonspecific protective effects of BCG.

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<![CDATA[Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad8ab0ee8fa60bb8d02

Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice.

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<![CDATA[The Gene Expression Response of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells to IL-4 Is Specific, Depends on ZAP-70 Status and Is Differentially Affected by an NFκB Inhibitor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b7085c

Interleukin 4 (IL-4), an essential mediator of B cell development, plays a role in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. To obtain new insights into the function of the IL-4 pathway in CLL, we analyzed the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and in normal B cells (NBC) by oligonucleotide microarrays, resulting in the identification of 232 non-redundant entities in CLL and 146 in NBC (95 common, 283 altogether), of which 189 were well-defined genes in CLL and 123 in NBC (83 common, 229 altogether) (p<0.05, 2-fold cut-off). To the best of our knowledge, most of them were novel IL-4 targets for CLL (98%), B cells of any source (83%), or any cell type (70%). Responses were significantly higher for 54 and 11 genes in CLL and NBC compared to each other, respectively. In CLL, ZAP-70 status had an impact on IL-4 response, since different sets of IL-4 targets correlated positively or negatively with baseline expression of ZAP-70. In addition, the NFκB inhibitor 6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenethylamino)quinazoline, which reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-4, preferentially blocked the response of genes positively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. CCR2, SUSD2), but enhanced the response of genes negatively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. AUH, BCL6, LY75, NFIL3). Dissection of the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and NBC contributes to the understanding of the anti-apoptotic response. Initial evidence of a connection between ZAP-70 and NFκB supports further exploration of targeting NFκB in the context of the assessment of inhibition of the IL-4 pathway as a therapeutic strategy in CLL, especially in patients expressing bad prognostic markers.

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<![CDATA[IL-17A Induces Pendrin Expression and Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchange in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da28ab0ee8fa60b8156e

The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease.

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<![CDATA[Candidate Soluble Immune Mediators in Young Women with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection: High Expression of Chemokines Promoting Angiogenesis and Cell Proliferation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad4ab0ee8fa60bb774e

Background

The causal interpretation of cervical immune response to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is complex and poorly characterized mainly due to the delicate balance that exists between viral infection, increase of inflammatory cytokines and host risk factors. This study aims to explore the significance of cervical immune mediators associated to cell survival, angiogenesis and interaction with immune response, in predicting the risk to develop HPV-related intraepithelial lesions.

Methods

A panel of 48 cytokines and growth factors were explored in a selected cohort of 168 immunocompetent women including 88 diagnosed with low (LSIL) or high (HSIL) squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix and 80 with normal cervical cytology (NIL). HPV genotyping was performed by Linear Array HPV test and the soluble concentration of 48 immune molecules was analyzed using the Bio-Plex platform.

Results

The prevalence of single HR-HPV infection was 30% in NIL and 100% in LSIL and HSIL women. The expression of 13 cytokines, including interleukins IL-6, IL-3, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-16, IL-18, LIF, of chemokines CCL7 (MCP-3), CXCL9 (MIG), CXCL12 (SDF-1α) and of the tropic factors VEGF, G-CSF, M-CSF were significantly associated with the presence of infection, with levels being higher in women with precancerous lesions compared to NIL HPV negative women. Only the growth factor GM-CSF was positively associated with the cytological abnormalities.

Conclusions

The ability of HR-HPV to escape from innate immune recognition and to orchestrate the production of specific inflammatory and growth factors, involved in early inflammatory response and in the cell-proliferating phase of intraepithelial damage, was documented in women before the development of cervical lesions.

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<![CDATA[Few serum proteins mediate APOE’s association with dementia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbe9a

The latent variable “δ” (for “dementia”) appears to be uniquely responsible for the dementing aspects of cognitive impairment. Age, depression, gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele are independently associated with δ. In this analysis, we explore serum proteins as potential mediators of APOE’s specific association with δ in a large, ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort, the Texas Alzheimer’s Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). APOE was associated only with C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Adiponectin (APN) and Amphiregulin (AREG), although the latter two’s associations did not survive Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. All three proteins were associated with δ and had weak potential mediation effects on APOE’s association with that construct. Our findings suggest that APOE’s association with cognitive performance is specific to δ and partially mediated by serum inflammatory proteins. The majority of APOE’s significant unadjusted effect on δ is unexplained. It may instead arise from direct central nervous system effects, possibly on native intelligence. If so, then APOE may exert a life-long influence over δ and therefore all-cause dementia risk.

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<![CDATA[Multiplexed Digital mRNA Profiling of the Inflammatory Response in the West Nile Swiss Webster Mouse Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da90ab0ee8fa60b9fa4d

Background and purpose

The ability to track changes in gene expression following viral infection is paramount to understanding viral pathogenesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the nCounter, a high throughput digital gene expression system, as a means to better understand West Nile virus (WNV) dissemination and the inflammatory response against WNV in the outbred Swiss Webster (SW) mouse model over the course of infection.

Methodology

The nCounter Mouse Inflammation gene expression kit containing 179 inflammation related genes was used to analyze gene expression changes in multiple tissues over a nine day course of infection in SW mice following intraperitoneal injection with WNV. Protein expression levels for a subset of these cytokine/chemokine genes were determined using a multiplex protein detection system (BioPlex) and comparisons of protein/RNA expression levels made.

Results

Expression analysis of spleen, lung, liver, kidney and brain of SW mice infected with WNV revealed that Cxcl10 and Il12b are differentially expressed in all tissues tested except kidney. Data stratification of positively confirmed infected (WNV (+)) versus non-infected (WNV (−) tissues allowed differentiation of the systemic inflammatory gene response from tissue-specific responses arising from WNV infection. Significant (p<0.05) decrease in C3ar1 was found in WNV (−) spleen. Il23a was significantly upregulated, while Il10rb was down-regulated in WNV (−) lung. Il3 and Mbl2 were down-regulated in WNV (−) liver. In WNV (+) livers, Stat1, Tlr2, chemokines Cxcl1, Cxcl3, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, cytokines Il6, Il18, cytokine-related gene Il1r and cytokine agonist Ilrn were significantly upregulated. In WNV (−) brain tissues, Csf2 and Cxcl10 were significantly upregulated. Similar gene and protein expression kinetics were found for Ccl2, Ccl3, Ccl4 and Ccl5 and correlated with the presence of infectious virus. In summary, the utility of the nCounter platform for rapid identification of gene expression changes in SW mice associated with WNV infection was demonstrated.

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